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腾讯课堂——基础数据类型(set集合)

认识集合

  由一个或多个确定的元素所构成的整体叫做集合。

  集合中的元素有三个特征:

    1.确定性(集合中的元素必须是确定的)

    2.互异性(集合中的元素互不相同。例如:集合A={1,a},则a不能等于1)

    3.无序性(集合中的元素没有先后之分),如集合{3,4,5}和{3,5,4}算作同一个集合。 

  *集合概念存在的目的是将不同的值存放到一起,不同的集合间用来做关系运算,无需纠结于集合中某个值

集合的定义

  s = {1,2,3,1}

#定义可变集合
>>> set_test=set('hello')
>>> set_test
{'l', 'o', 'e', 'h'}
#改为不可变集合frozenset
>>> f_set_test=frozenset(set_test)
>>> f_set_test
frozenset({'l', 'e', 'h', 'o'})

集合的常用操作及关系运算

  元素的增加

  单个元素的增加 : add(),add的作用类似列表中的append

  对序列的增加 : update(),而update类似extend方法,update方法可以支持同时传入多个参数:

>>> a={1,2}
>>> a.update([3,4],[1,2,7])
>>> a
{1, 2, 3, 4, 7}
>>> a.update("hello")
>>> a
{1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 'h', 'e', 'l', 'o'}
>>> a.add("hello")
>>> a
{1, 2, 3, 4, 'hello', 7, 'h', 'e', 'l', 'o'}  

  元素的删除

  集合删除单个元素有两种方法:

    元素不在原集合中时:

      set.discard(x)不会抛出异常

      set.remove(x)会抛出KeyError错误

>>> a={1,2,3,4}
>>> a.discard(1)
>>> a
{2, 3, 4}
>>> a.discard(1)
>>> a
{2, 3, 4}
>>> a.remove(1)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
KeyError: 1

  pop():由于集合是无序的,pop返回的结果不能确定,且当集合为空时调用pop会抛出KeyError错误,

  clear():清空集合

>>> a={3,"a",2.1,1}
>>> a.pop()
1
>>> a.pop()
3
>>> a.clear()
>>> a
set()
>>> a.pop()
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
KeyError: 'pop from an empty set'  

  集合操作

         

    |,|=:合集

a = {1,2,3}
b = {2,3,4,5}
print(a.union(b))
print(a|b)

    &.&=:交集

a = {1,2,3}
b = {2,3,4,5}
print(a.intersection(b))
print(a&b)

    -,-=:差集

a = {1,2,3}
b = {2,3,4,5}
print(a.difference(b))
print(a-b) 

    ^,^=:对称差集

a = {1,2,3}
b = {2,3,4,5}
print(a.symmetric_difference(b))
print(a^b)

 

  包含关系

    in,not in:判断某元素是否在集合内
    ==,!=:判断两个集合是否相等

    两个集合之间一般有三种关系,相交、包含、不相交。在Python中分别用下面的方法判断:

  • set.isdisjoint(s):判断两个集合是不是不相交
  • set.issuperset(s):判断集合是不是包含其他集合,等同于a>=b
  • set.issubset(s):判断集合是不是被其他集合包含,等同于a<=b


    
  

集合的工厂函数

class set(object):
    """
    set() -> new empty set object
    set(iterable) -> new set object
    
    Build an unordered collection of unique elements.
    """
    def add(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """
        Add an element to a set.
        
        This has no effect if the element is already present.
        """
        pass

    def clear(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Remove all elements from this set. """
        pass

    def copy(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return a shallow copy of a set. """
        pass

    def difference(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """
        相当于s1-s2
        
        Return the difference of two or more sets as a new set.
        
        (i.e. all elements that are in this set but not the others.)
        """
        pass

    def difference_update(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Remove all elements of another set from this set. """
        pass

    def discard(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """
        与remove功能相同,删除元素不存在时不会抛出异常
        
        Remove an element from a set if it is a member.
        
        If the element is not a member, do nothing.
        """
        pass

    def intersection(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """
        相当于s1&s2
        
        Return the intersection of two sets as a new set.
        
        (i.e. all elements that are in both sets.)
        """
        pass

    def intersection_update(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Update a set with the intersection of itself and another. """
        pass

    def isdisjoint(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return True if two sets have a null intersection. """
        pass

    def issubset(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ 
        相当于s1<=s2
        
        Report whether another set contains this set. """
        pass

    def issuperset(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """
        相当于s1>=s2
        
         Report whether this set contains another set. """
        pass

    def pop(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """
        Remove and return an arbitrary set element.
        Raises KeyError if the set is empty.
        """
        pass

    def remove(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """
        Remove an element from a set; it must be a member.
        
        If the element is not a member, raise a KeyError.
        """
        pass

    def symmetric_difference(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """
        相当于s1^s2
        
        Return the symmetric difference of two sets as a new set.
        
        (i.e. all elements that are in exactly one of the sets.)
        """
        pass

    def symmetric_difference_update(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Update a set with the symmetric difference of itself and another. """
        pass

    def union(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """
        相当于s1|s2
        
        Return the union of sets as a new set.
        
        (i.e. all elements that are in either set.)
        """
        pass

    def update(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Update a set with the union of itself and others. """
        pass

    def __and__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self&value. """
        pass

    def __contains__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ x.__contains__(y) <==> y in x. """
        pass

    def __eq__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self==value. """
        pass

    def __getattribute__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return getattr(self, name). """
        pass

    def __ge__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self>=value. """
        pass

    def __gt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self>value. """
        pass

    def __iand__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self&=value. """
        pass

    def __init__(self, seq=()): # known special case of set.__init__
        """
        set() -> new empty set object
        set(iterable) -> new set object
        
        Build an unordered collection of unique elements.
        # (copied from class doc)
        """
        pass

    def __ior__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self|=value. """
        pass

    def __isub__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self-=value. """
        pass

    def __iter__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Implement iter(self). """
        pass

    def __ixor__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self^=value. """
        pass

    def __len__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return len(self). """
        pass

    def __le__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self<=value. """
        pass

    def __lt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self<value. """
        pass

    @staticmethod # known case of __new__
    def __new__(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Create and return a new object.  See help(type) for accurate signature. """
        pass

    def __ne__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self!=value. """
        pass

    def __or__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self|value. """
        pass

    def __rand__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return value&self. """
        pass

    def __reduce__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return state information for pickling. """
        pass

    def __repr__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return repr(self). """
        pass

    def __ror__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return value|self. """
        pass

    def __rsub__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return value-self. """
        pass

    def __rxor__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return value^self. """
        pass

    def __sizeof__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__
        """ S.__sizeof__() -> size of S in memory, in bytes """
        pass

    def __sub__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self-value. """
        pass

    def __xor__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown
        """ Return self^value. """
        pass

    __hash__ = None
set

 

课程回顾:

    腾讯课堂第一课——流程控制 :http://www.cnblogs.com/Eva-J/articles/6856240.html

    腾讯课堂第二课——循     环 :http://www.cnblogs.com/Eva-J/articles/6889180.html

    腾讯课堂第三课——数字和字符串  : http://www.cnblogs.com/Eva-J/articles/6898648.html

    腾讯课堂第四课——列    表  : http://www.cnblogs.com/Eva-J/articles/6923824.html

    腾讯课堂第四课——字    典  :http://www.cnblogs.com/Eva-J/articles/6940054.html

    腾讯课堂第五课——元    祖  :http://www.cnblogs.com/Eva-J/articles/6957073.html

更多相关内容,详见:

     Python全栈开发入门经典:https://ke.qq.com/course/157698#tuin=839b573b 

     Python全栈开发进阶实战:https://ke.qq.com/course/158006#tuin=839b573b

  

 

posted @ 2017-06-12 16:25  Eva_J  阅读(939)  评论(0编辑  收藏