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与众不同 windows phone (19) - Device(设备)之陀螺仪传感器, Motion API



作者:webabcd


介绍
与众不同 windows phone 7.5 (sdk 7.1) 之设备

  • 陀螺仪传感器
  • Motion API(运动 API



示例
1、演示如何使用陀螺仪传感器
GyroscopeDemo.xaml

<phone:PhoneApplicationPage 
    x:Class="Demo.Device.GyroscopeDemo"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    xmlns:phone="clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Controls;assembly=Microsoft.Phone"
    xmlns:shell="clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Shell;assembly=Microsoft.Phone"
    xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
    xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
    FontFamily="{StaticResource PhoneFontFamilyNormal}"
    FontSize="{StaticResource PhoneFontSizeNormal}"
    Foreground="{StaticResource PhoneForegroundBrush}"
    SupportedOrientations="Portrait" Orientation="Portrait"
    mc:Ignorable="d" d:DesignHeight="768" d:DesignWidth="480"
    shell:SystemTray.IsVisible="True">

    <Grid x:Name="LayoutRoot" Background="Transparent">
        <StackPanel Orientation="Vertical">

            <TextBlock Name="lblGyroscopeSupported" />
            <Button Name="btnStart" Content="打开陀螺仪" Click="btnStart_Click" />
            <Button Name="btnStop" Content="关闭陀螺仪" Click="btnStop_Click" />
            <TextBlock Name="lblGyroscopeStatus" />
            <TextBlock Name="lblTimeBetweenUpdates" />
            <TextBlock Name="lblMsg" />

        </StackPanel>
    </Grid>
 
</phone:PhoneApplicationPage>

GyroscopeDemo.xaml.cs

/*
 * 演示如何使用陀螺仪传感器
 * 
 * Gyroscope - 用于访问设备中的陀螺仪
 *     IsSupported - 设备是否支持陀螺仪
 *     IsDataValid - 是否可从陀螺仪中获取到有效数据
 *     CurrentValue - 陀螺仪当前的数据,GyroscopeReading 类型
 *     TimeBetweenUpdates - 触发 CurrentValueChanged 事件的时间间隔,如果设置的值小于 Gyroscope 允许的最小值,则此属性的值将被设置为 Gyroscope 允许的最小值
 *     Start() - 打开陀螺仪
 *     Stop() - 关闭陀螺仪
 *     CurrentValueChanged - 陀螺仪传感器获取到的数据发生改变时所触发的事件,属性 TimeBetweenUpdates 的值决定触发此事件的时间间隔
 *     
 * GyroscopeReading - 陀螺仪传感器数据
 *     RotationRate - 获取围绕设备各轴旋转的旋转速率(单位:弧度/秒)
 *     DateTimeOffset - 从陀螺仪传感器中获取到数据的时间点
 *     
 * 
 * 
 * 手机坐标系:以手机位置为参照,假设手机垂直水平面放(竖着放),屏幕对着你,那么
 * 1、左右是 X 轴,右侧为正方向,左侧为负方向
 * 2、上下是 Y 轴,上侧为正方向,下侧为负方向
 * 3、里外是 Z 轴,靠近你为正方向,远离你为负方向
 * 以上可以用相对于手机位置的右手坐标系来理解
 */

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Net;
using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Controls;
using System.Windows.Documents;
using System.Windows.Input;
using System.Windows.Media;
using System.Windows.Media.Animation;
using System.Windows.Shapes;
using Microsoft.Phone.Controls;

using Microsoft.Devices.Sensors;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework;

namespace Demo.Device
{
    public partial class GyroscopeDemo : PhoneApplicationPage
    {
        private Gyroscope _gyroscope;

        public GyroscopeDemo()
        {
            InitializeComponent();

            // 判断设备是否支持陀螺仪
            if (Gyroscope.IsSupported)
            {
                lblGyroscopeStatus.Text = "此设备支持陀螺仪";
            }
            else
            {
                lblGyroscopeStatus.Text = "此设备不支持陀螺仪";

                btnStart.IsEnabled = false;
                btnStop.IsEnabled = false;
            }
        }

        private void btnStart_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            if (_gyroscope == null)
            {
                // 实例化 Gyroscope,注册相关事件
                _gyroscope = new Gyroscope();
                _gyroscope.TimeBetweenUpdates = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(1);
                _gyroscope.CurrentValueChanged += new EventHandler<SensorReadingEventArgs<GyroscopeReading>>(_gyroscope_CurrentValueChanged);

                lblTimeBetweenUpdates.Text = "TimeBetweenUpdates 设置为 1 毫秒,实际为 " + _gyroscope.TimeBetweenUpdates.TotalMilliseconds.ToString() + " 毫秒";
            }

            try
            {
                // 打开陀螺仪
                _gyroscope.Start();
                lblGyroscopeStatus.Text = "陀螺仪已打开";
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                lblGyroscopeStatus.Text = "陀螺仪打开失败";
                MessageBox.Show(ex.ToString());
            }
        }

        private void btnStop_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            if (_gyroscope != null)
            {
                // 关闭陀螺仪
                _gyroscope.Stop();
                lblGyroscopeStatus.Text = "陀螺仪已关闭";
            }
        }

        void _gyroscope_CurrentValueChanged(object sender, SensorReadingEventArgs<GyroscopeReading> e)
        {
            // 注:此方法是在后台线程运行的,所以需要更新 UI 的话注意要调用 UI 线程
            Dispatcher.BeginInvoke(() => UpdateUI(e.SensorReading));
        }

        private DateTimeOffset _lastUpdateTime = DateTimeOffset.MinValue; // 上一次获取陀螺仪数据的时间
        private Vector3 _rotationTotal = Vector3.Zero; // 陀螺仪各轴的累积旋转弧度
        // 更新 UI
        private void UpdateUI(GyroscopeReading gyroscopeReading)
        {
            // 以下用于计算陀螺仪各轴的累积旋转弧度
            if (_lastUpdateTime.Equals(DateTimeOffset.MinValue))
            {
                _lastUpdateTime = gyroscopeReading.Timestamp;
            }
            else
            {
                TimeSpan timeSinceLastUpdate = gyroscopeReading.Timestamp - _lastUpdateTime;

                // 陀螺仪当前旋转速率 * 计算此速率所经过的时间 = 此时间段内旋转的弧度
                _rotationTotal += gyroscopeReading.RotationRate * (float)(timeSinceLastUpdate.TotalSeconds);

                _lastUpdateTime = gyroscopeReading.Timestamp;
            }


            Vector3 rotationRate = gyroscopeReading.RotationRate;

            // 显示陀螺仪当前各轴的旋转速率(单位:弧度/秒)
            lblMsg.Text += "RotationRate.X: " + rotationRate.X.ToString("0.0");
            lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            lblMsg.Text += "RotationRate.Y: " + rotationRate.Y.ToString("0.0");
            lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            lblMsg.Text += "RotationRate.Z: " + rotationRate.Z.ToString("0.0");
            lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;

            // 显示陀螺仪各轴的累积旋转角度
            lblMsg.Text += "RotationTotal.X: " + MathHelper.ToDegrees(_rotationTotal.X).ToString("0.00");
            lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            lblMsg.Text += "RotationTotal.Y: " + MathHelper.ToDegrees(_rotationTotal.X).ToString("0.00");
            lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            lblMsg.Text += "RotationTotal.Z: " + MathHelper.ToDegrees(_rotationTotal.X).ToString("0.00");
        }
    }
}


2、演示如何使用 Motion API
MotionDemo.xaml

<phone:PhoneApplicationPage 
    x:Class="Demo.Device.MotionDemo"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    xmlns:phone="clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Controls;assembly=Microsoft.Phone"
    xmlns:shell="clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Shell;assembly=Microsoft.Phone"
    xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
    xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
    FontFamily="{StaticResource PhoneFontFamilyNormal}"
    FontSize="{StaticResource PhoneFontSizeNormal}"
    Foreground="{StaticResource PhoneForegroundBrush}"
    SupportedOrientations="Portrait" Orientation="Portrait"
    mc:Ignorable="d" d:DesignHeight="768" d:DesignWidth="480"
    shell:SystemTray.IsVisible="True">

    <Grid x:Name="LayoutRoot" Background="Transparent">
        <StackPanel Orientation="Vertical">

            <TextBlock Name="lblMotionSupported" />
            <Button Name="btnStart" Content="打开 Motion 监测" Click="btnStart_Click" />
            <Button Name="btnStop" Content="关闭 Motion 监测" Click="btnStop_Click" />
            <TextBlock Name="lblMotionStatus" />
            <TextBlock Name="lblTimeBetweenUpdates" />
            <TextBlock Name="lblMsg" />

        </StackPanel>
    </Grid>

</phone:PhoneApplicationPage>

MotionDemo.xaml.cs

/*
 * 演示如何使用 Motion API
 * 
 * Motion - Motion API,其作用为:整合各个传感器 Accelerometer, Gyroscope, Compass 的数据,通过复杂的运算计算出易用的数据
 *     IsSupported - 设备是否支持 Motion API
 *     IsDataValid - 是否可从 Motion API 中获取到有效数据
 *     CurrentValue - Motion API 当前的数据,MotionReading 类型
 *     TimeBetweenUpdates - 触发 CurrentValueChanged 事件的时间间隔,如果设置的值小于 Motion API 允许的最小值,则此属性的值将被设置为 Motion API 允许的最小值
 *     Start() - 打开 Motion 监测
 *     Stop() - 关闭 Motion 监测
 *     CurrentValueChanged - 当 Motion API 获取到的数据发生改变时所触发的事件,属性 TimeBetweenUpdates 的值决定触发此事件的时间间隔
 *     Calibrate - 当系统检测到 Motion API 用到的数字罗盘传感器需要校准时所触发的事件
 *     
 * MotionReading - Motion API 数据
 *     AttitudeReading - 设备的姿态(AttitudeReading 类型,可以获得 Yaw Pitch Roll 数据)
 *     DeviceAcceleration - 设备的加速度(Vector3 类型)
 *     DeviceRotationRate - 设备的旋转速率(Vector3 类型)
 *     Gravity - 重力(Vector3 类型)
 *     DateTimeOffset - 从 Motion API 中获取到数据的时间点
 *     
 * 注:
 * 如果设备缺少必要的传感器,那么 Motion API 将无法正常工作
 * 例如,如果只有 Accelerometer, Compass 而没有 Gyroscope,那么虽然 Motion API 是被支持的,但是部分数据是不精准的
 * 例如,如果只有 Accelerometer 而没有 Compass, Gyroscope,那么 Motion API 是不被支持的
 * 
 * 
 * 
 * 手机坐标系:以手机位置为参照,假设手机垂直水平面放(竖着放),屏幕对着你,那么
 * 1、左右是 X 轴,右侧为正方向,左侧为负方向
 * 2、上下是 Y 轴,上侧为正方向,下侧为负方向
 * 3、里外是 Z 轴,靠近你为正方向,远离你为负方向
 * 以上可以用相对于手机位置的右手坐标系来理解
 * 
 * Yaw - 围绕 Y 轴旋转
 * Pitch - 围绕 X 轴旋转
 * Roll - 围绕 Z 轴旋转
 */

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Net;
using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Controls;
using System.Windows.Documents;
using System.Windows.Input;
using System.Windows.Media;
using System.Windows.Media.Animation;
using System.Windows.Shapes;
using Microsoft.Phone.Controls;

using System.Windows.Navigation;
using Microsoft.Devices.Sensors;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework;

namespace Demo.Device
{
    public partial class MotionDemo : PhoneApplicationPage
    {
        private Motion _motion;

        public MotionDemo()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }

        protected override void OnNavigatedTo(NavigationEventArgs e)
        {
            // 判断设备是否支 Motion API
            if (Motion.IsSupported)
            {
                lblMotionStatus.Text = "此设备支持 Motion API";
            }
            else
            {
                lblMotionStatus.Text = "此设备不支持 Motion API";

                btnStart.IsEnabled = false;
                btnStop.IsEnabled = false;
            }
        }

        private void btnStart_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            if (_motion == null)
            {
                // 实例化 Motion,注册相关事件
                _motion = new Motion();
                _motion.TimeBetweenUpdates = TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(1);
                _motion.CurrentValueChanged += new EventHandler<SensorReadingEventArgs<MotionReading>>(_motion_CurrentValueChanged);

                lblTimeBetweenUpdates.Text = "TimeBetweenUpdates 设置为 1 毫秒,实际为 " + _motion.TimeBetweenUpdates.TotalMilliseconds.ToString() + " 毫秒";
            }

            try
            {
                // 打开 Motion 监测
                _motion.Start();
                lblMotionStatus.Text = "Motion 监测已打开";
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                lblMotionStatus.Text = "Motion 监测打开失败";
                MessageBox.Show(ex.ToString());
            }
        }

        private void btnStop_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            if (_motion != null)
            {
                // 关闭 Motion 监测
                _motion.Stop();
                lblMotionStatus.Text = "Motion 监测已关闭";
            }
        }

        void _motion_CurrentValueChanged(object sender, SensorReadingEventArgs<MotionReading> e)
        {
            // 注:此方法是在后台线程运行的,所以需要更新 UI 的话注意要调用 UI 线程
            Dispatcher.BeginInvoke(() => UpdateUI(e.SensorReading));
        }

        // 更新 UI
        private void UpdateUI(MotionReading motionReading)
        {
            AttitudeReading attitude = motionReading.Attitude;
            Vector3 deviceAcceleration = motionReading.DeviceAcceleration;
            Vector3 deviceRotationRate = motionReading.DeviceRotationRate;
            Vector3 gravity = motionReading.Gravity;

            // 在 UI 上显示相关参数
            lblMsg.Text = "yaw: " + MathHelper.ToDegrees(attitude.Yaw).ToString("0.0");
            lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            lblMsg.Text += "pitch: " + MathHelper.ToDegrees(attitude.Pitch).ToString("0.0");
            lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            lblMsg.Text += "roll: " + MathHelper.ToDegrees(attitude.Roll).ToString("0.0");
        }
    }
}



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[源码下载]