Understanding WPF Template

本文由以下部分组成:

  • 解释Template定义
  • 列举Template结构
  • 举例各种Template
  • 我眼中的最佳实践

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解释Template定义

Template用于定义控件结构(Visual Tree),和Style有点容易混淆,每个控件初始没有Style属性,而在WPF中所有的控件都有默认的Template。

 

列举Template结构

image

FrameworkTemplate & ControlTemplate

ControlTemplate 添加了两个属性: TargetType,Triggers

 

举例各种Template

1. ControlTempalte - 自定义BUTTON
<Window x:Class="WpfApplication1.Window2"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    Title="Window2" Height="300" Width="300">
    <Window.Resources>
        <ItemsPanelTemplate x:Key="ItemsPanelTemplate1">
            <VirtualizingStackPanel IsItemsHost="True" Orientation="Horizontal"/>
        </ItemsPanelTemplate>
    </Window.Resources>
    <Grid>
        <ListBox Margin="10,10,22,73" Name="listBox1" ItemsPanel="{DynamicResource ItemsPanelTemplate1}" />
    </Grid>
</Window>

效果:

image

2. ItemsTemplate - 自定义ListBox对齐方式

 

<Window x:Class="WpfApplication1.Window2"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    Title="Window2" Height="300" Width="300">
    <Window.Resources>
        <ItemsPanelTemplate x:Key="ItemsPanelTemplate1">
            <VirtualizingStackPanel IsItemsHost="True" Orientation="Horizontal"/>
        </ItemsPanelTemplate>
    </Window.Resources>
    <Grid>
        <ListBox Margin="10,10,22,73" Name="listBox1" ItemsPanel="{DynamicResource ItemsPanelTemplate1}" />
    </Grid>
</Window>

TIP:     VirtualizingStackPanel 可以替换为其他ItemsPanel,如WrapPanel,StackPanel,UnifromGrid等。

3. DataTemplate - 自定义ListBox ItemTemplate

页面代码

<Window x:Class="WpfApplication1.Window2"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    Title="Window2" Height="351" Width="473" xmlns:WpfApplication1="clr-namespace:WpfApplication1" xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008" xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006" mc:Ignorable="d">
    <Window.Resources>
        <ItemsPanelTemplate x:Key="ItemsPanelTemplate1">
            <UniformGrid Width="Auto" Height="Auto" Columns="5" Rows="3"/>
        </ItemsPanelTemplate>
        <DataTemplate x:Key="DataTemplate1">
            <Grid Height="111" Width="119" x:Name="grid" Background="#33ECF678">
                <Image HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="8,8,0,0" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="103" Height="96" OpacityMask="#FFFFFFFF" Source="{Binding Path=ImageSource, Mode=Default}"/>
            </Grid>
        </DataTemplate>
        <ObjectDataProvider x:Key="MyDataDS" ObjectType="{x:Type WpfApplication1:MyData}" d:IsDataSource="True"/>
    </Window.Resources>
    <Grid>
        <ListBox x:Name="listbox1" Margin="10,10,8,8" ItemsSource="{Binding}"  ItemsPanel="{DynamicResource ItemsPanelTemplate1}" ItemTemplate="{DynamicResource DataTemplate1}" Background="#3FDEF5E3" />
    </Grid>
</Window>

逻辑代码

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Controls;
using System.Windows.Data;
using System.Windows.Documents;
using System.Windows.Input;
using System.Windows.Media;
using System.Windows.Media.Imaging;
using System.Windows.Shapes;
using System.IO;

namespace WpfApplication1
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Interaction logic for Window2.xaml
    /// </summary>
    public partial class Window2 : Window
    {
        public Window2()
        {

            InitializeComponent();


            listbox1.DataContext = GetPictures();
            
            
        }

        private IEnumerable<MyData> GetPictures()
        {
            foreach(string str in Directory.GetFiles(@"C:\Users\Public\Pictures\Sample Pictures"))
                yield return new MyData() {ImageSource = str};
        }


    }

    public class MyData
    {
        public string ImageSource { get; set; }
    }
}

 效果

image

 

我眼中的最佳实践

1. Please USE Blend to Customize Templates

请使用Blend来自定义模板

2. USE  BasedOn Property Of Style

使用Style上的BasedOn属性

3. 使用共享资源,达到样式&Template重用

HOW: 在App.xaml中设置独立资源,或者使用外部资源

 

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参考:

《Applications = Code + MarkUp》 By Charles Petzold

代码下载

posted on 2009-04-26 17:24 xwang 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

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