电子商务导论双语期末复习

主要内容:

  1. 第1章电子商务导论
  2. 第2章电子商务的商业模式和概念
  3. 第9章网络零售和在线服务
  4. 第10章网络内容服务于网络媒体

第一章:电子商务导论

What is E-commerce?什么是电子商务?(名词解释)E-commerce involves the use of the internet, the world wide web, and mobile apps and browsers running on mobile devices to transact business.电子商务包括用因特网、万维网、移动APP和移动设备从事的的商业交易。利用数字化实现组织和个人之间的商业交易。

What is e-business?什么是电子业务?E-business to refer the primary to the digital enabling of transactions and process within a firm involving Information system under the control of the firm.电子业务是企业内部的数字化交易和业务流程,包括企业内部信息系统。

What is the differences between E commerce and E business?如何看待电子商务和电子业务的区别?(简答)

  1. First, e-business do not include exchange of value across this organization boundaries.首先电子业务没有包含在组织边界当中的价值交换
  2. Second, E business do not generate revenue, but it is also essential. It provide support to E commerce.电子业务不直接创造利润,但依然非常重要,给电子商务提供了支持。

Major terms in E commerce?电子商务的主流趋势(选择判断,判断为主)

  1. 从商业角度看 From a business perspective, retail E commerce has been growing at double digit rates for the last few years.近几年电子商务以双倍数的速度在增长。 Local E commerce is being funded by the expansion of interest in on demand service.更加本土化,并且是on-demand的
  2. 从科技角度看Mobile platform, smartphones, cloud computing, flood of online date, internet-connected device移动平台、移动电话、云计算、云端数据。
  3. 从社会角度看。Establish new social bonds, strengthen social network.加强了社会的联系。

电子商务科技的八大特征The unique features of E commerce technology. (选择判断)重点!选择题会给出一个例子,让你选这出它是八大特征的哪一个特征/说下列哪一项不是电子商务的八大特征/让你做出判断这一个例子是否是这一个特征。

关键是理解这个词背后代表什么含义,就特别容易做了。

  1. Ubiquity普遍存在性:随时随地可上网;减少认知消耗;没有意识到自己处在科技当中。
  2. Global reach全球范围:更容易开拓全球的客户,市场容量变成了全世界的人口,打破地理限制还有文化地域和国家的因素。
  3. Universal standards通用标准:制定了统一的标准,减少商家进入某一行业的成本。比如某一群人都共同认同A3A4纸的规格、用128GB或1TP的手机内存、欧美的服装码数、全世界统一的色卡、口红色号、鞋子的码数、通用的220V电压。
  4. Richness信息丰富性:表示围绕同一个产品的信息进行多维度的呈现,有文字描述、图片展示还有视频。即使在网上也给客户提供如实体店一般的客户体验。多维度展示产品,让客户对某一产品进行全方位的感受。
  5. Interactivity互动性:指客户和商家的双向交流,比如能够听到反馈进行评论,客户参与度高,而且可以参加抽奖、送礼包、发红包等活动。有喜欢和分享的功能,商家也为提供客户服务“客服”。
  6. Information density信息密度:网上提供围绕所有产品的信息,打破信息不对称现象,减少价格歧视和差别定价的现象,让价格更加透明化,方便客户进行比价。客户可以更容易获取信息,节约时间和精力,可随时调动信息,转换信息。同时信息量也多获取,成本低,品质也高。
  7. Personalization and customization定制化:比如商家的精准营销,根据你过去的购买行为和偏好来相应的给你推送喜欢的东西。
  8. Social technology社会技术:帮助用户建立并巩固社交关系,允许用户自行发生分享个人观点,允许可以用另外的身份与世界来进行连接,允许客户自行生产创建内容。内容创作者与平台由雇佣关系变成了合作关系。

第二章:电子商务的商业模式和概念

电子商务的种类the types of e commerce. B2B、B2C、C2C、 Social e commerce、Mobile E commerce、Local e commerce.(重中之重!)定义+解释+举具体例子

  1. B2C: Business to customer e commerce in which online business attempt to reach individual customers范围相对来说比较小,每年以10%的速度在增长,同时也有很大的发展空间,B2C有非常多的中间商。 Include purchases of retail goods,travel and other types of service and online content. B2C is comparatively small. And consumer are likely to encounter.
  2. C2C:消费者相互进行交易 Provides a way for consumers to sell to each other.
  3. B2B: Business focus on selling to other business is the largest form of E commerce在三种电子商务类型当中占比最大(选择判断),讲究起订量,分为在线交易市场 Net market ketplace用户专用网络 Private industrial networks。(重点!)
  • 在线交易网络Net marketplace,包括分销、采购、交换的环节,比如1688线上批发市场; Include e-distributors, e-procuremenr companions,exchanges and industry consortia.
  • 用户专用网络private industrial networks,比如找钢网,做垂直类电商,只做某一类型的产品,或者是需要登录或者付费才能看得到对方的信息的网站,存在市场信息不公平。

如何区分B2B, B2C, C2C? 看买卖双方对象Who is selling to whom.

  1. Mobile E commerce移动电子商务: The use of mobile diverse to enable online transactions. It involves the use of celluar and wireless network to connect smartphones and table computer to the internet 使用无线网络去连接智能手机和台式电脑,包括移动设备和移动服务。
  2. Social E commerce社交电子商务 : Enabled by social network and online social relationship.通过交流分享,建立社交关系网维系彼此的关系。通过通知、推送、签到、登录、打卡等方式提高彼此的粘性。相对起步较晚,处于萌芽阶段,通常与移动电商绑在一起。是协同购物工具,网上值得信任的人的推荐也同样值得信任。
  3. Local E commerce本土化电子商务: Focused on engaging the consumer base on his or her current geographic location.基于客户所处的地域来进行相应的营销技术和活动的服务。

第二章:电子商务的技术基础

商业模式business model与商业计划business plan的区别?

商业模式是商业计划的核心,商业模式和商业计划的区别在于是否考虑外部竞争环境。 A business model is a set of planted activities. A business plan is a document that describes the firm's business model.

电子商务模式:E commerce business model aims to use and leverage the unique quantities of the internet web and mobile platform.

电子商务模型的八大影响因素Eight key elements of a business model.

  1. Value position价值主张:商业模型的核心,即一个公司的产品与服务如何满足消费者。
  2. Revenue model收益模式:讲一个公司如何赚钱盈利和投资回报率(最重要) 广告收益模型、订阅收益模型、交易费用收益模型、销售收益模型、合作收益模型Advertising revenue model, subscription revenue model, Translation fee model, sales revenue model, Affiliaye revenue model.
  3. Market opportunity市场机遇:一切有利条件
  4. competent environment竞争环境:同一市场如何卖相似的可替代产品
  5. competent advantage竞争优势:高品质,低价格,物美价廉。
  6. Market strategy市场战略:比如是否要开一个新市场开发新客户
  7. Organizational development组织发展
  8. Management team管理团队

Revenue model 收益模式(五个):重中之重!需要判断属于哪一个收益模式,利用金字塔原理,先把观点放在最前面,然后写出具体的分析过程。

广告收益模型 Advertising revenue model、订阅收益模型 Subscription revenue model、交易费用收益模型 Translation fee model、销售收益模型 Sales revenue model、合作收益模型 Affiliate revenue model

广告收益模型 Advertising revenue model: A company that offers content service and products also provides a forum for advertisement and receive fees from advertisers.

广告1.0:直接植入广告,有片就放
广告2.0:冠名广告
广告3.0:小剧场广告、夹杂在公众号
广告4.0:信息流广告,精准推送,千人千面

订阅收益模型 Subscription revenue model: A company that offers content of services charge a subscription fee for assess to some of all of the offerings.订阅收益模型只针对内容和服务,不针对产品。公司给用户提供内容和服务,用户只需缴订阅费就能获取资料或数据。没有所有权,但拥有使用权。特征是:订阅以后按时长来计算,是一种增值服务。订阅时间越长越实惠,有4个固定fixed:订阅费固定,订阅时长固定,不可退回,提前支付。比如网易云、百度文库、爱奇艺的会员等等,又比如技术服务费。

增值策略premium strategy:the companies give away a certain level of product or service for free,but then charge a subscription fee for premium levels of the product of service.先免费再收费,免费和收费的部分可分为两个独立的部分,用来促使或执行一项交易获取收入。例子:街电前5分钟免费;化妆品送试用小样。

交易费用收益模型 Transaction fee model: A company receives a fee for enabling or executing a transaction.必须有交易才有交易费用的产生,没有交易就不用收费,主要收取形式是佣金,通常按点来收取(“提点”)。例子:在抖音卖货成功售出/在天猫上每下一单平台就可收取交易费用。

销售收益模型 Sales revenue model: Companies divide revenue by selling goods content of service to customers.通过销售产品服务信息来获取收入,销售一般从单件赚差价,偏向于实物产品且on demand。本质是通过赚取差价获得利润。

合作收益模型 Affiliate revenue model: Companies that steer business to an "affiliate", receive a referral fee or percentage of the revenue from any resulting sales.为合作企业带来收益的网站,会得到一定的介绍费或百分比的销售额。通常认证费入驻费是一次性上交的,为独家提供服务。

如何判断某个案例属于哪个收益模型?

  1. 看是否有收入?
  2. 产生提供服务的人是谁?
  3. 提供了什么样的产品和服务?
  4. 客户享受到了什么样的产品和服务?
  5. 回到课本结合案例分析。

Elevator pitch电梯演讲:a short two to three minute presentation and aimed at convincing investors to invest。用2~3分钟简短的演讲,去说服投资人投资。

有哪三种融资方式:

  1. Angle investor天使投资人:typically wealthy individuals or a group of individuals who invest their own money in an exchange for an equity share in the stock in the business.由个人或小组人领投,可以用钱换取同等份额的股份,但数量有限,通常代表第1轮的投资。
  2. Venture capital investors风投:typically become more interested in start-up company once it has began attracting a large audience and generating some revenue, even if it is not profitable.更加关注的是那些已经吸引了很多人并开始有营收,尽管还未盈利但非常有潜力的创业公司。通常会包装很好,然后高价卖出全身而退,使用的是退出策略exist strategy。
  3. Crowdfunding众筹:cloud funding involves using the internet to enable individuals to collectively contribute money to support a project.一般针对的是"SMES" small and medium Enterprise中小型企业

Business model商业模式:包含产品模式、用户模式、推广模式、收入模式。解释了商家能给客户提供什么样的产品(产品模式),商家能给用户创造什么样的价值(用户模式),在创造用户价值的过程中(推广模式),用什么方法获得商业价值(收入模式)。

Major B2C business model主要的B2C商业模式有哪些?重点!老师会给出一个案例,判断这个案例属于哪一个商业模式?这个商业模式的收益模式是什么?这个商业模式具体有哪些特点?

  1. E-tailer电子零售商
  2. Community provider社区提供者
  3. Content provider内容提供者
  4. Portal门户网站
  5. Translation broker交易中介
  6. Market creator市场创造者
  7. Service provider服务提供者

E-tailer电子零售商: Customers only have to connect to the internet or use their smartphone to place an order.自古以来就有,只是形式上从实体店搬到了线下小中大各种规模的电子零售商都有,消费者只需连接互联网即可。

特征:

  1. 每个手机使用者都是潜在客户,对那些时间紧迫的人来说尤为重要。 Every internet and smartphone users is a potential customer. Customers who are few time-starved are even better prospects because they want shopping solutions that will eliminate the time and energy to the mall or store.
  2. 技术障碍小,但竞争激烈,小型企业多,对于品牌与经营者来说难以生存与盈利。 The barriers to entry into the e-tailer market are low, but It is extremely competitive and difficult for the small Enterprise to become be profitable and survivie.
  3. 关键是要细分市场,找到目标市场和需求降低成本,做好库存管理,细分品类。 Develop a niche strategy clearly, identify their target market and its needs, keep expenses low, election broad and inventory controlled.

电子零售商的具体4种模式:

  1. 线上virtual merchant(线上online):on line malls网上商城,比如京东、淘宝、唯品会 Operate only in the virtual world without any ties to physical locations. Customers can shop at any hour of the day all night without leaving their home or office.
  2. 线上+线下 Bricks-and-clicks(online and offline)比如盒马生鲜,山姆会员友谊超市,华润万家。 Online distribution channel for company thay also has physical stores.
  3. 直邮目录catalog merchant (Direct mail categories):Full display detailed Information
  4. 厂家直销(manufacture-direct online sales):制造和销售一起,可以直接在官网下单 Manufacture use online China to sell direct to customer.

Community provider社区提供者:一个社交网络平台,给志趣相投的人相互交流、交换、分享、交易。Create an online environment where people within sililar interest can transat, share interest, photos, communicate which like-minded people; receive interest-related Information and even play out fantasies by adopting online personalities called avatars.例如某品牌发起的粉丝福利群,潮牌社区交流群,小区业主群,微信上特定的二手群,考研群,网易云音乐等等

特征:

  1. 作用:提供平台分享交易
  2. 基于多种盈利模式,广告是最主要的收益。A hybrid revenue model includes subscription fees, sales revenue, translation fees and advertising fee from other firms, they are attracted by a tightly focused audience. The advertising is the main source of revenue.
  3. 社区成员通常需要具备知识、指导和建议,缺乏经验的成员通常会严重的阻碍社区的发展。 Community members frequently request knowledge, guidance and advice. Lack of experience personal can severely hamper the growth of a community.
  4. 对于新社区来说,容易和灵活使用非常重要。 The most important ingredient of success appear to be easy and flexibility of use and strong customer value proposition.
  5. 线上社区受益于线下的口耳相传,反映了线上社区和线下社区的关系。 Online communities benefit significantly from offline word-of mouth, viral marketing. Online communities tend to reflect offline relationships.

Content provider内容提供者:content providers distribute Information content such as digital Video, music, photo, text and artwork.流视频、音乐、短视频、新闻、照片。

特征:

  1. 作用:传播信息
  2. 有多种盈利模式content providers can make money by a variety of different revenue models, including advertising, subscription fees, the sales of digital goods.
  3. 并非所有信息都免费,有些内容甚至大部分内容需要收费。一般需要登录,免费使用的内容极其有限。 Not all online content providers charge for their Information; Sometimes they may be required to register as a member;Free content may be limited to headlines and tax.
  4. 做好内容提供者,关键是要独家拥有高质量的内容,不照搬不抄袭,有版权。 The key to becoming a successful content provider is owning the content, has a unique Information source that other cannot access.
  5. 不拥有内容的内容提供商分为三种:整合汇集了大量的信息加以分析,提供了附加价值、集合syndication 、聚合aggregators。

集合和聚合的区别? What are the differences between syndication and aggregators?

  1. 集合 (syndication)It's a major variation of the standard content provide model没有直接播放,但提供了播放内容的来源和链接信息提供跳转,只是作为一个引路人,比如“电视猫”;
  2. 聚合(aggregators)聚合了大量别人的信息,并且没有跳转,比如“百家号”。

Portal门户网站: 给用户提供搜索工具和服务Offer users powerful search tools as well as an integrated package of content and services. Such as news Email, instant messaging, calendars, shopping, music download, video streaming and more all in one place.

特征:

  1. 收取广告费、介绍费(跳转费)和其他额外费用Revenue primary by charging advertisers for ad placement collecting the referral feea for steerng customers to other sites, and charging for premium services.
  2. 门户网站分为三个类型:水平门户、垂直门户、搜索引擎。
  3. 水平门户Horizontal protals/general portal:提供包罗万象的多种业务 Horizontal portals define their marketplace to include all use of the internet.
  4. 垂直门户vertical potal/specialized portal:只做某一类的业务,比如酒仙网专门卖酒,找钢网专门卖钢铁类的材料 focused around a particular subject matter or market segment.
  5. 搜索search:能找到答案的渠道

Transaction broker交易中介

  1. 盈利模式Revenue model:transaction fees.
  2. 常出现在地产、金融、旅行、求职等领域Such as financial service travel, services and job placement services.比如马蜂窝、携程网、地产中介、Boss直聘
  3. 首要好处是提供及时的信息,省钱省时primary value proposition for savings of money and time.
  4. 属于实时交易,资源失去则不可再照 Real time train session, provide tiny Information and opinions.
  5. 需要更专业的人士才能从事 more professional services.
  6. 提供资源交换信息不需要进行组织,但同时会担心信息被泄露,隐私被侵犯,需要强化安全和隐私保护。 Fears of privacy invasions and loss of control over personal financial Information. Should overcome consumer fears by emphasizing the security and privacy.
  7. 吸引新客户和鼓励频繁访问是盈利的关键attracting new customers and encouraging them To trade frequently are the keys to generating more revenue for those companies

Market creator市场创造者: Build a digital environment in which buyers and sellers can meet displays and search for products and services and establish prices.

特点:

  1. 盈利模式 Revenue model: transaction fees, charging merchants for assets to the market.
  2. 关键在于资源盈余:surplus空间盈余(比如物品多了、座位多了、房子暂时不需要住了);时间盈余(有空可以做兼职)
  3. 市场机遇潜力巨大,但需在公司有足够的资金来源和营销计划,以吸引足够多的business和customers。 The market opportunity for market creators is potentially vast, but only if the firm has the financial resources and marketing plan to attract sufficient sellers and buyers to the marketplace.

service provide服务提供者: Photo sharing, uses-generated content are all service provider to customers.例如谷歌地图、谷歌文档、 QQ邮箱,WPS。

特点:

  1. Revenue model收益模式:sales of service, subscription fees, advertising, sales of marketing data.
  2. 内容提供者为消费者提供有价值的,便捷的,低成本,节约时间的可替代性选择。 The base value proposition of service provider is that they offer consumers valuable, convenient time saving and low cost alternative to traditional service providers or provide services, they are truly unique.

第九章:网络零售与在线服务

The online retail sector网络零售

What's new in online retial 2016-2017?(选择判断)

  1. 网上零售也是社交电商 Social networks such as Facebook, Twitter., Instagram together with online retailers.
  2. 竞争更加激烈了,需要靠高复购率,提高运营效率来减少成本获得更高的利润。 Online retailers remain generally profitable by focusing on revenue growth, increasing the size of the average purchase amounts, and improving efficiency of operations.
  3. 更加on demand
  4. 互联网覆盖率和渗透率已经非常高,包含了很多中老年人 Buying online has become a normal mainstream, everyday experience almost 90% of internet users in the united states and now online shoppers.
  5. 网民已经拥有了很多的购物经验,因此买东西更加大胆,甚至会在网上买奢侈品。 Purchase online continue to increase to include luxury goods such as jewelry, wine, as customer trust and experience increase.
  6. 网民信任互联网且购物经验增加,敢于在网上买车和买手机电视等大物件商品。 Information shopping for big ticket items such as cars and applicants continues to expand rapidly to include nearly all retail goods.
  7. 商家越来越注重消费者的购物体验,根据大数据进行匹配。 Online retail place, an increased emphasis on providing and improved shopping experience. Big data and powerful analytic programs began to be used for marketing by both large and small retailers.
  8. 商家更注重全渠道销售 retailers are increasingly becoming omni-channel retailers, integrating the multiple retail channels provided by physical stores, the web and mobile platform.

The vision of E commerce retail愿景

  1. 减少搜集信息的成本,消费者更容易找到低价 reduce both such calls and transaction cost.Customers were used web to find The lowest cost products
  2. 减少进入的市场成本,降低运营成本,更加高效 Lower market entry costs and operating costs, make higher efficiency.

Omni-channels多渠道销售:通过多种渠道来营销产品加实体店,网站平台整合在一起零售 sell products through a variety of channels and integrate their physical stores with their websites and mobile platform.

  1. Pre-stage:virtual business or physical store要么做网店,要么做实体店。
  2. Initiation stage:有渠道冲突channel conflict,服务于同一品牌的线上线下店,在价格上有冲突和竞争,occurs when retailors of products of inventory directly against the manufacturers compete on price.比如直营店与加盟店有冲突,直播间与本品牌有冲突

Online retail revenues by category ,2015.(选择判断对应的排名)

  1. Apparel and Accessories
  2. Computers and Electronics
  3. Auto and Auto parts,
  4. Books/ Music/Video.

Wall sells well online什么东西在网上卖得更好?(观点而已,不是重点)

  1. 品牌知名度高,可信且熟悉high brand cognition
  2. 有可靠或知名供应商提供担保的产品,有过滤作用guarantee provided or well known vendors
  3. 数据数码形式digital format
  4. 价格相对便宜relatively inexpensive items
  5. 复购率高frequently purchased items
  6. 标准规格standard certifications
  7. 带包装的产品package items

The advantage and challenges of online retail网络零售的利与弊(给大家提供观点,拓展思路,不一定考)

利:

  1. 减少供应链成本Lower supply chain cost
  2. 减少渠道分发成本 Lower cost of distribution
  3. 可以扩大范围 Larger geographically
  4. 快速对消费者的需求作出反应react quickly to customers demand
  5. 实时改变商品价格及展示change price instantly
  6. 定制化和个性化 personalization and customization
  7. 为客户提供更好的信息improve Information and knowledge delivered to customer
  8. 降低消费者的市场交易成本lower consumers overall market transaction costs

弊:

  1. 要考虑交易的安全性concerned about the security of transaction
  2. 担心个人信息和隐私的privacy of personal Information given to the website
  3. 收购方面相比实体店有所延迟delays in delivery of goods when compared to store shopping
  4. 退货方面有所不便利inconvenience associated with return of demand or exchange goods
  5. 增加了网上各种形式展示的成本added expense for online photography video presentation
  6. 搜索发邮件和展示的营销成本增加marketing calls for search Email and display
  7. 容易导致价格战和低利润greater customer Information can translate into price competition and lower profits.

the methods of omni-channel integration.多渠道销售的方法(重中之重!写出你的观点+专业名词定义+具体解释+举例+具体分析)例子大家自己举吧。

  1. Online order, in-store pick up线上下单,门店自提
  2. in-store on line order, home delivery实体店订单,送货上门。 When retail store is out of stock, customer orders in store and receives at home.当零售商店缺货时,客户在店里订购,在家里接收。
  3. manufacturers use online promotions to deliver customers to their distributor's retail stores制造商利用在线促销将顾客送到他们分销商的零售商店。Consumer produce manufacturers such as colgate-palmolive and Procter and Gamble use online channels to design new products and promote existing product retail sales.高露洁棕榄(colgate-palmolive)和宝洁(Procter and Gamble)等消费品制造商利用在线渠道设计新产品,促进现有产品的零售销售。
  4. mobile order, website and physical store sales移动端下单,网站和实体店销售( Apps take users directly to specially formatted website for ordering, or to in-store bargains)应用程序可以将用户直接带到专门的网站进行订购,或者在商店里进行打折
  5. Geo-fencing mobile notification, in store sales使用地理技术去搜索附近商店的广告( Use of smartphones geo- Location technology to target advertisements for nearby stores and restaurants)使用智能手机定位技术定位附近商店和餐馆的广告

帮助大家区分理解:重点哈!

online order, instore pick:通过网站和手机移动端下单预订,客户直接店里去取货就行,店面可能很小,客户只能取货不能购买其他的商品,对店员的要求也很小,店员只需要递交商品给客户就行,不需要掌握相应的销售技巧。强调的是online和pick up

mobile order, web and physical store pick up是指手机移动端下单预订,同时线下店面会比较大,店员除了要递交商品,还需要掌握相应的销售技巧,向客户推销产品。强调的是mobile 和sales

manufacturers use online promotions to deliver customers to their distributor's retail stores比如客户在某一个商店购物以后,商家通过发放电子版的优惠券让客户领取,送到他的卡包里,以此来吸引客户下一次还来店内购物。或者采用满减优惠等,总之强调的是促销手段promotion鼓励你来店里消费的意思。

Geo-fencing mobile notification, in store sales这个就是说利用地理定位来精准给你推送适合你的、在你周边的门店和餐厅。

BOPIS对卖家的好处(补充一下论点方便大家写而已,赶时间可以不用看)

  1. 增加商店流量和销售额Increased store traffic and sales :当客户在您的商店停留取货时,他们可能会环顾四周并浏览更多产品。他们还可以记住他们想买的东西,并在店内花更多的钱。When customers stop by your store to pick up their order, they might look around and browse for more products. They could also remember something they wanted to buy and spend more money in-store.
  2. 降低运输成本Reduced shipping costs :当购物者从您的商店取货时,您可以节省最后一英里的运费。 When shoppers pick up orders from your store, you save on last-mile shipping costs.
  3. 改善库存管理Improved inventory management:更好地访问和控制更多种类的库存。它还使您能够更好地了解哪些产品是实时可用的。gives you more access and control over a larger assortment of inventory. It also gives you better insights into what products are available in real time.

BOPIS对买家的好处:(补充一下论点方便大家写而已,赶时间可以不用看)

  1. 商品不合适或不符合客户的期望,则立即处理退货或换货,而不必将订单运回。If the product doesn’t fit—or doesn't meet a customer’s expectations—returns or exchanges are processed immediately rather than having to ship the order back.

The share of online retail sales by type of company.网上零售的市场份额(选择题考市场份额,问哪个占比最大)

  1. Virtual machines
  2. mni-channel merchants
  3. manufacturer direct.
  4. catalog merchants

主要的服务业有哪些?Service industry groups:finance, insurance, real estate, travel, accounting, Consulting advertisement, marketing, health service, educational service.

第十章:网络内容服务与网络媒体

内容的定义:information or experience provided to audience or users by publishers发行商 or media producers制作公司。

内容产业类型:分为两大板块,第一是印刷业the print industry(newspapers, magazines and books),第二是娱乐entertainment(television and movies, music and radio and games)

内容也分为Information攻略资讯,news新闻,knowledge知识。

  1. 资讯Information:you learn a lot from that, something you should practice. Let you feel happy比如更有趣地教你怎么做更好地做菜,怎么搭配穿衣服,你听罗翔讲法律是因为觉得内容有趣,而不是为了考证。
  2. 知识Knowledge:you are supposed to learn and practice.更专业地给你带来收入和技能的提高,让你更有生产力和创造力,比如学习ps。

内容产业的趋势what's new in online content and media,2016-2017?(选择判断)

  1. 移动终端和智能电话的普及加速了数据化内容的产生 The growth of the mobile platform of smartphones and tablets accelerates the transaction to digital content.
  2. 渠道在内容产业上发挥了重要的作用。 Owners of distribution channel become significant players in the content production business.
  3. 花在数字媒体的时间超过了花在电视上的时间Time spent using digital media exceed time spend with television

UGC:用户原创内容user-generated content用户原创,公开展示

UGC的特点:重点!

  1. UGC is any form of content created by users of a systems of service and made available publicly on the system
  2. 有在平台上展示most often appears as supplement to online platform, such as social media, websites,blog post, Wikis, videos, comments of ecommerce
  3. 内容很广泛is used for a wide range of applications, including problem processing,news, entertainment,advertisement, gossip and research.
  4. 传播的速度很快,但未必真实官方
  5. 每个人都有机会进行创作,制作内容是他们主要的收入来源。

UGC用户生产内容: UGC是指终端用户在社交媒体和在线平台上制作并分享的任何数字内容,如文本、音频、图像和视频,以展示一些主要的应用程序和类型,如新闻、娱乐、音乐、八卦甚至研究。any digital content that is produced and shared by end users such as texts, audios, images and videos on social media and online platforms in order to show some major applications and genres such as news, entertainment, music, gossip and even research.

特征:

  1. UGC是一种免费创建和分享的内容。UGC is an content that is created and share for free.
  2. 绝大多数UGC都是由非专业人士创造的,并将其上传到Facebook、instagram等网站上。The vast majority of UGC is created by no-professionals, and upload it to Facebook, instagram etc.

作用roles:

  1. 吸引我们的注意力UGC can attract our attention.
  2. 被用来推动用户粘性,它有助于创建一个社区,因为人们会感到参与其中。UGC is being used to drive engagement, it helps to create a community, as people feel involvement.
  3. 有时候UGC被用作向外传递的信息,让你始终牢记产品的特色。Sometimes UGC is used as outbound messaging, working to keep the featured product at the top of your mind.
  4. 公司或品牌直接从社交媒体上的粉丝那里获取图像,因此不涉及任何成本。a company or brand sources images directly from fans on social media, there’s a little to no cost involved.
  5. 它为优秀的组织和公司提供了巨大的利润,甚至没有支付给粉丝(用户)任何费用。It has given such huge profits to fine organizations and firms without even paying or spending the fans (users) anything.
  6. 这些粉丝或用户在某种程度上是品牌大使,为品牌锦上添花。those fans or users somehow the brand ambassadors anything and are enjoying the icing on the cake.
  7. 浏览真实客户生产的内容具有很强的影响力,可以提高公司的信誉。Going through the content of real customers has a strong impact and increases a company’s credibility and brings a brand’s promise into perspective.
  8. 大多数客户创建的内容都是清晰和真实的,所以人们会更加更信任。Most of all customer-created content is clear and genuine so people just trust the UGC more.

缺点limitations:

  1. 每个人的思维方式、智力和创造力水平不同,内容质量良莠不齐。not everyone is of the same mindset and level of intelligence and creativity.
  2. 来源存在可信度的风险a risk of credibility of the source who submits it.
  3. 是一个耗时的过程t is indeed a time-consuming process to make people trust and believe in your product and make them involved in the process of promoting the same.
  4. 公司缺乏参与 Company does face lack of participation most of the time that puts them in danger of a soon to be flop business show.

PGC专业生产内容:Professionally Generated Content (PGC) is that content generated by the brand itself in order to let people know its brand and much more than they have to offer through images, videos, blog posts etc.专业生成内容(PGC)是由品牌自身生成的内容,目的是让人们了解其品牌,而不仅仅是通过图片、视频、博客帖子等方式。

特征:

  1. PGC是聘请有创意的专业人士来创建的内容。PGC is content that creative professionals are hired to create.
  2. 大部分的工作都是先在刊物或网站上发表的,有些也可能被分享到社交媒体网站上Most of this work is first published in print or on a website, and some component may also be shared to a social media site.
  3. 甚至可以说PGC是专门为社交媒体网站创建的PGC is created specially for social media websites.

作用roles:

  1. PGC可以告诉我们如何理解,该想什么,或者为什么我们应该关心。PGC can tell us how to understand, or what to think, or why we should care.
  2. 在一个充满无限事实的世界里,你的最高价值在于你将事实转化为有意义的知识的能力In the world of a unlimited fact, your highest value is found in your ability to translate facts into meaningful knowledge.

数字内容产业的三大盈利模式 Three revenue models for digital content delivery :subscriptions 订阅/会员and a la carte类似于销售,必须付费或额外给钱才可以享受产品服务和 and advertising support (Free and freemiem).

举例:爱奇艺

  1. 收会员费
  2. 出售版权给别人去播放
  3. 有线电视是它最大的购买户

整合integration和融合convergency的区别?整合是彼此不打架互不干扰,融合是分不清彼此。

媒体融合Media 的三大类型

  1. 技术融合technology convergence:必须依靠多样的设备的发展,将现存的两个或以上的媒体平台连接并融入到成一个设备Technological convergence has to do with the development of high ride diverse they can come by the functionality of two or more existing media platforms such as both newspapers, television, movies, video and games into a single diverse
  2. 内容融合content convergence:有三种形式,设计、生产和发行Content convergence: there are three set of contents, designed production and distribution.
  3. 产业融合industry structure. convergence:将媒体企业合并为强大的协同组合,可以跨市场内容或多个不同平台,创造使用多个平台的新作品。merger of media enterprises into powerful synergistic combinations that can cross-market content or many different platform and create new works that use multiple platforms.

其他

网络营销策略实施的步骤。(可能不准确,建议看下面的)
答:步骤一:了解顾客所需,确立网络的出发点;步骤二:抓住最终顾客;步骤三:从顾客角度设计业务流程;步骤四:公司网络化;步骤五:建立、促进顾客忠诚。

电子商务系统对信息安全的要求有哪些?
答:电子商务系统对信息安全的要求主要有:
1)信息的保密性
2)数据的完整性
3)用户的身份验证
4)授权
5)数据原发者鉴别
6)数据原发者的不可抵赖和不可否认性(电子商务中的参加者不能否定所发生的事件和行为,指在传输数据时必须携带含有自身特质、别人无法复制的信息,防止交易发生后对行为的否认)
7)合法用户的安全性
8)网络和数据的安全性

电子商务安全有6个基本的维度:完整性、不可否认性、真实性、机密性、隐私性、可用性。

image-20220621001227710

1.Describe the major themes underlying the study of e-commerce.

E-commerce involves three broad interrelated themes:

Technology'. To understand e-commerce, you need a basic understanding of the information technologies upon which it is built, including the Internet and the World Wide Web, and a host of complimentary technologies—personal computers, local area networks, client/server computing, packet-switched communications, protocols such as TCP/IP, Web servers, HTML, and relational databases, among others.

Business'. While technology provides the infrastructure, it is the business applications —— the potential for extraordinary returns on investment一that create the interest and excitement in e-commerce. New technologies present businesses and entrepreneurs with new ways of organizing production and transacting business. Therefore, you also need to understand some key business concepts such as electronic markets, information goods, business models, firm and industry value chains, industry structure, and consumer behavior in electronic markets

Society: Understanding the pressures that global e-commerce places on contemporary society is critical to being successful in the e-commerce marketplace. The primary societal issues are intellectual property, individual privacy, and public policy.

2.What is Internet marketing?

Internet marketing is the process of building and maintaining customer relationships through online activities to facilitate the exchange of ideas, products, and services that satisfy the goals of both parties.

网络营销是通过在线活动建立和维护客户关系的过程,以促进思想、产品和服务的交流,满足双方的目标。

3.What are the seven stages of Internet marketing?

The seven stages are (1) setting corporate and business-unit strategy, (2) framing the market opportunity, (3) formulating the marketing strategy, (4) designing the customer interface, (5) designing the marketing program, (6) crafting the customer interface, and (7) evaluating the results of the marketing program.

这七个阶段是(1)制定公司和业务单元战略,(2)构建市场机会,(3)制定营销战略,(4)设计客户界面,(5)设计营销方案,(6)制作客户界面,(7)评估营销方案的结果

Collaborative commerce 协同商务就是将具有共同商业利益的合作伙伴整合起来,它主要是通过对整个商业周期中的信息进行共享,实现和满足不断增长的客户的需求,同时也满足企业本身的活力的能力。通过对各个合作伙伴的竞争优势的整合,共同创造和获取最大的商业价值以及提供获利能力。

Product Availability 产品可得性指的是当客户需要产品时,企业具有可向客户提供足够产品的库存能力。库存可得性的思考关键是在尽量降低对库存和设施的总体投入的同时,有选择地对客户或核心客户保证高水平的产品可得性。产品可得性反映了企业存货的充裕程度,解决这样的现实问题,最普通的方法是按照预测的客户订货水平提前进行存货储备。建立在需求预测基础上的存货储备计划,还需要结合产品是否畅销、产品对于整个生产线的重要性、产品销售收益率以及商品本身价值等进行综合考虑。仓库的地点、数目和存货政策是产品可得性高低的基本决定因素。一般来说,物流系统中的仓储设施数目越大,平均库存水平越高,支持产品可得性的能力就越强。

Social e-commerce 社交化电子商务是基于人际关系网络,利用互联网社交工具,从事商品或服务销售的经营行为。具备三个核心特征:一、即具有导购的作用;二、是用户之间或用户与企业之间有互动与分享,即具有社交化元素;三、最为关键,具备“社交化传播多级返利”的机制,即“SNS”传播,即可获益。

Intellectual property rights 知识产权是指智力创造成果:发明,文学和艺术作品,外观设计,商业中使用的符号、名称和形象等。 知识产权在法律上受专利、版权和商标等的保护,这让人们能够从其发明或创造中获得承认或经济利益。

亚马逊公司的竞争优势是如何形成的?

亚马逊创始人贝佐斯在做电商的时候下发现,所有的电子商务买卖真正的使用价值不取决于商品,而取决于通过买卖造成的数据信息,及其积累的顾客。从总体上来看,亚马逊利用数据信息获得核心竞争力,关键有三个方面。

第一是推荐引擎。大家在网上购物时,常常会毫无头绪,由于商品过多,因此她们不清楚要买什么。因此亚马逊创造发明了强烈推荐模块。如今亚马逊40%之上的商品全是根据强烈推荐模块强烈推荐给客户去进行购买的。不但帮客户减少了决策时间,也提高了购买的转换率。

第二,亚马逊会每五分钟扫描所有的竞争对手的商品价格钱,随后根据对手的商品价格来调节本身的商品价钱,确保自己的商品是最便宜的。这样的体制,利润最大化地吸引了新用户。并且,亚马逊还有一个独特的作法,一样的商品,老客户见到的价格要比新用户高。。就算是那样,老客户也不会外流,原因是,尽管老客户见到的商品将会比新用户贵,但和别的网站对比,亚马逊还是最划算的。亚马逊根据这类作法,让新客户慢慢变成老顾客,随后渐渐地在老顾客上赚大量的钱。

第三,亚马逊会依据情况来调整货运物流和仓储物流的成本费。例如,同样的一个商品,品牌商将会在自己的电子商务网站上卖一个价格,在亚马逊上卖另一个价格。如果亚马逊发现同样一台电冰箱,在某一品牌商的网站上卖2000美元,在亚马逊上卖2100美元,此刻它便会适度调这一电冰箱的运输成本,用于制约竞争者的价格,由于全部品牌产品基本上都是用亚马逊的货运物流。

data integrity 信息完整性是指是否包括所有与信息使用者要做的事情相关的信息。 例如,在一个风险投资的计划书中,如果没有主要原材料的成本分析,则信息完整性就会大打折扣。 信息完整性是与接收信息者的目的密切相关的。

Marketing Automation 营销自动化指的是基于大数据的用于执行、管理和自动完成营销任务和流程的云端的一种软件。这种软件改变了人工操作重复性市场营销流程,取而代之的是为特定目的建立的用以面向性能应用软件

黑帽黑客是犯罪分子,恶意闯入计算机网络。他们也可能发布恶意软件,其销毁文件,劫持计算机,或者偷窃密码、信用卡号和其它个人信息。

白帽黑客有时也被称为"道德黑客"或"好黑客",是黑帽的对立面。他们利用计算机系统或网络来识别其安全缺陷,以便可以提出改进建议。

两者之间的主要区别是动机。黑帽黑客非法访问系统,具有恶意意图,并且通常是为了个人利益;与之不同,白帽黑客与公司合作,帮助识别其系统中的弱点并进行相应的更新。他们这样做是为了确保黑帽黑客无法非法访问系统的数据。

灰帽相信互联网对于业务来说并不安全,他们认为自己的使命就是让个人和组织的网络更加安全。他们通过入侵网站和网络并制造混乱,告知世界他们是正确的。灰帽经常说他们无意冒犯。有时,他们只是出于好奇去入侵知名度较高的系统,罔顾隐私法律和许多其他法律。

Cracker主要以破坏为主,并不一定自身具有高超的技术。热衷于Crack和Attack

Hacker必定热心于计算机技术,并且水平高超。乐于发现各种Bug并寻找解决方法。

There are five steps in the social marketing process:

  1.   Fan acquisition
    
  2.   Engagement
    
  3.   Amplification
    
  4.   Community
    
  5.   Brand strength AKA sales
    

Fan Acquisition:
Social marketing campaigns begin with fan acquisition, which involves using any of a variety of means, from display ads to News Feed and page pop-ups, to attract people to your Facebook page, Instagram feed, or other platform like a Web page. It’s like getting your brand “out there” in the stream of social messages. The goal is to receive their like or follow on your page.

社交营销活动始于粉丝获取,包括使用各种手段,从展示广告到动态新闻和弹出页面,将人们吸引到你的Facebook页面、Instagram Feed或其他类似网页的平台。这就像让你的品牌在社会信息流中“走出去”。目标是在你的页面上获得他们的赞或关注。

Engagement:
The next step is to generate engagement, which involves using a variety of tools to encourage users to interact with your content and brand located on your Facebook or Instagram pages. You can think of this as “starting the conversation” around your brand. You ideally want your fans to talk about your content and products. You can generate engagement through attractive photos, interesting text content, and blogger reports. You can also run contests to engage your users.

下一步是产生粘性,包括使用各种工具鼓励用户与你的Facebook或Instagram页面上的内容和品牌进行互动。你可以认为这是围绕你的品牌“开始对话”。你希望你的粉丝谈论你的内容和产品。你可以通过吸引人的照片、有趣的文本内容和博客报告来产生用户粘性。你也可以通过举办比赛来吸引用户。

Amplification:

Amplification involves using the inherent strength of social networks in order to garner more eyeballs on to your page. As a marketer, your job is to make sure that your posts are shared by other users, so that it organically reached the feeds of people who have not yet liked your page. This means that you will have to post content that your users can relate to and promote your brand at the same time. You could run a contest where sharing your page is a requirement as well, in order to promote your page.

放大是指利用社交网络的内在力量来为你的页面吸引更多的眼球。作为一个市场营销者,你的工作是确保你的帖子被其他用户分享,这样它就会自然地到达那些还没有喜欢你的页面的人的信息源。这意味着你必须发布用户感兴趣的内容,同时推广你的品牌。为了推广你的页面,你可以举办一场比赛,要求分享你的页面。

Community:
A community is a more or less stable group of fans who are engaged and communicating with one another over a substantial period of time. As a marketer, you have to use a number of tactics to nurture these communities, including inside information on new products, price breaks for loyalty, and free gifts for bringing in new members. The process ends with strengthening the brand and, hopefully, additional sales of products and services.

社区是一群稳定的粉丝,他们在相当长的一段时间内相互参与和交流。作为一名市场营销者,你必须使用一些策略去培养这些社区,包括关于新产品的内部信息,为吸引新成员而提供的价格优惠以及免费礼物。这个过程以加强品牌,并有希望增加产品和服务的销售而结束。

image-20220621001523278

电子商务的类型有很多,其划分方法也不尽相同。主要由五种类型:B2C(企业对消费者)、B2B(企业对企业)、C2C(消费者对消费者)、P2P(对等网络)、M-commerce(移动网络)。

什么是电商供应链?

官方的解释是:供应链是围绕核心企业,通过对信息流,物流,资金流的控制,从采购原材料开始,制成中间产品以及最终产品,最后由销售网络把产品送到消费者手中,将供应商,制造商,分销商,零售商,直到最终用户连成一个整体的功能网链结构。它不仅是一条连接供应商到用户的物流链、信息链、资金链,还是一条增值链,物料在供应链上因加工、包装、运输等过程而增加其价值,给相关企业带来收益。

我自己的理解是供应链将人、货联系起来,把货物从生产到销售给需要的人组成的链路。这其中包含信息流、物流和资金链的流转。

主要有如下四大问题

  • 需求不确定性

  • 物流基础设施匮乏

  • 资金流效率低下

  • 信息共享不充分

解决途径

  • 改进订单实施过程
  • 仓储和存货改进措施
  • 改变供应链结构和流程
  • 加速配送
  • 合作和物流外包
posted @ 2022-06-20 23:35  小能日记  阅读(53)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报