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原文http://www.cnblogs.com/zeusro/p/RouteConfig.html 装载注明出处,爬虫请自重。

继续延续坑爹标题系列。其实只是把apress.pro.asp.net.mvc.4.framework里的CHAPTER 13翻译过来罢了,当做自己总结吧。内容看看就好,排版就不要吐槽了,反正我知道你也不会反对的。

先说一下基本的路由规则原则。基本的路由规则是从特殊到一般排列,也就是最特殊(非主流)的规则在最前面,最一般(万金油)的规则排在最后。这是因为匹配路由规则也是照着这个顺序的。如果写反了,那么即便你路由规则写对了那照样坐等404.

XD 首先说URL的构造。 其实这个也谈不上构造,只是语法特性吧。

URL构造

命名参数规范+匿名对象

routes.MapRoute(name: "Default",url: "{controller}/{action}/{id}", defaults: new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional } ); 

 

构造路由然后添加

 

Route myRoute = new Route("{controller}/{action}", new MvcRouteHandler());
routes.Add("MyRoute", myRoute); 

 

直接方法重载+匿名对象

routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema", "Shop/{action}", new { controller = "Home" }); 

 

  个人觉得第一种比较易懂,第二种方便调试,第三种写起来比较效率吧。各取所需吧。本文行文偏向于第三种。

路由规则

 1.默认路由(MVC自带)

 

routes.MapRoute( 
"Default", // 路由名称
"{controller}/{action}/{id}", // 带有参数的 URL 
new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional } // 参数默认值 (UrlParameter.Optional-可选的意思) );

 

2.静态URL段

 

routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema2", "Shop/OldAction", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index" }); 

routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema", "Shop/{action}", new { controller = "Home" }); 
routes.MapRoute("ShopSchema2", "Shop/OldAction.js",
 new { controller = "Home", action = "Index" });

 没有占位符路由就是现成的写死的。

比如这样写然后去访问http://localhost:XXX/Shop/OldAction.js,response也是完全没问题的。 controller , action , area这三个保留字就别设静态变量里面了。

3.自定义常规变量URL段(好吧这翻译暴露智商了)

 

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute2", "{controller}/{action}/{id}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = "DefaultId" }); 

 

这种情况如果访问 /Home/Index 的话,因为第三段(id)没有值,根据路由规则这个参数会被设为DefaultId

这个用viewbag给title赋值就能很明显看出

ViewBag.Title = RouteData.Values["id"]; 

 

图不贴了,结果是标题显示为DefaultId。 注意要在控制器里面赋值,在视图赋值没法编译的。

4.再述默认路由

然后再回到默认路由。 UrlParameter.Optional这个叫可选URL段.路由里没有这个参数的话id为null。 照原文大致说法,这个可选URL段能用来实现一个关注点的分离。刚才在路由里直接设定参数默认值其实不是很好。照我的理解,实际参数是用户发来的,我们做的只是定义形式参数名。但是,如果硬要给参数赋默认值的话,建议用语法糖写到action参数里面。比如:

 

public ActionResult Index(string id = "abcd"){ViewBag.Title = RouteData.Values["id"];return View();} 

 

5.可变长度路由。

 

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }); 

 

在这里id和最后一段都是可变的,所以 /Home/Index/dabdafdaf 等效于 /Home/Index//abcdefdjldfiaeahfoeiho 等效于 /Home/Index/All/Delete/Perm/.....

6.跨命名空间路由

 这个提醒一下记得引用命名空间,开启IIS网站不然就是404。这个非常非主流,不建议瞎搞。

 

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute","{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers", "UrlsAndRoutes.Controllers" }); 

 

但是这样写的话数组排名不分先后的,如果有多个匹配的路由会报错。 然后作者提出了一种改进写法。

 

routes.MapRoute("AddContollerRoute","Home/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}",new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers" }); 

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers" });

 这样第一个URL段不是Home的都交给第二个处理 最后还可以设定这个路由找不到的话就不给后面的路由留后路啦,也就不再往下找啦。

Route myRoute = routes.MapRoute("AddContollerRoute", 
"Home/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}", 
new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }, 
new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers" });  myRoute.DataTokens["UseNamespaceFallback"] = false; 

 

7.正则表达式匹配路由

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}",
 new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },
 new { controller = "^H.*"}, 
new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers"});

 

 约束多个URL

 

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}",
new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }, 
new { controller = "^H.*", action = "^Index$|^About$"}, 
new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers"}); 

 

8.指定请求方法

 

routes.MapRoute("MyRoute", "{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}",

new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }, 

new { controller = "^H.*", action = "Index|About", httpMethod = new HttpMethodConstraint("GET") }, 

new[] { "URLsAndRoutes.Controllers" }); 

 

9. WebForm支持

           routes.MapPageRoute("", "", "~/Default.aspx");

            routes.MapPageRoute("list", "Items/{action}", "~/Items/list.aspx", false, new RouteValueDictionary { { "action", "all" } });

            routes.MapPageRoute("show", "Show/{action}", "~/show.aspx", false, new RouteValueDictionary { { "action", "all" } });

            routes.MapPageRoute("edit", "Edit/{id}", "~/edit.aspx", false, new RouteValueDictionary { { "id", "1" } }, new RouteValueDictionary { { "id", @"\d+" } });

 具体的可以看

使用Asp.Net4新特性路由创建WebForm应用

或者官方msdn

 

10.MVC5的RouteAttribute

首先要在路由注册方法那里

            //启用路由特性映射
            routes.MapMvcAttributeRoutes();

 这样

[Route("Login")]

 route特性才有效.该特性有好几个重载.还有路由约束啊,顺序啊,路由名之类的.

其他的还有路由前缀,路由默认值

[RoutePrefix("reviews")]
[Route("{action=index}")]
public class ReviewsController : Controller
{
}

 路由构造

// eg: /users/5
[Route("users/{id:int}"]
public ActionResult GetUserById(int id) { ... }
 
// eg: users/ken
[Route("users/{name}"]
public ActionResult GetUserByName(string name) { ... }

 参数限制

// eg: /users/5
// but not /users/10000000000 because it is larger than int.MaxValue,
// and not /users/0 because of the min(1) constraint.
[Route("users/{id:int:min(1)}")]
public ActionResult GetUserById(int id) { ... }

  

ConstraintDescriptionExample
alpha Matches uppercase or lowercase Latin alphabet characters (a-z, A-Z) {x:alpha}
bool Matches a Boolean value. {x:bool}
datetime Matches a DateTime value. {x:datetime}
decimal Matches a decimal value. {x:decimal}
double Matches a 64-bit floating-point value. {x:double}
float Matches a 32-bit floating-point value. {x:float}
guid Matches a GUID value. {x:guid}
int Matches a 32-bit integer value. {x:int}
length Matches a string with the specified length or within a specified range of lengths. {x:length(6)}  {x:length(1,20)}
long Matches a 64-bit integer value. {x:long}
max Matches an integer with a maximum value. {x:max(10)}
maxlength Matches a string with a maximum length. {x:maxlength(10)}
min Matches an integer with a minimum value. {x:min(10)}
minlength Matches a string with a minimum length. {x:minlength(10)}
range Matches an integer within a range of values. {x:range(10,50)}
regex Matches a regular expression. {x:regex(^\d{3}-\d{3}-\d{4}$)}

 

具体的可以参考

Attribute Routing in ASP.NET MVC 5

 对我来说,这样的好处是分散了路由规则的定义.有人喜欢集中,我个人比较喜欢这种灵活的处理.因为这个action定义好后,我不需要跑到配置那里定义对应的路由规则

 

11.最后还是不爽的话自己写个类实现 IRouteConstraint的匹配方法。

 

    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Web;
    using System.Web.Routing;
    /// <summary>
    /// If the standard constraints are not sufficient for your needs, you can define your own custom constraints by implementing the IRouteConstraint interface. 
    /// </summary>
    public class UserAgentConstraint : IRouteConstraint
    {

        private string requiredUserAgent;
        public UserAgentConstraint(string agentParam)
        {
            requiredUserAgent = agentParam;
        }
        public bool Match(HttpContextBase httpContext, Route route, string parameterName,
        RouteValueDictionary values, RouteDirection routeDirection)
        {
            return httpContext.Request.UserAgent != null &&
            httpContext.Request.UserAgent.Contains(requiredUserAgent);
        }
    }

 

routes.MapRoute("ChromeRoute", "{*catchall}", 

new { controller = "Home", action = "Index" }, 

new { customConstraint = new UserAgentConstraint("Chrome") }, 

new[] { "UrlsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers" });

 比如这个就用来匹配是否是用谷歌浏览器访问网页的。

12.访问本地文档

 

routes.RouteExistingFiles = true; 

routes.MapRoute("DiskFile", "Content/StaticContent.html", new { controller = "Customer", action = "List", }); 

 

浏览网站,以开启 IIS Express,然后点显示所有应用程序-点击网站名称-配置(applicationhost.config)-搜索UrlRoutingModule节点

     <add name="UrlRoutingModule-4.0" type="System.Web.Routing.UrlRoutingModule" preCondition="managedHandler,runtimeVersionv4.0" />

 

把这个节点里的preCondition删除,变成

     <add name="UrlRoutingModule-4.0" type="System.Web.Routing.UrlRoutingModule" preCondition="" />

 

 13.直接访问本地资源,绕过了路由系统

routes.IgnoreRoute("Content/{filename}.html"); 

 

文件名还可以用 {filename}占位符。

IgnoreRoute方法是RouteCollection里面StopRoutingHandler类的一个实例。路由系统通过硬-编码识别这个Handler。如果这个规则匹配的话,后面的规则都无效了。 这也就是默认的路由里面routes.IgnoreRoute("{resource}.axd/{*pathInfo}");写最前面的原因。

路由测试(在测试项目的基础上,要装moq)

PM> Install-Package Moq

 

    using System;
    using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;
    using System.Web;
    using Moq;
    using System.Web.Routing;
    using System.Reflection;
    [TestClass]
    public class RoutesTest
    {
        private HttpContextBase CreateHttpContext(string targetUrl = null, string HttpMethod = "GET")
        {
            // create the mock request
            Mock<HttpRequestBase> mockRequest = new Mock<HttpRequestBase>();
            mockRequest.Setup(m => m.AppRelativeCurrentExecutionFilePath)
            .Returns(targetUrl);
            mockRequest.Setup(m => m.HttpMethod).Returns(HttpMethod);
            // create the mock response
            Mock<HttpResponseBase> mockResponse = new Mock<HttpResponseBase>();
            mockResponse.Setup(m => m.ApplyAppPathModifier(
            It.IsAny<string>())).Returns<string>(s => s);
            // create the mock context, using the request and response
            Mock<HttpContextBase> mockContext = new Mock<HttpContextBase>();
            mockContext.Setup(m => m.Request).Returns(mockRequest.Object);
            mockContext.Setup(m => m.Response).Returns(mockResponse.Object);
            // return the mocked context
            return mockContext.Object;
        }

        private void TestRouteMatch(string url, string controller, string action, object routeProperties = null, string httpMethod = "GET")
        {
            // Arrange
            RouteCollection routes = new RouteCollection();
            RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(routes);
            // Act - process the route
            RouteData result = routes.GetRouteData(CreateHttpContext(url, httpMethod));
            // Assert
            Assert.IsNotNull(result);
            Assert.IsTrue(TestIncomingRouteResult(result, controller, action, routeProperties));
        }

        private bool TestIncomingRouteResult(RouteData routeResult, string controller, string action, object propertySet = null)
        {
            Func<object, object, bool> valCompare = (v1, v2) =>
            {
                return StringComparer.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase
                .Compare(v1, v2) == 0;
            };
            bool result = valCompare(routeResult.Values["controller"], controller)
            && valCompare(routeResult.Values["action"], action);
            if (propertySet != null)
            {
                PropertyInfo[] propInfo = propertySet.GetType().GetProperties();
                foreach (PropertyInfo pi in propInfo)
                {
                    if (!(routeResult.Values.ContainsKey(pi.Name)
                    && valCompare(routeResult.Values[pi.Name],
                    pi.GetValue(propertySet, null))))
                    {
                        result = false;
                        break;
                    }
                }
            }
            return result;
        }

        private void TestRouteFail(string url)
        {
            // Arrange
            RouteCollection routes = new RouteCollection();
            RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(routes);
            // Act - process the route
            RouteData result = routes.GetRouteData(CreateHttpContext(url));
            // Assert
            Assert.IsTrue(result == null || result.Route == null);
        }

        [TestMethod]
        public void TestIncomingRoutes()
        {
            // check for the URL that we hope to receive
            TestRouteMatch("~/Admin/Index", "Admin", "Index");
            // check that the values are being obtained from the segments
            TestRouteMatch("~/One/Two", "One", "Two");
            // ensure that too many or too few segments fails to match
            TestRouteFail("~/Admin/Index/Segment");//失败
            TestRouteFail("~/Admin");//失败
            TestRouteMatch("~/", "Home", "Index");
            TestRouteMatch("~/Customer", "Customer", "Index");
            TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List", "Customer", "List");
            TestRouteFail("~/Customer/List/All");//失败
            TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List/All", "Customer", "List", new { id = "All" });
            TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List/All/Delete", "Customer", "List", new { id = "All", catchall = "Delete" });
            TestRouteMatch("~/Customer/List/All/Delete/Perm", "Customer", "List", new { id = "All", catchall = "Delete/Perm" });
        }



    }

 

 

  最后还是再推荐一下Adam Freeman写的apress.pro.asp.net.mvc.4这本书。稍微熟悉MVC的从第二部分开始读好了。前面都是入门(对我来说是扯淡)。但总比国内某些写书的人好吧——把个开源项目的源代码下载下来帖到书上面来,然后标题起个深入解析XXXX,然后净瞎扯淡。最后一千多页的巨著又诞生了。Adam Freeman的风格我就很喜欢,都是实例写作,然后还在那边书里面专门写了大量的测试。

  哎没办法啊,技术差距就是这样了。

posted on 2014-08-15 10:10  Cherbim  阅读(60595)  评论(12编辑  收藏

这是页脚