图的创建和遍历(BFS/DFS)

     图的表示方法主要有邻接矩阵和邻接表。其中邻接表最为常用,因此这里便以邻接表为例介绍一下图的创建及遍历方法。

 

     创建图用到的结构有两种:顶点及弧

struct ArcNode
    {
        int vertexIndex;        //该弧指向的顶点位置
        struct ArcNode* next;    //指向下一个弧
        InfoType info;            //该弧的相关信息,如权重等
    };

    struct Vertex
    {
        VertexType data;    //顶点信息
        ArcNode* firstArc;    //指向第一条依附该节点弧的指针
        ColorType color;    //访问情况
    };

  其中ColorType是一个枚举,遍历的时候才会用到。图的创建比较简单,直接看代码很容易理解,这里不再详细说了。 图的深度和广度遍历直接看算法导论中的两张图就明白了 :

 

//结点颜色代表遍历情况
enum ColorType
{
    WHITE,    //未访问
    GRAY,    //正在访问,邻接点还没访问完
    BLACK    //访问完毕
};

 

 
代码:
  1 #include <queue>
  2 #include <stack>
  3 #include <iostream>
  4 using namespace std;
  5 
  6 
  7 enum GraphType
  8 {    
  9     UNDIR_UNWEIGHT_GRAPH,        //无向无权图
 10     UNDIR_WEIGHT_GRAPH,            //无向带权图
 11     DIR_UNWEIGHT_GRAPH,            //有向无权图
 12     DIR_WEIGHT_GRAPH            //有向带权图    
 13 };
 14 
 15 //结点颜色代表遍历情况
 16 enum ColorType
 17 {
 18     WHITE,    //未访问
 19     GRAY,    //正在访问,邻接点还没访问完
 20     BLACK    //访问完毕
 21 };
 22 
 23 template<typename VertexType,typename InfoType>
 24 class Graph
 25 {
 26 public:
 27     Graph(int vertexNum, GraphType type) :m_vertexNum(vertexNum), m_type(type), m_arcNum(0)
 28     {
 29         for (int i = 0; i < MAX_VERTEX_NUM; ++i)
 30         {
 31             m_vertices[i].firstArc = nullptr;
 32         }
 33     }
 34 
 35     void Create()
 36     {
 37         switch (m_type)
 38         {
 39         case UNDIR_UNWEIGHT_GRAPH:
 40             CreateUndirUnweightGraph();
 41             break;
 42         case UNDIR_WEIGHT_GRAPH:
 43             CreateUndirWeightGraph();
 44             break;
 45         case DIR_UNWEIGHT_GRAPH:
 46             CreateDirUnweightGraph();
 47             break;
 48         case DIR_WEIGHT_GRAPH:
 49             CreateDirWeightGraph();
 50             break;
 51         default:
 52             break;
 53         }
 54     }
 55 
 56     //输出图的信息
 57     void Display()
 58     {
 59         for (int i = 0; i < m_vertexNum; ++i)
 60         {
 61             cout << "" << i + 1 << "个结点为" << m_vertices[i].data << " 邻接表为:";
 62             ArcNode* node = m_vertices[i].firstArc;
 63             while (node)
 64             {
 65                 cout << "->" << m_vertices[node->vertexIndex].data << "(" << node->info << ")";
 66                 node = node->next;
 67             }
 68             cout << endl;
 69         }
 70     }
 71 
 72     void BFS()
 73     {
 74         for (int i = 0; i < m_vertexNum; ++i)
 75         {
 76             m_vertices[i].color = WHITE;
 77         }
 78         cout << "图的广度优先遍历为:";
 79         BFS(&m_vertices[0]);
 80         cout << endl;
 81     }
 82 
 83     void DFS()
 84     {
 85         for (int i = 0; i < m_vertexNum; ++i)
 86         {
 87             m_vertices[i].color = WHITE;
 88         }
 89         cout << "图的深度优先遍历为:";
 90         DFS(&m_vertices[0]);
 91         cout << endl;
 92     }
 93 private:
 94     struct ArcNode
 95     {
 96         int vertexIndex;        //该弧指向的顶点位置
 97         struct ArcNode* next;    //指向下一个弧
 98         InfoType info;            //该弧的相关信息,如权重等
 99     };
100 
101     struct Vertex
102     {
103         VertexType data;    //顶点信息
104         ArcNode* firstArc;    //指向第一条依附该节点弧的指针
105         ColorType color;    //访问情况
106     };
107 
108     //最大顶点数
109     static const int MAX_VERTEX_NUM = 20;
110     Vertex m_vertices[MAX_VERTEX_NUM];    //顶点列表
111     int m_vertexNum;    //当前顶点数量
112     int m_arcNum;        //当前弧数量
113     GraphType m_type;    //图类型:有向无权图、有向带权图、无向无权图、无向无权图
114 private:
115     //初始化顶点列表
116     void InitVertices()
117     {
118         cout << "请输入每个顶点的关键字" << endl;
119         VertexType data;
120         for (int i = 0; i < m_vertexNum; ++i)
121         {
122             cin >> data;
123             m_vertices[i].data = data;
124         }
125     }
126     //插入一个表结点
127     void Insert(int headVertex, int tailVertex, InfoType info)
128     {
129         //构造一个邻接表结点,即创建一条弧
130         ArcNode* newNode = new ArcNode;
131         newNode->info = info;
132         newNode->next = nullptr;
133         newNode->vertexIndex = tailVertex;
134 
135         //找到邻接表的最后一个节点
136         ArcNode* lastNode = m_vertices[headVertex].firstArc;
137         if (lastNode == nullptr)
138             m_vertices[headVertex].firstArc = newNode;
139         else
140         {
141             while (lastNode->next)
142             {
143                 lastNode = lastNode->next;
144             }
145             lastNode->next = newNode;
146         }
147         ++m_arcNum;
148     }
149 
150     //创建无向无权图
151     void CreateUndirUnweightGraph()
152     {
153         InitVertices();
154         cout << "请分别输入每条边的起始结点:" << endl;
155         int head, tail;
156         while (cin >> head >> tail)
157         {
158             //无向图head->tail tail->head插入两次
159             Insert(head, tail, 0);
160             Insert(tail, head, 0);
161         }
162     }
163     //创建无向有权图
164     void CreateUndirWeightGraph()
165     {
166         InitVertices();
167         cout << "请分别输入每条边的起始结点和权值:" << endl;
168         int head, tail;
169         InfoType weight;
170         while (cin >> head >> tail >> weight)
171         {
172             Insert(head, tail, weight);
173             Insert(tail, head, weight);
174         }
175     }
176     //创建有向无权图
177     void CreateDirUnweightGraph()
178     {
179         InitVertices();
180         cout << "请分别输入每条边的起始结点值:" << endl;
181         int head, tail;
182         while (cin >> head >> tail)
183         {
184             Insert(head, tail,0);
185         }
186     }
187     //创建有向带权图 
188     void CreateDirWeightGraph()
189     {
190         InitVertices();
191         cout << "请分别输入每条边的起始结点和权值:" << endl;
192         int head, tail;
193         InfoType weight;
194         while (cin >> head >> tail >> weight)
195         {
196             Insert(head, tail, weight);
197         }
198     }
199 
200     void BFS(Vertex* vertex)
201     {
202         vertex->color = GRAY;
203         queue<Vertex*> vertices;
204         vertices.push(vertex);
205         while (!vertices.empty())
206         {
207             Vertex* curVertex = vertices.front();
208             vertices.pop();
209             cout << curVertex->data << "->";
210             ArcNode* node = curVertex->firstArc;
211             while (node)
212             {
213                 Vertex* tmpVertex = &m_vertices[node->vertexIndex];
214                 if (tmpVertex->color == WHITE)
215                 {
216                     tmpVertex->color = GRAY;
217                     vertices.push(tmpVertex);
218                 }
219                 node = node->next;
220             }
221             curVertex->color = BLACK;
222         }
223     }
224 
225     void DFS(Vertex* vertex)
226     {
227         vertex->color = GRAY;
228         stack<Vertex*> vertices;
229         vertices.push(vertex);
230         while (!vertices.empty())
231         {
232             Vertex* curVertex = vertices.top();
233             vertices.pop();
234             cout << curVertex->data << "->";
235             ArcNode* node = curVertex->firstArc;
236             while (node)
237             {
238                 Vertex* tmp = &m_vertices[node->vertexIndex];
239                 if (tmp->color == WHITE)
240                 {
241                     tmp->color = GRAY;
242                     vertices.push(tmp);
243                 }
244                 node = node->next;
245             }
246             curVertex->color = BLACK;
247         }                
248     }
249 };
250 
251 int main()
252 {
253     int  vertexNum;
254     cout << "请输入要创建的图的结点数:";
255     cin >> vertexNum;
256     Graph<char, int> g(vertexNum,GraphType::UNDIR_UNWEIGHT_GRAPH);
257     g.Create();
258     g.Display();
259     g.BFS();
260     g.DFS();
261 }
 
运行结果:(创建的树为算法导论BFS说明图片中的树)

 
 
posted @ 2016-06-23 22:18  zhangbaochong  阅读(5378)  评论(0编辑  收藏