英语国家文化与概况期末复习

史上超强!英语国家概况复习笔记! - 道客巴巴 (doc88.com)

英国概况期末复习笔记 - 知乎 (zhihu.com)

《英语国家文化与概况》
考试范围及题型:
Part I (1-10) True or False (10%),出自课本所有章节的课后练习

Part II(11-30) Information Matching (20%),出自课本英国和美国部分。(注意书本上的一些注释,中英文对照,理解意思。复习自己的笔记和书本)

Part III (31-50)Vocabulary (10%)词汇题,跟课文内容相关。

Part IV(51-70) Multiple Choice(20%) ,出自课本所有章节的课后练习

Part V (71-75)Filling the blanks by choosing from A-I (5%), 主要是英美两国basic government structure,英美两国教育体系

Part VI(76-85) Reading Comprehension (20%,2篇) 出自课外
Part V (86-88) Give brief answers to the following questions (15%)
选自以下12个题目

1 Why did English become more important after the Black Death?

The laboring and merchant classes grew in economic and social importance after the Black Death, so English also grew in importance compared to French.

1为什么英语在黑死病之后变得更重要?

黑死病之后,劳动和商人阶层在经济和社会上的重要性都有所增长,所以英语的重要性也比法语要高。

2 Why is the United States regarded as a “melting pot” and a “salad bowl”?
First, the "melting pot" and "salad" stands for the mixture of different things. The US is regarded as a "melting pot" and a "salad" is because it is a country made up of many different people: 13% are black, 12% are Hispanic, 4% are Asian and the rest are White Americans. As the same, the culture of the US is also mingled from different culture of different people in it. Because of these, it is really like a mixed country.

2为什么美国被认为是“大熔炉”和“沙拉碗”?

首先,“熔炉”和“沙拉”代表着不同事物的混合。美国被认为是一个“大熔炉”,而“沙拉”则是因为它是一个由许多不同的人组成的国家:13%是黑人,12%是西班牙人,4%是亚洲人,剩下的是美国白人。同样的,美国的文化也融合了不同民族的不同文化。因为这些,它真的像一个混合的国家。

3 What are the qualifications for a Senator and a Representative respectively?
Senator:1) each senator must be at least 30 years old, 2) must have been a citizen of the United States for at least the past nine years, and 3) must be (at the time of the election) an inhabitant of the state he or she seeks to represent. Each representative must: (1) be at least twenty-five years old; (2) have been a citizen of the United States for the past seven years; and (3) be (at the time of the election) an inhabitant of the state he or she represents.

参议员和众议员的资格分别是什么?

参议员:1)每位参议员必须年满30岁;2)过去至少9年是美国公民;3)在选举时必须是他或她所代表的州的居民。

众议员必须:(1)年满二十五岁;(2)在过去7年里一直是美国公民;(3)在选举时是他们所代表的州的居民。

4 What was the cause of the American Civil War?

  1. Economic and social differences between the North and the South.
  2. States versus federal rights
  3. The fight between Slave and Non-Slave State Proponents.
  4. Growth of the Abolition Movement.
  5. The election of Abraham Lincoln

美国内战的起因是什么?

  1. 南北之间的经济和社会差异。
  2. 州与联邦的权利
  3. 蓄奴州和非蓄奴州支持者之间的斗争。
  4. 废奴运动的发展。
  5. 亚伯拉罕·林肯的当选

5 What were the results of the Industrial Revolution in Britain?
Britain was the "workshop of the world" by 1830. Towns grew rapidly and became the source of the nation's wealth. Mechanization destroyed the livelihood of those who could not invest in it. The working men worked and lived in a appalling conditions. The industrial revolution created the industrial working class, the proletariat, and it later led to trade unionism.

英国工业革命的结果是什么?

到1830年,英国已成为“世界工厂”。城镇迅速发展,成为国家财富的来源。机械化摧毁了那些不能投资的人的生活。工人们在极其恶劣的条件下工作和生活。工业革命创造了工业工人阶级,即无产阶级,后来又产生了工会主义。

6 What are the two camps in World War I?
The central powers which included Germany ,Austria-Hungary , the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria and the allied powers which were mainly comprised of France , the Russian empire ,the British empire , Italy and the united states.

第一次世界大战中的两个阵营是什么?

同盟国包括德国、奥匈帝国、奥斯曼帝国、保加利亚以及主要由法国、俄罗斯帝国、大英帝国、意大利和美国组成的同盟国。

7 What kind of public image does the Liberal Democrats have in Britain?
The Liberal Democrats is perceived as "middle" between the Conservative and the Labor Party. It is comparatively flexible and pragmatic in its balance of the individual and the social. It emphasizes the need for a change in Britain's constitutional arrangements to make the government more democratic and accountable.

自由民主党在英国有什么样的公众形象?

自由民主党被认为是介于保守党和工党之间的“中间派”。在个人和社会的平衡上,它是相对灵活和实用的。它强调了改变英国宪法安排的必要性,以使政府更加民主和负责。

8 What was the negative aspect of Thatcher’s reform in the early 1980s?
its negative aspect was a rapid increase in unemployment . in 1982,the unemployment rate reached the level of the great depression years, with three million people out of work.

20世纪80年代早期撒切尔改革的消极方面是什么?

它的负面影响是失业率迅速上升。1982年,失业率达到大萧条时期的水平,300万人失业。

9 Why do developed nations like Britain encourage the development of the service industry?
The service industry has played an increasingly important role in economy in the development countries. On the other hand ,it requires a large group of people working in it so that abundant employment opportunities are provided. On the other hand, the service industry causes little pollution.

为什么像英国这样的发达国家鼓励服务业的发展?

服务业在发展中国家的经济中发挥着越来越重要的作用。另一方面,它需要大量的人在其中工作,从而提供大量的就业机会。另一方面,服务业造成的污染很少。

10 Who are the British people?
The first known inhabitants in Britain were Celts who are the ancestors of the Welsh, Scottish and Irish people. Then came the Anglos, the Saxons and the Jutes who brought with them the English language. Many people from other European countries came later, and in modern times there are a lot of immigrants from many former Commonwealth countries from every part of the world. Britain is a country of mixed cultures, and the Britain people are also composed of people from different ethic and culture backgrounds.

谁是英国人?

英国最早为人所知的居民是凯尔特人,他们是威尔士人、苏格兰人和爱尔兰人的祖先。然后是盎格鲁人、撒克逊人和朱特人,他们带来了英语。许多人后来从其他欧洲国家来到这里,在现代,有许多来自世界各地的前英联邦国家的移民。英国是一个多元文化的国家,英国人也是由不同民族、不同文化背景的人组成的。

the first known inhabitants in Britain were Celts who are the ancestor of Welsh, Scottish and Irish people. Then came the Anglos , the Saxons and the Jutes who brought with them the English language. many people from other European countries came later, and in modern times there are a lot of immigrants from many former Commonwealth countries from every part of the world. Britain is a country of mixed cultures, and the Britain people are also composed of people from different ethic and culture backgrounds.

11 What were Nixon’s well-known contributions during his presidency?

Nixon made three well-known contributions:
a) brought the Vietnam War to a close;
b) reestablishing U.S. relations with China;
c) negotiating the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty with the former Soviet Union.

尼克松在总统任期内的著名贡献是什么?

尼克松有三个广为人知的贡献:

a)结束越南战争;

b)重建美国与中国的关系;

c)与前苏联谈判第一项限制战略武器条约。

12 What made the United States a powerful country by the end of World War II?
during the two world wars,america remained neutral in the early stage.however, americans continued their profitable trade with the warring countries. therefore,they not only retained their military forces,but also accumulated great wealth.when america entered the wars,it was almost at the end of the wars.by sharing the fruit of victory with other allies, america greatly strengthened its power and became a powerful country by the end of world war ii.

是什么使美国在第二次世界大战结束时成为一个强大的国家?

在两次世界大战的初期,美国保持中立。然而,美国人继续与交战国家进行有利可图的贸易。因此,他们不仅保留了军队,而且积累了巨大的财富。当美国参战时,战争已经接近尾声。通过与其他盟国分享胜利果实,美国大大增强了自己的实力,在第二次世界大战结束时成为了一个强大的国家。

constitutional monarchy 君主立宪制

Royal Assent 国王女王对议会通过议案的批准

life peers 爵位不能世袭的贵族

comprehensive school,综合学校,无论学生能力如何均可入学

grammer school 文法学校,采取优选制的中学,侧重人文学科,帮助学生通过考试进入高等学府。

checks and balances 三权分立

containment 遏制政策

associate degree 准学士学位,美国专科学校授予低于学士学位

civil rights movement 民权运动

constitutional monarchy 君主立宪制 the Monarch 君主 Parliament 议会

House of Commons 平民院/下议院 The Government Party执政党 Royal Assent御准(女王批准)

Shadow Cabinet 影子内阁 jury system 陪审团制 the Conservative Party 保守党

the Labour Party 工党 common law 习惯法 Crown Courts 王室法院 The Celts 凯尔特人

Anglo-Saxons 盎格鲁萨克逊人 Norman Conquest 诺曼征服 The Great Charter 大宪章

The Hundred Years’ War 百年大战 The Black Death黑死病 Renaissance 文艺复兴

Humanists 人文主义者 the Great Lakes大湖区

Secretary of State国务卿 The US Congress 国会 the House of Representatives众议院

The Judicial Branch司法部门 the Supreme Court最高法院 the Boston Tea Party波士顿倾茶事件 、

The Bill of Rights人权法案 The Star-Spangled Banner星条旗 The Monroe Doctrine门罗主义

Emancipation Proclamation废奴宣言 Frontiersman拓荒者

The Civil War内战 The Westward Movement西进运动

ferocious 残忍的

posted @ 2022-06-22 16:11  小能日记  阅读(7)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报