Spring Boot 入门之消息中间件篇(五)

原文地址:Spring Boot 入门之消息中间件篇(五)
博客地址:http://www.extlight.com

一、前言

在消息中间件中有 2 个重要的概念:消息代理和目的地。当消息发送者发送消息后,消息就被消息代理接管,消息代理保证消息传递到指定目的地。

我们常用的消息代理有 JMS 和 AMQP 规范。对应地,它们常见的实现分别是 ActiveMQ 和 RabbitMQ。

上篇文章《Spring Boot 入门之缓存和 NoSQL 篇(四)》

二、整合 ActiveMQ

2.1 添加依赖

<dependency>
	<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-activemq</artifactId>
</dependency>

<!-- 如果需要配置连接池,添加如下依赖 -->
<dependency>  
    <groupId>org.apache.activemq</groupId>  
    <artifactId>activemq-pool</artifactId>  
</dependency> 

2.2 添加配置

# activemq 配置
spring.activemq.broker-url=tcp://192.168.2.12:61616
spring.activemq.user=admin
spring.activemq.password=admin
spring.activemq.pool.enabled=false
spring.activemq.pool.max-connections=50
# 使用发布/订阅模式时,下边配置需要设置成 true
spring.jms.pub-sub-domain=false

此处 spring.activemq.pool.enabled=false,表示关闭连接池。

2.3 编码

配置类:

@Configuration
public class JmsConfirguration {

	public static final String QUEUE_NAME = "activemq_queue";
	
	public static final String TOPIC_NAME = "activemq_topic";
	
	@Bean
    public Queue queue() {
        return new ActiveMQQueue(QUEUE_NAME);
    }
	
	@Bean
	public Topic topic() {
		return new ActiveMQTopic(TOPIC_NAME);
	}
}

负责创建队列和主题。

消息生产者:

@Component
public class JmsSender {

	@Autowired
	private Queue queue;
	
	@Autowired
	private Topic topic;
	
	@Autowired
	private JmsMessagingTemplate jmsTemplate;
	
	public void sendByQueue(String message) {
		this.jmsTemplate.convertAndSend(queue, message);
	}
	
	public void sendByTopic(String message) {
		this.jmsTemplate.convertAndSend(topic, message);
	}
}

消息消费者:

@Component
public class JmsReceiver {
	
	@JmsListener(destination = JmsConfirguration.QUEUE_NAME)
	public void receiveByQueue(String message) {
		System.out.println("接收队列消息:" + message);
	}
	
	@JmsListener(destination = JmsConfirguration.TOPIC_NAME)
	public void receiveByTopic(String message) {
		System.out.println("接收主题消息:" + message);
	}
}

消息消费者使用 @JmsListener 注解监听消息。

2.4 测试

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class JmsTest {

	@Autowired
	private JmsSender sender;

	@Test
	public void testSendByQueue() {
		for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
			this.sender.sendByQueue("hello activemq queue " + i);
		}
	}
	
	@Test
	public void testSendByTopic() {
		for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
			this.sender.sendByTopic("hello activemq topic " + i);
		}
	}
}

打印结果:

接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 1
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 2
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 3
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 4
接收队列消息:hello activemq queue 5

测试发布/订阅模式时,设置 spring.jms.pub-sub-domain=true

接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 1
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 2
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 3
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 4
接收主题消息:hello activemq topic 5

三、整合 RabbitMQ

3.1 添加依赖

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-amqp</artifactId>
</dependency>

3.2 添加配置

spring.rabbitmq.host=192.168.2.30
spring.rabbitmq.port=5672
spring.rabbitmq.username=light
spring.rabbitmq.password=light
spring.rabbitmq.virtual-host=/test

3.3 编码

配置类:

@Configuration
public class AmqpConfirguration {

	//=============简单、工作队列模式===============
	
	public static final String SIMPLE_QUEUE = "simple_queue";

	@Bean
	public Queue queue() {
		return new Queue(SIMPLE_QUEUE, true);
	}
	
	//===============发布/订阅模式============
	
	public static final String PS_QUEUE_1 = "ps_queue_1";
	public static final String PS_QUEUE_2 = "ps_queue_2";
	public static final String FANOUT_EXCHANGE = "fanout_exchange";
	
	@Bean
	public Queue psQueue1() {
		return new Queue(PS_QUEUE_1, true);
	}
	
	@Bean
	public Queue psQueue2() {
		return new Queue(PS_QUEUE_2, true);
	}
	
	@Bean
	public FanoutExchange fanoutExchange() {
		return new FanoutExchange(FANOUT_EXCHANGE);
	}
	
	@Bean
	public Binding fanoutBinding1() {
		return BindingBuilder.bind(psQueue1()).to(fanoutExchange());
	}
	
	@Bean
	public Binding fanoutBinding2() {
		return BindingBuilder.bind(psQueue2()).to(fanoutExchange());
	}

	//===============路由模式============
	
	public static final String ROUTING_QUEUE_1 = "routing_queue_1";
	public static final String ROUTING_QUEUE_2 = "routing_queue_2";
	public static final String DIRECT_EXCHANGE = "direct_exchange";
	
	@Bean
	public Queue routingQueue1() {
		return new Queue(ROUTING_QUEUE_1, true);
	}
	
	@Bean
	public Queue routingQueue2() {
		return new Queue(ROUTING_QUEUE_2, true);
	}
	
	@Bean
	public DirectExchange directExchange() {
		return new DirectExchange(DIRECT_EXCHANGE);
	}
	
	@Bean
	public Binding directBinding1() {
		return BindingBuilder.bind(routingQueue1()).to(directExchange()).with("user");
	}
	
	@Bean
	public Binding directBinding2() {
		return BindingBuilder.bind(routingQueue2()).to(directExchange()).with("order");
	}
	
	//===============主题模式============
	
	public static final String TOPIC_QUEUE_1 = "topic_queue_1";
	public static final String TOPIC_QUEUE_2 = "topic_queue_2";
	public static final String TOPIC_EXCHANGE = "topic_exchange";
	
	@Bean
	public Queue topicQueue1() {
		return new Queue(TOPIC_QUEUE_1, true);
	}
	
	@Bean
	public Queue topicQueue2() {
		return new Queue(TOPIC_QUEUE_2, true);
	}
	
	@Bean
	public TopicExchange topicExchange() {
		return new TopicExchange(TOPIC_EXCHANGE);
	}
	
	@Bean
	public Binding topicBinding1() {
		return BindingBuilder.bind(topicQueue1()).to(topicExchange()).with("user.add");
	}
	
	@Bean
	public Binding topicBinding2() {
		return BindingBuilder.bind(topicQueue2()).to(topicExchange()).with("user.#");
	}
	
}

RabbitMQ 有多种工作模式,因此配置比较多。想了解相关内容的读者可以查看本站的《RabbitMQ 工作模式介绍》或者自行百度相关资料。

消息生产者:

@Component
public class AmqpSender {

	@Autowired
	private AmqpTemplate amqpTemplate;

	/**
	 * 简单模式发送
	 * 
	 * @param message
	 */
	public void simpleSend(String message) {
		this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.SIMPLE_QUEUE, message);
	}

	/**
	 * 发布/订阅模式发送
	 * 
	 * @param message
	 */
	public void psSend(String message) {
		this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.FANOUT_EXCHANGE, "", message);
	}

	/**
	 * 路由模式发送
	 * 
	 * @param message
	 */
	public void routingSend(String routingKey, String message) {
		this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.DIRECT_EXCHANGE, routingKey, message);
	}

	/**
	 * 主题模式发送
	 * 
	 * @param routingKey
	 * @param message
	 */
	public void topicSend(String routingKey, String message) {
		this.amqpTemplate.convertAndSend(AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_EXCHANGE, routingKey, message);
	}
}

消息消费者:

@Component
public class AmqpReceiver {

	/**
	 * 简单模式接收
	 * 
	 * @param message
	 */
	@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.SIMPLE_QUEUE)
	public void simpleReceive(String message) {
		System.out.println("接收消息:" + message);
	}

	/**
	 * 发布/订阅模式接收
	 * 
	 * @param message
	 */
	@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_1)
	public void psReceive1(String message) {
		System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_1 + "接收消息:" + message);
	}

	@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_2)
	public void psReceive2(String message) {
		System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.PS_QUEUE_2 + "接收消息:" + message);
	}

	/**
	 * 路由模式接收
	 * 
	 * @param message
	 */
	@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_1)
	public void routingReceive1(String message) {
		System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_1 + "接收消息:" + message);
	}

	@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_2)
	public void routingReceive2(String message) {
		System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.ROUTING_QUEUE_2 + "接收消息:" + message);
	}

	/**
	 * 主题模式接收
	 * 
	 * @param message
	 */
	@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_1)
	public void topicReceive1(String message) {
		System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_1 + "接收消息:" + message);
	}
	
	@RabbitListener(queues = AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_2)
	public void topicReceive2(String message) {
		System.out.println(AmqpConfirguration.TOPIC_QUEUE_2 + "接收消息:" + message);
	}
}

消息消费者使用 @RabbitListener 注解监听消息。

3.4 测试

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class AmqpTest {

	@Autowired
	private AmqpSender sender;

	@Test
	public void testSimpleSend() {
		for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
			this.sender.simpleSend("test simpleSend " + i);
		}
	}

	@Test
	public void testPsSend() {
		for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
			this.sender.psSend("test psSend " + i);
		}
	}
	
	@Test
	public void testRoutingSend() {
		for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
			this.sender.routingSend("order", "test routingSend " + i);
		}
	}
	
	@Test
	public void testTopicSend() {
		for (int i = 1; i < 6; i++) {
			this.sender.topicSend("user.add", "test topicSend " + i);
		}
	}
}

测试结果略过。。。

踩坑提醒1:ACCESS_REFUSED - Login was refused using authentication mechanism PLAIN

解决方案:

  1. 请确保用户名和密码是否正确,需要注意的是用户名和密码的值是否包含空格或制表符(笔者测试时就是因为密码多了一个制表符导致认证失败)。

  2. 如果测试账户使用的是 guest,需要修改 rabbitmq.conf 文件。在该文件中添加 “loopback_users = none” 配置。

踩坑提醒2:Cannot prepare queue for listener. Either the queue doesn't exist or the broker will not allow us to use it

解决方案:

我们可以登陆 RabbitMQ 的管理界面,在 Queue 选项中手动添加对应的队列。

四、源码下载

五、参考资料

posted @ 2018-01-27 22:50  关小西  阅读(3700)  评论(3编辑  收藏  举报