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013.Ansible Playbook include

一 include

当项目越大,tasks越多的时候。如果将多有的task写入一个playbook中,可读性很差,就需要重新组织playbook

可以把一个playbook分成若干份晓得palybook文件,在主配置文件中,把小文件引入进来,就是include

include tasks

[root@node1 ansible]# mkdir tasks

[root@node1 ansible]# cd tasks

[root@node1 tasks]# vim host.yml

[root@node1 tasks]#

- name: modify hostname
  hostname:
    name: test.example.com

[root@node1 tasks]# vim dns.yml

- name: modify resolv.conf
copy: 
src: files.resolv.conf
dest: /etc/resolv.conf
- name: /etc/resolvconf/base
copy:
src: files.resolv.conf
dest: /etc/resolv.conf
when: ansible_distribution == "Ubuntu"

[root@node1 tasks]# mkdir files

[root@node1 tasks]# vim files/resolv.conf 

# Generated by NetworkManager
nameserver 8.8.4.4

[root@node1 tasks]# cd ../

[root@node1 ansible]# vim main.yml

- hosts: demo2.example.com
  tasks:
    - debug:
        msg: "start tasks"
    - include: tasks/host.yml
    - include: tasks/dns.yml
    - debug:
        msg: "执行结束"

执行

[root@node1 ansible]# ansible-playbook main.yml 

TASK [debug] **************************************************************************************************************************************
ok: [demo2.example.com] => {
    "msg": "start tasks"
}

TASK [modify hostname] ****************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [modify resolv.conf] *************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [/etc/resolvconf/base] ***********************************************************************************************************************
skipping: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [debug] **************************************************************************************************************************************
ok: [demo2.example.com] => {
    "msg": "执行结束"
}

检查:

也可以引入handlers

[root@node1 ansible]# vim tasks/nginx.yml

- name: install nginx
  yum:
    name:  nginx
    state: present
- name: mpdify nginx.conf
  template:
    src: templates/nginx.conf.j2
    dest: /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
  notify: 
    - restart nginx
- name: start nginx
  systemd: 
name: nginx state: started enabled: yes

[root@node1 ansible]# vim tasks/handlers.yml

- name: restart nginx
systemd:
name: nginx
state: restarted

[root@node1 ansible]# vim main.yml

- hosts: demo2.example.com
  tasks:
    - debug:
        msg: "start tasks" 
    - include: tasks/host.yml
    - include: tasks/dns.yml
    - include: tasks/nginx.yml
    - debug:
        msg: "执行结束"
  handlers:
    - include: tasks/handlers.yml

二 include_tasks

2.1  include_asks基本使用

在前面尝试使用的是include,但是在后续版本,可能会取消这种方式,使用include_tasks这总方式开始引入

include可以包含tasks,handlers,playbook,incelude_task专门用来包含tasks

[root@node1 ansible]# vim main.yml

- hosts: demo2.example.com
  tasks:
    - debug:
        msg: "start tasks"
    - include_tasks: tasks/host.yml
    - include_tasks: tasks/dns.yml
    - include_tasks: tasks/nginx.yml
    - debug:
        msg: "执行结束"
  handlers:
    - include_tasks: tasks/handlers.yml

执行

TASK [debug] **************************************************************************************************************************************
ok: [demo2.example.com] => {
    "msg": "start tasks"
}

TASK [include_tasks] ******************************************************************************************************************************
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/host.yml for demo2.example.com

TASK [modify hostname] ****************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [include_tasks] ******************************************************************************************************************************
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/dns.yml for demo2.example.com

TASK [modify resolv.conf] *************************************************************************************************************************
ok: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [/etc/resolvconf/base] ***********************************************************************************************************************
skipping: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [include_tasks] ******************************************************************************************************************************
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/nginx.yml for demo2.example.com

TASK [install nginx] ******************************************************************************************************************************
ok: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [start nginx] ********************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [debug] **************************************************************************************************************************************
ok: [demo2.example.com] => {
    "msg": "执行结束"
}

当我们使用include_tasks,本身会被当做一个tasks,这个task会把文件输入到控制台中,inclue是透明的,include_tasks是可见的。更像是一个任务,这个任我包含了其他的一些任任务,

在ansible2.7之中,include_task还加入了新的参数

include_tasks:
  file: in.yml

2.2 include_tasks使用tags

如果为include添加tags,那么tags是对include中的所有任务生效的,所以当调用include的tag时,include中的所有任务都会执行

但是对include_tasks添加tag,只会对include_tasks本身生效,include_tasks中的所有任务都不生效

- hosts: demo2.example.com
  tasks:
    - debug:
        msg: "start tasks"
    - include_tasks: 
        file:  tasks/host.yml
      tags: host

    - include_tasks: 
        file: tasks/dns.yml
      tags: dns

    - include_tasks:
        file: tasks/nginx.yml
      tags: nginx

    - debug:
        msg: "执行结束"
  handlers:
    - include_tasks: tasks/handlers.yml

[root@node1 ansible]# ansible-playbook main.yml --tags="host"

PLAY [demo2.example.com] **************************************************************************************************************************

TASK [include_tasks] ******************************************************************************************************************************
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/host.yml for demo2.example.com

PLAY RECAP ****************************************************************************************************************************************
demo2.example.com          : ok=1    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0 

只执行自己本身,里面的任务并没有执行

若要执行include_tasks里面的任务,就需要为执行文件打tags

- hosts: demo2.example.com
  tasks:
    - debug:
        msg: "start tasks" 
    - include_tasks:
        file:  tasks/host.yml
        apply:
          tags: H1
      tags: always    #这里必须指定always,因为host.yml执行前提是,include_tasks执行

    - include_tasks: 
        file: tasks/dns.yml
      tags: dns

    - include_tasks: 
        file: tasks/nginx.yml
      tags: nginx 
 
    - debug:
        msg: "执行结束"
  handlers:
    - include_tasks: tasks/handlers.yml

执行

root@node1 ansible]# ansible-playbook main.yml --tags="H1"

PLAY [demo2.example.com] **************************************************************************************************************************

TASK [include_tasks] ******************************************************************************************************************************
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/host.yml for demo2.example.com

TASK [modify hostname] ****************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

PLAY RECAP ****************************************************************************************************************************************
demo2.example.com          : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0  

三 import_tasks使用

import_tasks include_task用法类似,都是包含一个任务列表

[root@node1 ansible]# vim main.yml 

- hosts: demo2.example.com
  tasks:
    - debug:
        msg: "start tasks" 
    - include_tasks:
        file:  tasks/host.yml
        apply:
          tags: H1
      tags: always

    - import_tasks: tasks/dns.yml
      tags: dns

    - include_tasks: 
        file: tasks/nginx.yml
      tags: nginx 
 
    - debug:
        msg: "执行结束"
  handlers:
    - include_tasks: tasks/handlers.yml

[root@node1 ansible]# ansible-playbook main.yml --tags="dns"

3.1 include_tasks和import_task区别一

当执行import_task的tags的时候,对应的文件的任务也会执行,但是自己本身是透明的,和include一样

PLAY [demo2.example.com] **************************************************************************************************************************

TASK [include_tasks] ******************************************************************************************************************************
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/host.yml for demo2.example.com

TASK [modify resolv.conf] *************************************************************************************************************************
ok: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [/etc/resolvconf/base] ***********************************************************************************************************************
skipping: [demo2.example.com]

PLAY RECAP ****************************************************************************************************************************************
demo2.example.com          : ok=2    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=1    rescued=0    ignored=0  

import_tasks是静态的,被import的文件,在被playbook加载时就预处理了,include_tasks是动态的,被include的文件在playbook运行后,才开始处理

[root@node1 ansible]# cat import_ex.yml
- hosts: demo2.example.com
  gather_facts: no
  vars:
    file_name: tasks/host.yml
  tasks:
    - include_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"
    - import_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"

执行

PLAY [demo2.example.com] **************************************************************************************************************************

TASK [include_tasks] ******************************************************************************************************************************
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/host.yml for demo2.example.com

TASK [modify hostname] ****************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [modify hostname] ****************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

PLAY RECAP ****************************************************************************************************************************************
demo2.example.com          : ok=3    changed=2    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0

修改配置

[root@node1 ansible]# cat import_ex.yml
- hosts: demo2.example.com
  gather_facts: no
  #vars:
  #  file_name: tasks/host.yml
  tasks:
    - set_facts:
        file_name: tasks/host.yml
    - include_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"
    #- import_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"

[root@node1 ansible]# ansible-playbook import_ex.yml

[root@node1 ansible]# ansible-playbook  import_ex.yml 

PLAY [demo2.example.com] **************************************************************************************************************************

TASK [set_fact] ***********************************************************************************************************************************
ok: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [include_tasks] ******************************************************************************************************************************
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/host.yml for demo2.example.com

TASK [modify hostname] ****************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

PLAY RECAP ****************************************************************************************************************************************
demo2.example.com          : ok=3    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0  

但是使用import就会报错,原因是include在运行之后加载,但是import在运行之前加载,运行playbook之前,是没有file_name的参数选项,报错  

[root@node1 ansible]# vim import_ex.yml

[root@node1 ansible]# cat import_ex.yml
- hosts: demo2.example.com
  gather_facts: no
  #vars:
  #  file_name: tasks/host.yml
  tasks:
    - set_facts:
        file_name: tasks/host.yml
    #- include_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"
    - import_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"

[root@node1 ansible]# ansible-playbook import_ex.yml

ERROR! Error when evaluating variable in import path: {{ file_name }}.

When using static imports, ensure that any variables used in their names are defined in vars/vars_files
or extra-vars passed in from the command line. Static imports cannot use variables from facts or inventory
sources like group or host vars.

3.2 include_tasks和import_task区别二

如果想对包含的列表进行循环操作,只能使用include_tasks。import_task不支持循环操作,即loop对include内容进行循环操作时,只能使用include_tasks,不能使用import_task

[root@node1 ansible]# cat import_ex.yml
- hosts: demo2.example.com
  gather_facts: no
  vars:
    file_name: tasks/host.yml
  tasks:
    #- set_fact:
    #    file_name: tasks/host.yml
    - include_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"
    - import_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"
      loop:
        - 1
        - 2

执行

[root@node1 ansible]# ansible-playbook  import_ex.yml 

ERROR! You cannot use loops on 'import_tasks' statements. You should use 'include_tasks' instead.

The error appears to be in '/etc/ansible/import_ex.yml': line 9, column 7, but may
be elsewhere in the file depending on the exact syntax problem.

The offending line appears to be:

    - include_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"
    - import_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"
      ^ here
We could be wrong, but this one looks like it might be an issue with
missing quotes. Always quote template expression brackets when they
start a value. For instance:

    with_items:
      - {{ foo }}

Should be written as:

    with_items:
      - "{{ foo }}"

使用include_tasks

[root@node1 ansible]# cat import_ex.yml
- hosts: demo2.example.com
  gather_facts: no
  vars:
    file_name: tasks/host.yml
  tasks:
    #- set_fact:
    #    file_name: tasks/host.yml
    - include_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"
      loop:
        - 1
        - 2
    - import_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"

执行

PLAY [demo2.example.com] **************************************************************************************************************************

TASK [include_tasks] ******************************************************************************************************************************
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/host.yml for demo2.example.com
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/host.yml for demo2.example.com

TASK [modify hostname] ****************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [modify hostname] ****************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

TASK [modify hostname] ****************************************************************************************************************************
changed: [demo2.example.com]

PLAY RECAP ****************************************************************************************************************************************
demo2.example.com          : ok=5    changed=3    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0   

3.3 include_tasks和import_task区别三

在使用when的条件判断时,有着本质的区别

当include_tasks使用when时候,when只针对include_tasks任务本身,当执行被包含的认识时,不会对包含的任务进行条件判断

当import_tasks使用when时,when对应的条件会被用于import的每一个任务,当执行import的任务时,会对每一个包含的任务进行条件判断

[root@node1 ansible]# vim import_ex.yml 

- hosts: demo2.example.com
  gather_facts: no
  vars:
    file_name: tasks/host.yml
    num: 1
  tasks:
    - include_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"
      when: num == 1

    - set_fact:
        num: 1

    - import_tasks: "{{ file_name }}"
      when: num == 1

执行

[root@node1 ansible]# vim tasks/host.yml

- name: modify num to 0
  set_fact:
    num: 0
- name: modify hostname
  hostname:
    name: test.example.com

[root@node1 ansible]# ansible-playbook import_ex.yml

PLAY [demo2.example.com] **************************************************************************************************************************
TASK [include_tasks] ******************************************************************************************************************************
included: /etc/ansible/tasks/host.yml for demo2.example.com    #include满足条件,自己本身任务执行
TASK [modify num to 0] ****************************************************************************************************************************
ok: [demo2.example.com]           #包含的第一个任务执行
TASK [modify hostname] ****************************************************************************************************************************
ok: [demo2.example.com]            #包含的第二个任务执行
TASK [set_fact]
*********************************************************************************************************************************** ok: [demo2.example.com] TASK [modify num to 0] **************************************************************************************************************************** ok: [demo2.example.com] #import第一个满足条件执行,这是num设为0 TASK [modify hostname] **************************************************************************************************************************** skipping: [demo2.example.com] #第二个任务在进行比较,不满足,直接跳过 PLAY RECAP **************************************************************************************************************************************** demo2.example.com : ok=5 changed=0 unreachable=0 failed=0 skipped=1 rescued=0 ignored=0

在include只要条件满足,就会全部执行包含的内容,import_tasks会对每一个任务做判断,在确定是否执行


博主声明:本文的内容来源主要来自誉天教育晏威老师,由本人实验完成操作验证,需要的博友请联系誉天教育(http://www.yutianedu.com/),获得官方同意或者晏老师(https://www.cnblogs.com/breezey/)本人同意即可转载,谢谢!

posted @ 2020-05-02 19:33  梦中泪  阅读(1938)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报