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oracle data guard备库备份恢复

Posted on 2017-10-18 17:51  会飞的板儿  阅读(1930)  评论(0编辑  收藏

  客户有套data guard环境,主库在阿里云上,备库在本地机房,现在想定期做备份,但是因为一些原因,备份阿里云上的主库实现会有些问题,所以只能备份本地的备库。目前需求就是测试备库的备份文件是否可以进行恢复,当误删除等操作之后,能否通过备份找回数据。以下为具体的测试:

1. 在data guard的备库进行完整+归档的备份

RMAN> run {
2> allocate channel t1 type disk;
3> allocate channel t2 type disk;
4> allocate channel t3 type disk;
5> allocate channel t4 type disk;
6> backup as compressed backupset INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 FORMAT '/u01/app/oracle/racdb_data_%T_%s' database;
7> backup format '/u01/app/oracle/racdb_arch_%T_%s' skip inaccessible archivelog ALL not backed up;
8> backup format '/u01/app/oracle/racdb_cont_%T_%s' current controlfile;
9> release channel t1;
10> release channel t2;
11> release channel t3;
12> release channel t4;
13> }

2. 将文件拷贝到测试库上

[oracle@dg1 oracle]$ scp racdb_* 192.168.100.100:/u01/app/oracle/
oracle@192.168.100.100's password: 
racdb_arch_20171018_24                                                                                    100% 3646KB   3.6MB/s   00:00    
racdb_arch_20171018_25                                                                                    100%   30MB  30.1MB/s   00:01    
racdb_arch_20171018_26                                                                                    100% 2995KB   2.9MB/s   00:00    
racdb_arch_20171018_27                                                                                    100%   59MB  59.2MB/s   00:01    
racdb_arch_20171018_28                                                                                    100%   21MB  20.9MB/s   00:00    
racdb_cont_20171018_29                                                                                    100% 9856KB   9.6MB/s   00:00    
racdb_data_20171018_19                                                                                    100%  194MB  48.6MB/s   00:04    
racdb_data_20171018_20                                                                                    100%   77MB  77.0MB/s   00:01    
racdb_data_20171018_21                                                                                    100%   30MB  30.2MB/s   00:01    
racdb_data_20171018_22                                                                                    100% 1104KB   1.1MB/s   00:00    
racdb_data_20171018_23                                                                                    100%   96KB  96.0KB/s   00:00    

3. 在主库上生成pfile文件,并拷贝到测试库上

SQL> create pfile='/home/oracle/pfileabbott' from spfile;

File created.

[oracle@dg1 ~]$ scp pfileabbott 192.168.100.100:/home/oracle
oracle@192.168.100.100's password: 
pfileabbott                                                                                               100% 1375     1.3KB/s   00:00  

4. 在测试库上修改参数文件

[oracle@Abbott ~]$ mv pfileabbott $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initabbott.ora
[oracle@Abbott ~]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
[oracle@Abbott dbs]$ export ORACLE_SID=abbott
[oracle@Abbott dbs]$ vi initabbott.ora 
*.audit_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/admin/abbott/adump'
*.audit_trail='db'
*.compatible='11.2.0.4.0'
*.control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/abbott/control01.ctl','/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/abbott/control02.ctl'
*.db_block_size=8192
*.db_domain=''
*.db_name='abbott'
*.db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area'
*.db_recovery_file_dest_size=4385144832
*.diagnostic_dest='/u01/app/oracle'
*.dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=abbottXDB)'
*.log_archive_dest_1='LOCATION=/u01/app/oracle/archivelog'
*.log_archive_format='%t_%s_%r.arc'
*.log_archive_max_processes=30
*.open_cursors=300
*.pga_aggregate_target=655360000
*.processes=150
*.remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'
*.sga_target=1967128576
*.standby_file_management='AUTO'
*.undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'

5. 测试库开启到nomount

[oracle@Abbott dbs]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Tue Oct 17 08:24:18 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup nomount;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1970864128 bytes
Fixed Size                  2254544 bytes
Variable Size             520096048 bytes
Database Buffers         1442840576 bytes
Redo Buffers                5672960 bytes
SQL> 

6. 恢复控制文件

[oracle@Abbott ~]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Tue Oct 17 09:29:20 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: ABBOTT (not mounted)

RMAN> restore controlfile from '/u01/app/oracle/racdb_cont_20171018_29';

Starting restore at 17-OCT-17
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=134 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring control file
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/abbott/control01.ctl
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/abbott/control02.ctl
Finished restore at 17-OCT-17

RMAN> alter database mount;

database mounted
released channel: ORA_DISK_1

7. 恢复数据文件

RMAN> restore database;

Starting restore at 17-OCT-17
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=150 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00003 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/abbott/undotbs01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00005 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/abbott/example01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/app/oracle/racdb_data_20171018_21
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/racdb_data_20171018_21 tag=TAG20171018T153509
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00002 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/abbott/sysaux01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00004 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/abbott/users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/app/oracle/racdb_data_20171018_20
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/racdb_data_20171018_20 tag=TAG20171018T153509
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:25
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00001 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/abbott/system01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/app/oracle/racdb_data_20171018_19
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/racdb_data_20171018_19 tag=TAG20171018T153509
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:45
Finished restore at 17-OCT-17

8. 恢复数据库

RMAN> recover database;

Starting recover at 17-OCT-17
using channel ORA_DISK_1

starting media recovery

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log restore to default destination
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring archived log
archived log thread=1 sequence=196
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/app/oracle/racdb_arch_20171018_28
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/racdb_arch_20171018_28 tag=TAG20171018T153550
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
archived log file name=/u01/app/oracle/archivelog1_196_953375126.arc thread=1 sequence=196
unable to find archived log
archived log thread=1 sequence=197
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of recover command at 10/17/2017 09:33:30
RMAN-06054: media recovery requesting unknown archived log for thread 1 with sequence 197 and starting SCN of 1907246

9. 将数据库open

RMAN> alter database open;

database opened

RMAN> quit

Recovery Manager complete.

10. 连接数据库后,无法创建表等,因为控制文件是standby controlfile,所以打开的模式为READ ONLY

[oracle@Abbott ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Tue Oct 17 09:41:46 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> create table t1(a int);
create table t1(a int)
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00604: error occurred at recursive SQL level 1
ORA-16000: database open for read-only access


SQL> select open_mode , database_role, flashback_on from v$database; 

OPEN_MODE            DATABASE_ROLE    FLASHBACK_ON
-------------------- ---------------- ------------------
READ ONLY            PHYSICAL STANDBY NO

11. 尝试启用备库,因缺少standby log报错

SQL> alter database activate standby database; 
alter database activate standby database
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00314: log 4 of thread 1, expected sequence# 197 doesn't match 0
ORA-00312: online log 4 thread 1: '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/abbott/std_log4.log'


SQL> select * from v$standby_log;
select * from v$standby_log
              *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00339: archived log does not contain any redo
ORA-00334: archived log: '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/abbott/std_log4.log'

12. 因此对缺少的log进行clear及drop(当然,这里也可以把standby redo拷贝过来,并进行open)

SQL> alter database drop logfile group 4;
alter database drop logfile group 4
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00314: log 4 of thread 1, expected sequence# 197 doesn't match 0
ORA-00312: online log 4 thread 1: '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/abbott/std_log4.log'


SQL>  ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE GROUP 4;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database drop logfile group 4;

Database altered.

13. 再次arctive备库,启动正常,并且open之后可读写

SQL> alter database activate standby database;   

Database altered.

SQL> select open_mode , database_role, flashback_on from v$database;

OPEN_MODE            DATABASE_ROLE    FLASHBACK_ON
-------------------- ---------------- ------------------
MOUNTED              PRIMARY          NO

SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL> select open_mode , database_role, flashback_on from v$database; 

OPEN_MODE            DATABASE_ROLE    FLASHBACK_ON
-------------------- ---------------- ------------------
READ WRITE           PRIMARY          NO

SQL> create table t1(a int);

Table created.

SQL> 
SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /u01/app/oracle/archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     1
Next log sequence to archive   1
Current log sequence           1
SQL>