Map 四种同步方式的性能比较

 

 

如果需要使 Map 线程安全,大致有这么四种方法:

1、使用 synchronized 关键字,这也是最原始的方法。代码如下


Java代码 
synchronized(anObject)  
{  
    value = map.get(key);  
}  
Java代码 
synchronized(anObject)  
{  
    value = map.get(key);  

synchronized(anObject)
{
 value = map.get(key);
}


JDK1.2 提供了 Collections.synchronizedMap(originMap) 方法,同步方式其实和上面这段代码相同。

2、使用 JDK1.5 提供的锁(java.util.concurrent.locks.Lock)。代码如下


Java代码 
lock.lock();  
value = map.get(key);  
lock.unlock();  
Java代码 
lock.lock();  
value = map.get(key);  
lock.unlock(); 

lock.lock();
value = map.get(key);
lock.unlock();


3、实际应用中,可能多数操作都是读操作,写操作较少。针对这种情况,可以使用 JDK1.5 提供的读写锁(java.util.concurrent.locks.ReadWriteLock)。代码如下


Java代码 
rwlock.readLock().lock();  
value = map.get(key);  
rwlock.readLock().unlock();  
Java代码 
rwlock.readLock().lock();  
value = map.get(key);  
rwlock.readLock().unlock(); 

rwlock.readLock().lock();
value = map.get(key);
rwlock.readLock().unlock();


这样两个读操作可以同时进行,理论上效率会比方法 2 高。

4、使用 JDK1.5 提供的 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap 类。该类将 Map 的存储空间分为若干块,每块拥有自己的锁,大大减少了多个线程争夺同一个锁的情况。代码如下


Java代码 
value = map.get(key); //同步机制内置在 get 方法中  
Java代码 
value = map.get(key); //同步机制内置在 get 方法中 

value = map.get(key); //同步机制内置在 get 方法中

 

写了段测试代码,针对这四种方式进行测试,结果见附图。测试内容为 1 秒钟所有 get 方法调用次数的总和。为了比较,增加了未使用任何同步机制的情况(非安全!)。理论上,不同步应该最快。

我的 CPU 是双核的(Core 2 Duo E6300),因此太多线程也没啥意义,所以只列出了单线程、两个线程和五个线程的情况。更多线程时,CPU 利用率提高,但增加了线程调度的开销,测试结果与五个线程差不多。

从附图可以看出:

1、不同步确实最快,与预期一致。
2、四种同步方式中,ConcurrentHashMap 是最快的,接近不同步的情况。
3、synchronized 关键字非常慢,比使用锁慢了两个数量级。真是大跌眼镜,我很迷惑为什会 synchronized 慢到这个程度。
4、使用读写锁的读锁,比普通所稍慢。这个比较意外,可能硬件或测试代码没有发挥出读锁的全部功效。

结论:

1、如果 ConcurrentHashMap 够用,则使用 ConcurrentHashMap。
2、如果需自己实现同步,则使用 JDK1.5 提供的锁机制,避免使用 synchronized 关键字。

 

 

描述: 多个线程每秒 Map.get 的执行次数之和
大小: 28.8 KB
测试代码。只图方便了,不大 OO,见笑。


Java代码 
import java.util.*;  
import java.util.concurrent.*;  
import java.util.concurrent.locks.*;  
 
public class MapTest  
{  
    public static final int THREAD_COUNT = 1;  
    public static final int MAP_SIZE = 1000;  
    public static final int EXECUTION_MILLES = 1000;  
    public static final int[] KEYS = new int[100];   
      
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception  
    {  
        //初始化  
        Random rand = new Random();  
        for (int i = 0; i < KEYS.length; ++i)  
        {  
            KEYS[i] = rand.nextInt();  
        }  
                  
        //创建线程  
        long start = System.currentTimeMillis();  
        Thread[] threads = new Thread[THREAD_COUNT];  
        for (int i = 0; i < THREAD_COUNT; ++i)  
        {  
            //threads[i] = new UnsafeThread();  
            //threads[i] = new SynchronizedThread();  
            //threads[i] = new LockThread();  
            //threads[i] = new ReadLockThread();  
            threads[i] = new ConcurrentThread();  
            threads[i].start();  
        }  
          
        //等待其它线程执行若干时间  
        Thread.sleep(EXECUTION_MILLES);  
 
        //统计 get 操作的次数  
        long sum = 0;         
        for (int i = 0; i < THREAD_COUNT; ++i)  
        {  
            sum += threads[i].getClass().getDeclaredField("count").getLong(threads[i]);  
        }  
        long millisCost = System.currentTimeMillis() - start;  
        System.out.println(sum + "(" + (millisCost) + "ms)");  
        System.exit(0);  
    }  
      
    public static void fillMap(Map<Integer, Integer> map)  
    {  
        Random rand = new Random();  
          
        for (int i = 0; i < MAP_SIZE; ++i)  
        {  
            map.put(rand.nextInt(), rand.nextInt());  
        }  
    }  
}  
 
class UnsafeThread extends Thread  
{  
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();   
    public long count = 0;    
      
    static 
    {  
        MapTest.fillMap(map);  
    }  
      
    public void run()  
    {  
        for (;;)  
        {  
            int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);  
            map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);  
            ++count;  
        }  
    }  
}  
 
class SynchronizedThread extends Thread  
{  
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();   
    public long count = 0;  
      
    static 
    {  
        MapTest.fillMap(map);  
    }  
      
    public void run()  
    {  
        for (;;)  
        {  
            int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);  
            synchronized(SynchronizedThread.class)  
            {  
                map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);  
            }  
            ++count;  
        }  
    }  
}  
 
class LockThread extends Thread  
{  
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();   
    private static Lock lock = new ReentrantLock();  
    public long count = 0;  
      
    static 
    {  
        MapTest.fillMap(map);  
    }  
      
    public void run()  
    {  
        for (;;)  
        {  
            int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);  
            lock.lock();  
            map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);  
            lock.unlock();  
            ++count;  
        }  
    }  
}  
 
class ReadLockThread extends Thread  
{  
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();   
    private static Lock lock = new ReentrantReadWriteLock().readLock();  
    public long count = 0;  
      
    static 
    {  
        MapTest.fillMap(map);  
    }  
      
    public void run()  
    {  
        for (;;)  
        {  
            int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);  
            lock.lock();  
            map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);  
            lock.unlock();  
            ++count;  
        }  
    }  
}  
 
class ConcurrentThread extends Thread  
{  
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new ConcurrentHashMap<Integer, Integer>();     
    public long count = 0;  
      
    static 
    {  
        MapTest.fillMap(map);  
    }  
      
    public void run()  
    {  
        for (;;)  
        {  
            int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);  
            map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);  
            ++count;  
        }  
    }  
}  
Java代码 
import java.util.*;  
import java.util.concurrent.*;  
import java.util.concurrent.locks.*;  
 
public class MapTest  
{  
    public static final int THREAD_COUNT = 1;  
    public static final int MAP_SIZE = 1000;  
    public static final int EXECUTION_MILLES = 1000;  
    public static final int[] KEYS = new int[100];   
      
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception  
    {  
        //初始化  
        Random rand = new Random();  
        for (int i = 0; i < KEYS.length; ++i)  
        {  
            KEYS[i] = rand.nextInt();  
        }  
                  
        //创建线程  
        long start = System.currentTimeMillis();  
        Thread[] threads = new Thread[THREAD_COUNT];  
        for (int i = 0; i < THREAD_COUNT; ++i)  
        {  
            //threads[i] = new UnsafeThread();  
            //threads[i] = new SynchronizedThread();  
            //threads[i] = new LockThread();  
            //threads[i] = new ReadLockThread();  
            threads[i] = new ConcurrentThread();  
            threads[i].start();  
        }  
          
        //等待其它线程执行若干时间  
        Thread.sleep(EXECUTION_MILLES);  
 
        //统计 get 操作的次数  
        long sum = 0;         
        for (int i = 0; i < THREAD_COUNT; ++i)  
        {  
            sum += threads[i].getClass().getDeclaredField("count").getLong(threads[i]);  
        }  
        long millisCost = System.currentTimeMillis() - start;  
        System.out.println(sum + "(" + (millisCost) + "ms)");  
        System.exit(0);  
    }  
      
    public static void fillMap(Map<Integer, Integer> map)  
    {  
        Random rand = new Random();  
          
        for (int i = 0; i < MAP_SIZE; ++i)  
        {  
            map.put(rand.nextInt(), rand.nextInt());  
        }  
    }  
}  
 
class UnsafeThread extends Thread  
{  
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();   
    public long count = 0;    
      
    static 
    {  
        MapTest.fillMap(map);  
    }  
      
    public void run()  
    {  
        for (;;)  
        {  
            int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);  
            map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);  
            ++count;  
        }  
    }  
}  
 
class SynchronizedThread extends Thread  
{  
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();   
    public long count = 0;  
      
    static 
    {  
        MapTest.fillMap(map);  
    }  
      
    public void run()  
    {  
        for (;;)  
        {  
            int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);  
            synchronized(SynchronizedThread.class)  
            {  
                map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);  
            }  
            ++count;  
        }  
    }  
}  
 
class LockThread extends Thread  
{  
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();   
    private static Lock lock = new ReentrantLock();  
    public long count = 0;  
      
    static 
    {  
        MapTest.fillMap(map);  
    }  
      
    public void run()  
    {  
        for (;;)  
        {  
            int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);  
            lock.lock();  
            map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);  
            lock.unlock();  
            ++count;  
        }  
    }  
}  
 
class ReadLockThread extends Thread  
{  
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>();   
    private static Lock lock = new ReentrantReadWriteLock().readLock();  
    public long count = 0;  
      
    static 
    {  
        MapTest.fillMap(map);  
    }  
      
    public void run()  
    {  
        for (;;)  
        {  
            int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);  
            lock.lock();  
            map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);  
            lock.unlock();  
            ++count;  
        }  
    }  
}  
 
class ConcurrentThread extends Thread  
{  
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new ConcurrentHashMap<Integer, Integer>();     
    public long count = 0;  
      
    static 
    {  
        MapTest.fillMap(map);  
    }  
      
    public void run()  
    {  
        for (;;)  
        {  
            int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);  
            map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);  
            ++count;  
        }  
    }  

import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.*;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.*;

public class MapTest
{
 public static final int THREAD_COUNT = 1;
 public static final int MAP_SIZE = 1000;
 public static final int EXECUTION_MILLES = 1000;
 public static final int[] KEYS = new int[100];
 
 public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception
 {
  //初始化
  Random rand = new Random();
  for (int i = 0; i < KEYS.length; ++i)
  {
   KEYS[i] = rand.nextInt();
  }
    
  //创建线程
  long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
  Thread[] threads = new Thread[THREAD_COUNT];
  for (int i = 0; i < THREAD_COUNT; ++i)
  {
   //threads[i] = new UnsafeThread();
   //threads[i] = new SynchronizedThread();
   //threads[i] = new LockThread();
   //threads[i] = new ReadLockThread();
   threads[i] = new ConcurrentThread();
   threads[i].start();
  }
  
  //等待其它线程执行若干时间
  Thread.sleep(EXECUTION_MILLES);

  //统计 get 操作的次数
  long sum = 0;  
  for (int i = 0; i < THREAD_COUNT; ++i)
  {
   sum += threads[i].getClass().getDeclaredField("count").getLong(threads[i]);
  }
  long millisCost = System.currentTimeMillis() - start;
  System.out.println(sum + "(" + (millisCost) + "ms)");
  System.exit(0);
 }
 
 public static void fillMap(Map<Integer, Integer> map)
 {
  Random rand = new Random();
  
  for (int i = 0; i < MAP_SIZE; ++i)
  {
   map.put(rand.nextInt(), rand.nextInt());
  }
 }
}

class UnsafeThread extends Thread
{
 private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>(); 
 public long count = 0; 
 
 static
 {
  MapTest.fillMap(map);
 }
 
 public void run()
 {
  for (;;)
  {
   int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);
   map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);
   ++count;
  }
 }
}

class SynchronizedThread extends Thread
{
 private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>(); 
 public long count = 0;
 
 static
 {
  MapTest.fillMap(map);
 }
 
 public void run()
 {
  for (;;)
  {
   int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);
   synchronized(SynchronizedThread.class)
   {
    map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);
   }
   ++count;
  }
 }
}

class LockThread extends Thread
{
 private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>(); 
 private static Lock lock = new ReentrantLock();
 public long count = 0;
 
 static
 {
  MapTest.fillMap(map);
 }
 
 public void run()
 {
  for (;;)
  {
   int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);
   lock.lock();
   map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);
   lock.unlock();
   ++count;
  }
 }
}

class ReadLockThread extends Thread
{
 private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<Integer, Integer>(); 
 private static Lock lock = new ReentrantReadWriteLock().readLock();
 public long count = 0;
 
 static
 {
  MapTest.fillMap(map);
 }
 
 public void run()
 {
  for (;;)
  {
   int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);
   lock.lock();
   map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);
   lock.unlock();
   ++count;
  }
 }
}

class ConcurrentThread extends Thread
{
 private static Map<Integer, Integer> map = new ConcurrentHashMap<Integer, Integer>(); 
 public long count = 0;
 
 static
 {
  MapTest.fillMap(map);
 }
 
 public void run()
 {
  for (;;)
  {
   int index = (int)(count % MapTest.KEYS.length);
   map.get(MapTest.KEYS[index]);
   ++count;
  }
 }
}

大小: 28.8 KB
 

 

keim,毕业于安徽科技学院理学院,2003年开始对Web开发有浓厚的兴趣,并专注于C#/java Web开发,软件架构设计、分布式相关、项目管理、前端设计等等,实战派...
posted @ 2011-04-12 16:07  夜色狼  阅读(662)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报