oracle常用經典SQL查詢

 

1、查看表空間的名稱及大小

 

select t.tablespace_name, round(sum(bytes/(1024*1024)),0) ts_size

from dba_tablespaces t, dba_data_files d

where t.tablespace_name = d.tablespace_name

group by t.tablespace_name;

 

2、查看表空間物理檔的名稱及大小

 

select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,

round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space

from dba_data_files

order by tablespace_name;

 

3、查看回滾段名稱及大小

 

select segment_name, tablespace_name, r.status, 

(initial_extent/1024) InitialExtent,(next_extent/1024) NextExtent, 

max_extents, v.curext CurExtent

From dba_rollback_segs r, v$rollstat v

Where r.segment_id = v.usn(+)

order by segment_name;

 

4、查看控制文件

 

select name from v$controlfile;

 

5、查看日誌檔

 

select member from v$logfile;

 

6、查看表空間的使用情況

 

select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as free_space,tablespace_name 

from dba_free_space

group by tablespace_name;

 

SELECT A.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTES TOTAL,B.BYTES USED, C.BYTES FREE,

(B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% USED",(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% FREE"

FROM SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL A,SYS.SM$TS_USED B,SYS.SM$TS_FREE C

WHERE A.TABLESPACE_NAME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE_NAME; 

 

7、查看資料庫庫物件

 

select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count# from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status;

 

8、查看資料庫的版本 

 

Select version FROM Product_component_version 

Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)='Oracle';

 

9、查看資料庫的創建日期和歸檔方式

 

Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database; 

 

10、捕捉運行很久的SQL

 

column username format a12 

column opname format a16 

column progress format a8 

 

select username,sid,opname, 

      round(sofar*100 / totalwork,0) || '%' as progress, 

      time_remaining,sql_text 

from v$session_longops , v$sql 

where time_remaining <> 0 

and sql_address = address 

and sql_hash_value = hash_value 

/

11。查看資料表的參數資訊

SELECT   partition_name, high_value, high_value_length, tablespace_name,

        pct_free, pct_used, ini_trans, max_trans, initial_extent,

        next_extent, min_extent, max_extent, pct_increase, FREELISTS,

        freelist_groups, LOGGING, BUFFER_POOL, num_rows, blocks,

        empty_blocks, avg_space, chain_cnt, avg_row_len, sample_size,

        last_analyzed

   FROM dba_tab_partitions

  --WHERE table_name = :tname AND table_owner = :towner

ORDER BY partition_position

 

12.查看還沒提交的事務

select * from v$locked_object;

select * from v$transaction;

 

13。查找object為哪些進程所用

select 

p.spid,

s.sid,

s.serial# serial_num,

s.username user_name,

a.type  object_type,

s.osuser os_user_name,

a.owner,

a.object object_name,

decode(sign(48 - command),

1,

to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action,

p.program oracle_process,

s.terminal terminal,

s.program program,

s.status session_status   

from v$session s, v$access a, v$process p   

where s.paddr = p.addr and

     s.type = 'USER' and    

     a.sid = s.sid   and

  a.object='SUBSCRIBER_ATTR'

order by s.username, s.osuser

 

14。回滾段查看

select rownum, sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name Name, v$rollstat.extents 

Extents, v$rollstat.rssize Size_in_Bytes, v$rollstat.xacts XActs, 

v$rollstat.gets Gets, v$rollstat.waits Waits, v$rollstat.writes Writes, 

sys.dba_rollback_segs.status status from v$rollstat, sys.dba_rollback_segs, 

v$rollname where v$rollname.name(+) = sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name and 

v$rollstat.usn (+) = v$rollname.usn order by rownum

 

15。耗資源的進程(top session

select s.schemaname schema_name,    decode(sign(48 - command), 1, 

to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action,    status 

session_status,   s.osuser os_user_name,   s.sid,         p.spid ,         s.serial# serial_num,   

nvl(s.username, '[Oracle process]') user_name,   s.terminal terminal,    

s.program program,   st.value criteria_value  from v$sesstat st,   v$session s  , v$process p   

where st.sid = s.sid and   st.statistic# = to_number('38') and   ('ALL' = 'ALL' 

or s.status = 'ALL') and p.addr = s.paddr order by st.value desc,  p.spid asc, s.username asc, s.osuser asc

 

16。查看鎖(lock)情況

select /*+ RULE */ ls.osuser os_user_name,   ls.username user_name,   

decode(ls.type, 'RW', 'Row wait enqueue lock', 'TM', 'DML enqueue lock', 'TX', 

'Transaction enqueue lock', 'UL', 'User supplied lock') lock_type,   

o.object_name object,   decode(ls.lmode, 1, null, 2, 'Row Share', 3, 

'Row Exclusive', 4, 'Share', 5, 'Share Row Exclusive', 6, 'Exclusive', null) 

lock_mode,    o.owner,   ls.sid,   ls.serial# serial_num,   ls.id1,   ls.id2    

from sys.dba_objects o, (   select s.osuser,    s.username,    l.type,     

l.lmode,    s.sid,    s.serial#,    l.id1,    l.id2   from v$session s,     

v$lock l   where s.sid = l.sid ) ls  where o.object_id = ls.id1 and    o.owner 

<> 'SYS'   order by o.owner, o.object_name

 

17。查看等待(wait)情況

SELECT v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count count, SUM(v$sysstat.value) sum_value 

FROM v$waitstat, v$sysstat WHERE v$sysstat.name IN ('db block gets', 

'consistent gets') group by v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count

 

18。查看sga情況

SELECT NAME, BYTES FROM SYS.V_$SGASTAT ORDER BY NAME ASC

 

19。查看catched object

SELECT owner,              name,              db_link,              namespace,  

           type,              sharable_mem,              loads,              executions,   

          locks,              pins,              kept        FROM v$db_object_cache

         

20。查看V$SQLAREA

SELECT SQL_TEXT, SHARABLE_MEM, PERSISTENT_MEM, RUNTIME_MEM, SORTS, 

VERSION_COUNT, LOADED_VERSIONS, OPEN_VERSIONS, USERS_OPENING, EXECUTIONS, 

USERS_EXECUTING, LOADS, FIRST_LOAD_TIME, INVALIDATIONS, PARSE_CALLS, DISK_READS,

BUFFER_GETS, ROWS_PROCESSED FROM V$SQLAREA

 

21。查看object分類數量

select decode (o.type#,1,'INDEX' , 2,'TABLE' , 3 , 'CLUSTER' , 4, 'VIEW' , 5 , 

'SYNONYM' , 6 , 'SEQUENCE' , 'OTHER' ) object_type , count(*) quantity from 

sys.obj$ o where o.type# > 1 group by decode (o.type#,1,'INDEX' , 2,'TABLE' , 3 

, 'CLUSTER' , 4, 'VIEW' , 5 , 'SYNONYM' , 6 , 'SEQUENCE' , 'OTHER' ) union select 

'COLUMN' , count(*) from sys.col$ union select 'DB LINK' , count(*) from 

 

22。按用戶查看object種類

select u.name schema,   sum(decode(o.type#, 1, 1, NULL)) indexes,   

sum(decode(o.type#, 2, 1, NULL)) tables,   sum(decode(o.type#, 3, 1, NULL)) 

clusters,   sum(decode(o.type#, 4, 1, NULL)) views,   sum(decode(o.type#, 5, 1, 

NULL)) synonyms,   sum(decode(o.type#, 6, 1, NULL)) sequences,   

sum(decode(o.type#, 1, NULL, 2, NULL, 3, NULL, 4, NULL, 5, NULL, 6, NULL, 1)) 

others   from sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u   where o.type# >= 1 and    u.user# = 

o.owner# and   u.name <> 'PUBLIC'   group by u.name    order by 

sys.link$ union select 'CONSTRAINT' , count(*) from sys.con$

 

23。有關connection的相關資訊

1)查看有哪些用戶連接

select s.osuser os_user_name,    decode(sign(48 - command), 1, to_char(command),

'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action,     p.program oracle_process,     

status session_status,    s.terminal terminal,    s.program program,    

s.username user_name,    s.fixed_table_sequence activity_meter,    '' query,    

0 memory,    0 max_memory,     0 cpu_usage,    s.sid,   s.serial# serial_num    

from v$session s,    v$process p   where s.paddr=p.addr and    s.type = 'USER'  

order by s.username, s.osuser

2)根據v.sid查看對應連接的資源佔用等情況

select n.name, 

 v.value, 

 n.class,

 n.statistic#  

from  v$statname n, 

 v$sesstat v 

where v.sid = 71 and 

 v.statistic# = n.statistic# 

order by n.class, n.statistic#

3)根據sid查看對應連接正在運行的sql

select /*+ PUSH_SUBQ */

 command_type, 

 sql_text, 

 sharable_mem, 

 persistent_mem, 

 runtime_mem, 

 sorts, 

 version_count, 

 loaded_versions, 

 open_versions, 

 users_opening, 

 executions, 

 users_executing, 

 loads, 

 first_load_time, 

 invalidations, 

 parse_calls, 

 disk_reads, 

 buffer_gets, 

 rows_processed,

 sysdate start_time,

 sysdate finish_time,

 '>' || address sql_address,

 'N' status 

from v$sqlarea

where address = (select sql_address from v$session where sid = 71)

 

24.查詢表空間使用情況

select a.tablespace_name "表空間名稱",

100-round((nvl(b.bytes_free,0)/a.bytes_alloc)*100,2) "佔用率(%)",

round(a.bytes_alloc/1024/1024,2) "容量(M)",

round(nvl(b.bytes_free,0)/1024/1024,2) "空閒(M)",

round((a.bytes_alloc-nvl(b.bytes_free,0))/1024/1024,2) "使用(M)",

Largest "最大擴展段(M)",

to_char(sysdate,'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss') "採樣時間" 

from  (select f.tablespace_name,

   sum(f.bytes) bytes_alloc,

   sum(decode(f.autoextensible,'YES',f.maxbytes,'NO',f.bytes)) maxbytes 

from dba_data_files f 

group by tablespace_name) a,

(select  f.tablespace_name,

    sum(f.bytes) bytes_free 

from dba_free_space f 

group by tablespace_name) b,

(select round(max(ff.length)*16/1024,2) Largest,

   ts.name tablespace_name 

from sys.fet$ ff, sys.file$ tf,sys.ts$ ts 

where ts.ts#=ff.ts# and ff.file#=tf.relfile# and ts.ts#=tf.ts# 

group by ts.name, tf.blocks) c 

where a.tablespace_name = b.tablespace_name and a.tablespace_name = c.tablespace_name

 

25.查詢表空間的碎片程度

 

select tablespace_name,count(tablespace_name) from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name 

having count(tablespace_name)>10; 

 

alter tablespace name coalesce; 

alter table name deallocate unused; 

 

create or replace view ts_blocks_v as 

select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,'free space' segment_name from dba_free_space 

union all 

select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,segment_name from dba_extents; 

 

select * from ts_blocks_v; 

 

select tablespace_name,sum(bytes),max(bytes),count(block_id) from dba_free_space 

group by tablespace_name;

 

26。查詢有哪些資料庫實例在運行

select inst_name from v$active_instances;

 

===========================================================

#########創建資料庫----look $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/buildall.sql ############# 

 

create database db01 

maxlogfiles 10 

maxdatafiles 1024 

maxinstances 2 

logfile 

GROUP 1 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_01_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M, 

GROUP 2 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_02_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M, 

GROUP 3 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_03_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M, 

datafile 'u01/oradata/db01/system_01_db01.dbf') SIZE 100M, 

undo tablespace UNDO 

datafile '/u01/oradata/db01/undo_01_db01.dbf' SIZE 40M 

default temporary tablespace TEMP 

tempfile '/u01/oradata/db01/temp_01_db01.dbf' SIZE 20M 

extent management local uniform size 128k 

character set AL32UTE8 

national character set AL16UTF16 

set time_zone='America/New_York'; 

 

###############資料字典 ########## 

 

set wrap off 

 

select * from v$dba_users; 

 

grant select on table_name to user/rule; 

 

select * from user_tables; 

 

select * from all_tables; 

 

select * from dba_tables; 

 

revoke dba from user_name; 

 

shutdown immediate 

 

startup nomount 

 

select * from v$instance; 

 

select * from v$sga; 

 

select * from v$tablespace; 

 

alter session set nls_language=american; 

 

alter database mount; 

 

select * from v$database; 

 

alter database open; 

 

desc dictionary 

 

select * from dict; 

 

desc v$fixed_table; 

 

select * from v$fixed_table; 

 

set oracle_sid=foxconn 

 

select * from dba_objects; 

 

set serveroutput on 

 

execute dbms_output.put_line('sfasd'); 

 

#############控制文件 ########### 

 

select * from v$database; 

 

select * from v$tablespace; 

 

select * from v$logfile; 

 

select * from v$log; 

 

select * from v$backup; 

 

/*備份用戶表空間*/ 

alter tablespace users begin backup; 

 

select * from v$archived_log; 

 

select * from v$controlfile; 

 

alter system set control_files='$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl', 

'$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl' scope=spfile; 

 

cp $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl 

 

startup pfile='../initSID.ora' 

 

select * from v$parameter where name like 'control%' ; 

 

show parameter control; 

 

select * from v$controlfile_record_section; 

 

select * from v$tempfile; 

 

/*備份控制檔*/ 

alter database backup controlfile to '../filepath/control.bak'; 

 

/*備份控制檔,並將二進位控制檔變為了asc的文字檔案*/ 

alter database backup controlfile to trace; 

 

############### redo log ############## 

 

archive log list; 

 

alter system archive log start;--啟動自動封存

 

alter system switch logfile;--強行進行一次日誌switch 

 

alter system checkpoint;--強制進行一次checkpoint 

 

alter tablspace users begin backup; 

 

alter tablespace offline; 

 

/*checkpoint同步頻率參數FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET,同步頻率越高,系統恢復所需時間越短*/ 

show parameter fast; 

 

show parameter log_checkpoint; 

 

/*加入一個日誌組*/ 

alter database add logfile group 3 ('/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' size 10M); 

 

/*加入日誌組的一個成員*/ 

alter database add logfile member '/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' to group 3; 

 

/*刪除日誌組:當前日誌組不能刪;活動的日誌組不能刪;非歸檔的日誌組不能刪*/ 

alter database drop logfile group 3; 

 

/*刪除日誌組中的某個成員,但每個組的最後一個成員不能被刪除*/ 

alter databse drop logfile member '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo'; 

 

/*清除線上日誌*/ 

alter database clear logfile '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo'; 

 

alter database clear logfile group 3; 

 

/*清除非歸檔日誌*/ 

alter database clear unarchived logfile group 3; 

 

/*重命名日誌檔*/ 

alter database rename file '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' to '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6a.rdo'; 

 

show parameter db_create; 

 

alter system set db_create_online_log_dest_1='path_name'; 

 

select * from v$log; 

 

select * from v$logfile; 

 

/*資料庫歸檔模式到非歸檔模式的互換,要啟動到mount狀態下才能改變;startup mount;然後再打開資料庫.*/ 

alter database noarchivelog/archivelog; 

 

achive log start;---啟動自動歸檔

 

alter system archive all;--手工歸檔所有日誌檔

 

select * from v$archived_log; 

 

show parameter log_archive; 

 

/*使用字元函數(右邊截取,欄位中包含某個字元,左邊填充某字元到固定位元數,右邊填充某字元到固定位元數)*/ 

select substr(col1,-3,5),instr(col2,'g'),LPAD(col3,10,'$'),RPAD(col4,10,'%') from table_name; 

 

/*使用數位函數(往右/左幾位四捨五入,取整,取餘)*/ 

select round(col1,-2),trunc(col2),mod(col3) from table_name ; 

 

/*使用日期函數(計算兩個日期間相差幾個星期,兩個日期間相隔幾個月,在某個月份上加幾個月,某個日期的下一個日期, 

某日期所在月的最後的日期,對某個日期的月分四捨五入,對某個日期的月份進行取整)*/ 

select (sysdate-col1)/7 week,months_between(sysdate,col1),add_months(col1,2),next_day(sysdate,'FRIDAY'),last_day(sysdate), 

round(sysdate,'MONTH'),trunc(sysdate,'MONTH') from table_name; 

 

/*使用NULL函數(expr1為空取expr2/expr1為空取expr2,否則取expr3/expr1=expr2返回空)*/ 

select nvl(expr1,expr2),nvl2(expr1,expr2,expr3),nullif(expr1,expr2) from table_name; 

 

select column1,column2,column3, case column2 when '50' then column2*1.1 

when '30' then column2*2.1 

when '10' then column3/20 

else column3 

end as ttt 

from table_name ; ------使用case函數

 

select table1.col1,table2.col2 from table1 

[CROSS JOIN table2] | -----笛卡兒連接

[NATURAL JOIN table2] | -----用兩個表中的同名列連接

[JOIN table2 USING (column_name)] | -----用兩個表中的同名列中的某一列或幾列連接

[JOIN table2 

ON (table1.col1=table2.col2)] | 

[LEFT|RIGHT|FULL OUTER JOIN table2 ------相當於(+)=,=(+)連接,全外連接

ON (table1.col1=table2.col2)]; ------SQL 1999中的JOIN語法; 

 

example: 

select col1,col2 from table1 t1 

join table2 t2 

on t1.col1=t2.col2 and t1.col3=t2.col1 

join table3 t3 

on t2.col1=t3.col3; 

 

select * from table_name where col1 < any (select col2 from table_name2 where continue group by col3); 

 

select * from table_name where col1 < all (select col2 from table_name2 where continue group by col3); 

 

insert into (select col1,col2,col3 form table_name where col1> 50 with check option) values (value1,value2,value3); 

 

MERGE INTO table_name table1 

USING table_name2 table2 

ON (table1.col1=table2.col2) 

WHEN MATCHED THEN 

UPDATE SET 

table1.col1=table2.col2, 

table1.col2=table2.col3, 

... 

WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN 

INSERT VALUES(table2.col1,table2.col2,table2.col3,...); -----合併語句

 

##################### CREATE/ALTER TABLE ####################### 

 

alter table table_name drop column column_name ;---drop column 

 

alter table table_name set unused (col1,col2,...);----設置列無效,這個比較快。

alter table table_name drop unused columns;---刪除被設為無效的列

 

rename table_name1 to table_name2; ---重命名表

 

comment on table table_name is 'comment message';----給表放入注釋信息

 

create table table_name 

(col1 int not null,col2 varchar2(20),col3 varchar2(20), 

constraint uk_test2_1 unique(col2,col3))); -----定義表中的約束條件

 

alter table table_name add constraint pk_test2 primary key(col1,col2,...); ----創建主鍵

 

/*建立外鍵*/ 

create table table_name (rid int,name varchar2(20),constraint fk_test3 foreign key(rid) references other_table_name(id)); 

 

alter table table_name add constraint ck_test3 check(name like 'K%'); 

 

alter table table_name drop constraint constraint_name; 

 

alter table table_name drop primary key cascade;----級聯刪除主鍵

 

alter table table_name disable/enable constraint constraint_name;----使約束暫時無效

 

/*刪除列,並級聯刪除此列下的約束條件*/ 

alter table table_name drop column column_name cascade constraint; 

 

select * from user_constraints/user_cons_columns;---約束條件相關視圖

 

############## Create Views ##################### 

 

CREATE [OR REPLACE] [FORCE|NOFORCE] VIEW view_name [(alias[,alias]...)] 

AS subquery 

[WITH CHECK OPTION [CONSTRAINT constraint_name]] 

[WITH READ ONLY [CONSTRAINT constraint_name]]; ------創建視圖的語法

 

example: Create or replace view testview as select col1,col2,col3 from table_name; ------創建視圖

/*使用別名*/ 

Create or replace view testview as select col1,sum(col2) col2_alias from table_name; 

/*創建複雜視圖*/ 

Create view view_name (alias1,alias2,alias3,alias4) as select d.col1,min(e.col1),max(e.col1),avg(e.col1) from table_name1 e,table_name2 d where e.col2=d.col2 group by d.col1; 

/*當用update修改資料時,必須滿足視圖的col1>10的條件,不滿足則不能被改變.*/ 

Create or replace view view_name as select * from table_name where col1>10 with check option; 

 

/*改變視圖的值.對於簡單視圖可以用update語法修改表資料,但複雜視圖則不一定能改。如使用了函數,group by ,distinct等的列*/ 

update view_name set col1=value1; 

 

/*TOP-N分析*/ 

select [column_list],rownum from (select [column_list] from table_name order by Top-N_column) where rownum<=N; 

 

/*找出某列三條最大值的記錄*/ 

example: select rownum as rank ,col1 ,col2 from (select col1 ,col2 from table_name order by col2 desc) where rownum<=3; 

 

############# Other database Object ############### 

 

CREATE SEQUENCE sequence_name [INCREMENT BY n] 

[START WITH n] 

[{MAXVALUE n | NOMAXVALUE}] 

[{MINVALUE n | NOMINVALUE}] 

[{CYCEL | NOCYCLE}] 

[{CACHE n | NOCACHE}]; -----創建SEQUENCE 

 

example: 

CREATE SEQUENCE sequence_name INCREMENT BY 10 

START WITH 120 

MAXVALUE 9999 

NOCACHE 

NOCYCLE; 

 

select * from user_sequences ;---當前用戶下記錄sequence的視圖

 

select sequence_name.nextval,sequence_name.currval from dual;-----sequence的引用

 

alter sequence sequence_name INCREMENT BY 20 

MAXVALUE 999999 

NOCACHE 

NOCYCLE; -----修改sequence,不能改變起始序號

 

drop sequence sequence_name; ----刪除sequence 

 

CREATE [PUBLIC] SYNONYM synonym_name FOR object; ------創建同義詞

 

DROP [PUBLIC] SYNONYM synonym_name;----刪除同義詞

 

CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK link_name USEING OBJECT;----創建DBLINK 

 

select * from object_name@link_name; ----訪問遠端資料庫中的物件

 

/*union操作,它將兩個集合的交集部分壓縮,並對資料排序*/ 

select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name union select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; 

 

/*union all操作,兩個集合的交集部分不壓縮,且不對資料排序*/ 

select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name union all select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; 

 

/*intersect操作,求兩個集合的交集,它將對重復資料進行壓縮,且排序*/ 

select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name intersect select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; 

 

/*minus操作,集合減,它將壓縮兩個集合減後的重複記錄,且對資料排序*/ 

select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name minus select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name; 

 

/*EXTRACT抽取時間函數.此例是抽取當前日期中的年*/ 

select EXTRACT(YEAR FROM SYSDATE) from dual; 

/*EXTRACT抽取時間函數.此例是抽取當前日期中的月*/ 

select EXTRACT(MONTH FROM SYSDATE) from dual; 

 

##########################增強的group by子句 ######################### 

 

select [column,] group_function(column)... 

from table 

[WHERE condition] 

[GROUP BY [ROLLUP] group_by_expression] 

[HAVING having_expression]; 

[ORDER BY column]; -------ROLLUP操作字,對group by子句的各欄位從右到左進行再聚合

 

example: 

/*其結果看起來象對col1做小計*/ 

select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by rollup(col1,col2); 

/*複合rollup運算式*/ 

select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by rollup((col1,col2)); 

 

select [column,] group_function(column)... 

from table 

[WHERE condition] 

[GROUP BY [CUBE] group_by_expression] 

[HAVING having_expression]; 

[ORDER BY column]; -------CUBE操作字,除完成ROLLUP的功能外,再對ROLLUP後的結果集從右到左再聚合

 

example: 

/*其結果看起來象對col1做小計後,再對col2做小計,最後算總計*/ 

select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by cube(col1,col2); 

/*複合rollup運算式*/ 

select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by cube((col1,col2)); 

/*混合rollup,cube運算式*/ 

select col1,col2,col3,sum(col4) from table group by col1,rollup(col2),cube(col3); 

 

/*GROUPING(expr)函數,查看select語句種以何欄位聚合,其取值為01*/ 

select [column,] group_function(column)...,GROUPING(expr) 

from table 

[WHERE condition] 

[GROUP BY [ROLLUP] group_by_expression] 

[HAVING having_expression]; 

[ORDER BY column]; 

 

example: 

select col1,col2,sum(col3),grouping(col1),grouping(col2) from table group by cube(col1,col2); 

 

/*grouping sets操作,對group by結果集先對col1求和,再對col2求和,最後將其結果集並在一起*/ 

select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by grouping sets((col1),(col2));

 

/*刪除用戶或刪除級聯用戶(用戶物件下有物件的要用CASCADE,將其下一些物件一起刪除)*/ 

drop user user_name [CASCADE]; 

 

/*每個用戶在哪些表空間下有些什麼限額*/ 

desc dba_ts_quotas;select * from dba_ts_quotas where username='...'; 

 

/*改變用戶的缺省表空間*/ 

alter user user_name default tablespace tablespace_name; 

 

######### Managing Privileges ############# 

 

grant create table,create session to user_name; 

 

grant create any table to user_name; revoke create any table from user_name; 

 

/*授予許可權語法,public標識所有用戶,with admin option允許能將許可權授予第三者的許可權*/ 

grant system_privs,[......] to [user/role/public],[....] [with admin option]; 

 

select * from v$pwfile_users; 

 

/*O7_dictionary_accessiblity參數為True時,標識select any table時,包括系統表也能select ,否則,不包含系統表;缺省為false*/ 

show parameter O7; 

 

/*由於O7_dictionary_accessiblity為靜態參數,不能動態改變,故加scope=spfile,下次啟動時才生效*/ 

alter system set O7_dictionary_accessiblity=true scope=spfile; 

 

/*授予物件中的某些欄位的許可權,如select某表中的某些欄位的許可權*/ 

grant [object_privs(column,....)],[...] on object_name to user/role/public,... with grant option; 

 

/*oracle不允許授予select某列的許可權,但可以授insert ,update某列的許可權*/ 

grant insert(column_name1,column_name2,...) on table_name to user_name with grant option; 

 

select * from dba_sys_privs/session_privs/dba_tab_privs/user_tab_privs/dba_col_privs/user_col_privs; 

 

/*db/os/none審計被記錄在資料庫/作業系統/不審計缺省是none*/ 

show parameter audit_trail; 

 

/*啟動對表的select動作*/ 

audit select on user.table_name by session; 

 

/*by session在每個session中發出command只記錄一次,by access則每個command都記錄*/ 

audit [create table][select/update/insert on object by session/access][whenever successful/not successful]; 

 

desc dbms_fga;---進一步設計,則可使用dbms_fgs

 

/*取消審計*/ 

noaudit select on user.table_name; 

 

/*查被審計資訊*/ 

select * from all_def_audit_opts/dba_stmt_audit_opts/dba_priv_audit_opts/dba_obj_audit_opts; 

 

/*獲取審計記錄*/ 

select * from dba_audit_trail/dba_audit_exists/dba_audit_object/dba_audit_session/dba_audit_statement; 

 

########### Managing Role ################# 

 

create role role_name; grant select on table_name to role_name; grant role_name to user_name; set role role_name; 

 

create role role_name; 

create role role_name identified by password; 

create role role_name identified externally; 

 

set role role_name ; ----啟動role 

set role role_name identified by password; 

 

alter role role_name not identified; 

alter role role_name identified by password; 

alter role role_name identified externally; 

 

grant priv_name to role_name [WITH ADMIN OPTION]; 

grant update(column_name1,col_name2,...) on table_name to role_name; 

grant role_name1 to role_name2; 

/*建立default role,用戶登錄時,缺省啟動default role*/ 

alter user user_name default role role_name1,role_name2,...; 

alter user user_name default role all; 

alter user user_name default role all except role_name1,...; 

alter user user_name default role none; 

 

set role role1 [identified by password],role2,....; 

set role all; 

set role except role1,role2,...; 

set role none; 

 

revoke role_name from user_name; 

revoke role_name from public; 

 

drop role role_name; 

 

select * from dba_roles/dba_role_privs/role_role_privs/dba_sys_privs/role_sys_privs/role_tab_privs/session_roles; 

 

########### Basic SQL SELECT ################ 

 

select col_name as col_alias from table_name ; 

 

select col_name from table_name where col1 like '_o%'; ----'_'匹配單個字元

 

/*手工分配分區,分配的資料檔案必須是表所在表空間內的資料檔案*/ 

alter table user.table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile '...'); 

 

/*釋放表中沒有用到的空間*/ 

alter table table_name deallocate unused; 

 

alter table table_name deallocate unused keep 8k; 

 

/*將非分區表的表空間搬到新的表空間,在移動表空間後,原表中的索引物件將會不可用,必須重建*/ 

alter table user.table_name move tablespace new_tablespace_name; 

 

create index index_name on user.table_name(column_name) tablespace users; 

 

alter index index_name rebuild; 

 

drop table table_name [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS]; 

 

alter table user.table_name drop column col_name [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS CHECKPOINT 1000];---drop column 

 

/*給表中不用的列做標記*/ 

alter table user.table_name set unused column comments CASCADE CONSTRAINTS; 

 

/*drop表中不用的做了標記列*/ 

alter table user.table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000; 

 

/*當在drop col是出現異常,使用CONTINUE,防止重刪前面的column*/ 

ALTER TABLE USER.TABLE_NAME DROP COLUMNS CONTINUE CHECKPOINT 1000; 

 

select * from dba_tables/dba_objects; 

 

######## managing indexes ########## 

 

/*create index*/ 

example: 

/*創建一般索引*/ 

create index index_name on table_name(column_name) tablespace tablespace_name; 

/*創建點陣圖索引*/ 

create bitmap index index_name on table_name(column_name1,column_name2) tablespace tablespace_name; 

/*索引中不能用pctused*/ 

create [bitmap] index index_name on table_name(column_name) tablespace tablespace_name pctfree 20 storage(inital 100k next 100k) ; 

/*大資料量的索引最好不要做日誌*/ 

create [bitmap] index index_name table_name(column_name1,column_name2) tablespace_name pctfree 20 storage(inital 100k next 100k) nologging; 

/*創建反轉索引*/ 

create index index_name on table_name(column_name) reverse; 

/*創建函數索引*/ 

create index index_name on table_name(function_name(column_name)) tablespace tablespace_name; 

/*建表時創建約束條件*/ 

create table user.table_name(column_name number(7) constraint constraint_name primary key deferrable using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace tablespace_name,column_name2 varchar2(25) constraint constraint_name not null,column_name3 number(7)) tablespace tablespace_name; 

 

/*給創建bitmap index分配的記憶體空間參數,以加速建索引*/ 

show parameter create_bit; 

 

/*改變索引的存儲參數*/ 

alter index index_name pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k next 200k); 

 

/*給索引手工分配一個分區*/ 

alter index index_name allocate extent (size 200k datafile '$ORACLE/oradata/..'); 

 

/*釋放索引中沒用的空間*/ 

alter index index_name deallocate unused; 

 

/*索引重建*/ 

alter index index_name rebuild tablespace tablespace_name; 

 

/*普通索引和反轉索引的互換*/ 

alter index index_name rebuild tablespace tablespace_name reverse; 

 

/*重建索引時,不鎖表*/ 

alter index index_name rebuild online; 

 

/*給索引整理碎片*/ 

alter index index_name COALESCE; 

 

/*分析索引,事實上是更新統計的過程*/ 

analyze index index_name validate structure; 

 

desc index_state; 

 

drop index index_name; 

 

alter index index_name monitoring usage;-----監視索引是否被用到

 

alter index index_name nomonitoring usage;----取消監視

 

/*有關索引資訊的視圖*/ 

select * from dba_indexes/dba_ind_columns/dbs_ind_expressions/v$object_usage; 

 

##########資料完整性的管理(Maintaining data integrity) ########## 

 

alter table table_name drop constraint constraint_name;----drop約束

 

alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name primary key(column_name1,column_name2);-----創建主鍵

 

alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name unique(column_name1,column_name2);---創建唯一約束

 

/*創建外鍵約束*/ 

alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name foreign key(column_name1) references table_name(column_name1); 

 

/*不效驗老資料,只約束新的資料[enable/disable:約束/不約束新資料;novalidate/validate:不對/對老資料進行驗證]*/ 

alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name check(column_name like 'B%') enable/disable novalidate/validate; 

 

/*修改約束條件,延時驗證,commit時驗證*/ 

alter table table_name modify constraint constraint_name initially deferred; 

 

/*修改約束條件,立即驗證*/ 

alter table table_name modify constraint constraint_name initially immediate; 

 

alter session set constraints=deferred/immediate; 

 

/*drop一個有外鍵的主鍵表,cascade constraints參數級聯刪除*/ 

drop table table_name cascade constraints; 

 

/*truncate外鍵表時,先將外鍵設為無效,再truncate;*/ 

truncate table table_name; 

 

/*設約束條件無效*/ 

alter table table_name disable constraint constraint_name; 

 

alter table table_name enable novalidate constraint constraint_name; 

 

/*將無效約束的資料行放入exception的表中,此表記錄了違反資料約束的行的行號;在此之前,要先建exceptions*/ 

alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name check(column_name >15) enable validate exceptions into exceptions; 

 

/*運行創建exceptions表的腳本*/ 

start $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlexcpt.sql; 

 

/*獲取約束條件資訊的表或視圖*/ 

select * from user_constraints/dba_constraints/dba_cons_columns; 

 

################## managing password security and resources #################### 

 

alter user user_name account unlock/open;----鎖定/打開用戶; 

 

alter user user_name password expire;---設定口令到期

 

/*建立口令配置檔,failed_login_attempts口令輸多少次後鎖,password_lock_times指多少天后口令被自動解鎖*/ 

create profile profile_name limit failed_login_attempts 3 password_lock_times 1/1440; 

/*創建口令配置檔*/ 

create profile profile_name limit failed_login_attempts 3 password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30 password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function password_grace_time 5; 

/*建立資源配置檔*/ 

create profile prfile_name limit session_per_user 2 cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480; 

 

alter user user_name profile profile_name; 

 

/*設置口令解鎖時間*/ 

alter profile profile_name limit password_lock_time 1/24; 

 

/*password_life_time指口令檔多少時間到期,password_grace_time指在第一次成功登錄後到口令到期有多少天時間可改變口令*/ 

alter profile profile_name limit password_lift_time 2 password_grace_time 3; 

 

/*password_reuse_time指口令在多少天內可被重用,password_reuse_max口令可被重用的最大次數*/ 

alter profile profile_name limit password_reuse_time 10[password_reuse_max 3]; 

 

alter user user_name identified by input_password;-----修改用戶口令

 

drop profile profile_name; 

 

/*建立了profile後,且指定給某個用戶,則必須用CASCADE才能刪除*/ 

drop profile profile_name CASCADE; 

 

alter system set resource_limit=true;---啟用自願限制,缺省是false 

 

/*配置資源參數*/ 

alter profile profile_name limit cpu_per_session 10000 connect_time 60 idle_time 5; 

/*資源參數(session) 

cpu_per_session每個session佔用cpu的時間單位1/100

sessions_per_user允許每個用戶的並行session

connect_time允許連接的時間單位分鐘

idle_time連接被空閒多少時間後,被自動斷開單位分鐘

logical_reads_per_session讀塊數

private_sga用戶能夠在SGA中使用的私有的空間數單位bytes 

 

(call) 

cpu_per_call每次(1/100)調用cpu的時間

logical_reads_per_call每次調用能夠讀的塊數

*/ 

 

alter profile profile_name limit cpu_per_call 1000 logical_reads_per_call 10; 

 

desc dbms_resouce_manager;---資源管理器包

 

/*獲取資源資訊的表或視圖*/ 

select * from dba_users/dba_profiles; 

 

###### Managing users ############ 

 

show parameter os; 

 

create user testuser1 identified by kxf_001; 

 

grant connect,createtable to testuser1; 

 

alter user testuser1 quota 10m on tablespace_name; 

 

/*創建用戶*/ 

create user user_name identified by password default tablespace tablespace_name temporary tablespace tablespace_name quota 15m on tablespace_name password expire; 

 

/*資料庫級設定缺省臨時表空間*/ 

alter database default temporary tablespace tablespace_name; 

 

/*制定資料庫級的缺省表空間*/ 

alter database default tablespace tablespace_name; 

 

/*創建os級審核的用戶,需知道os_authent_prefix,表示oracleos口令對應的首碼,'OPS$'為此參數的值,此值可以任意設置*/ 

create user user_name identified by externally default OPS$tablespace_name tablespace_name temporary tablespace tablespace_name quota 15m on tablespace_name password expire; 

 

/*修改用戶使用表空間的限額,回滾表空間和臨時表空間不允許授予限額*/ 

alter user user_name quota 5m on tablespace_name

 

keim,毕业于安徽科技学院理学院,2003年开始对Web开发有浓厚的兴趣,并专注于C#/java Web开发,软件架构设计、分布式相关、项目管理、前端设计等等,实战派...
posted @ 2011-05-27 11:34  夜色狼  阅读(1086)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报