Prometheus + Grafana 部署说明之「安装」

说明

在前面的Prometheus学习系列文章里,大致介绍说明了PrometheusGrafana的一些使用,现在开始介绍如何从头开始部署Prometheus+Grafana,来监控各个相关的指标数据来进行展示。

部署

Prometheus基于Golang编写(需要安装),编译后的软件包,不依赖于任何的第三方依赖。用户只需要下载对应平台的二进制包,解压并且添加基本的配置即可正常启动Prometheus Server。

环境:

系统:
centos-release-7-4.1708.el7.centos.x86_64
IP:10.47.97.47

Prometheus:
prometheus-2.14.0

Grafana:
grafana-6.5.1-1

下载:

1Prometheus
wget https://github.com/prometheus/prometheus/releases/download/v2.14.0/prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64.tar.gz

2Grafanawget https://dl.grafana.com/oss/release/grafana-6.5.1-1.x86_64.rpm

安装

1: Prometheus 安装

  • 添加用户prometheus
    useradd --no-create-home --shell /bin/false prometheus
  • 创建相关目录
    mkdir /etc/prometheus
    mkdir /var/lib/prometheus
  • 改目录权限
    chown prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus
    chown prometheus:prometheus /var/lib/prometheus
  • 解压 & 移动到相应目录
    tar xvf prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64.tar.gz 
    
    cp prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64/prometheus /usr/local/bin/
    cp prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64/promtool /usr/local/bin/
    
    cp -r prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64/consoles/ /etc/prometheus/
    cp -r prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64/console_libraries/ /etc/prometheus/
    cp prometheus-2.14.0.linux-amd64/prometheus.yml /etc/prometheus/
    
    chown prometheus:prometheus /usr/local/bin/prometheus
    chown prometheus:prometheus /usr/local/bin/promtool
    
    chown -R prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus/consoles
    chown -R prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus/console_libraries
    chown -R prometheus:prometheus /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml 
  • 配置Prometheus service,端口为9099

    vim /etc/systemd/system/prometheus.service

    [Unit]
    Description=Prometheus
    Wants=network-online.target
    After=network-online.target
    
    [Service]
    User=prometheus
    Group=prometheus
    Type=simple
    ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/prometheus \
        --config.file /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml \
        --storage.tsdb.path /var/lib/prometheus/ \
        --web.console.templates=/etc/prometheus/consoles \
        --web.console.libraries=/etc/prometheus/console_libraries \
        --web.listen-address=:9099
    
    [Install]
    WantedBy=multi-user.target
  • 加载systemd服务 & 启动
    # 加载 
    systemctl daemon-reload
    # 开机启动
    systemctl enable prometheus.service # 启动 systemctl start prometheus # 查看状态 systemctl status prometheus
  • 查看状态:systemctl status prometheus
    # systemctl status prometheus
    ● prometheus.service - Prometheus
       Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/prometheus.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
       Active: active (running) since Mon 2019-12-09 18:35:00 CST; 1min 8s ago
     Main PID: 18875 (prometheus)
       CGroup: /system.slice/prometheus.service
               └─18875 /usr/local/bin/prometheus --config.file /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml --storage.tsdb.path /var/lib/prometheus/ --web.console.templates=/etc/prometheus/consoles --web.console.librari...
    
    Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.175Z caller=head.go:583 component=tsdb msg="WAL segment loaded" segment=4 maxSegment=8
    Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.175Z caller=head.go:583 component=tsdb msg="WAL segment loaded" segment=5 maxSegment=8
    Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.176Z caller=head.go:583 component=tsdb msg="WAL segment loaded" segment=6 maxSegment=8
    Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.178Z caller=head.go:583 component=tsdb msg="WAL segment loaded" segment=7 maxSegment=8
    Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.178Z caller=head.go:583 component=tsdb msg="WAL segment loaded" segment=8 maxSegment=8
    Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.180Z caller=main.go:672 fs_type=EXT4_SUPER_MAGIC
    Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.180Z caller=main.go:673 msg="TSDB started"
    Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.180Z caller=main.go:743 msg="Loading configuration file" filename=/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml
    Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.182Z caller=main.go:771 msg="Completed loading of configuration file" filename=/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml
    Dec 09 18:35:00 test26-mysql03 prometheus[18875]: level=info ts=2019-12-09T10:35:00.182Z caller=main.go:626 msg="Server is ready to receive web requests."
    View Code
  • 命令行启动:
    sudo -u prometheus /usr/local/bin/prometheus --config.file /etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml --storage.tsdb.path /var/lib/prometheus/ --web.console.templates=/etc/prometheus/consoles --web.console.libraries=/etc/prometheus/console_libraries --web.listen-address=:9099
  • 访问URL:
    http://10.47.97.47:9099/graph
  • 配置文件:
    # my global config
    global:
      scrape_interval:     15s # Set the scrape interval to every 15 seconds. Default is every 1 minute.
      evaluation_interval: 15s # Evaluate rules every 15 seconds. The default is every 1 minute.
      # scrape_timeout is set to the global default (10s).
    
    # Alertmanager configuration
    alerting:
      alertmanagers:
      - static_configs:
        - targets:
          # - alertmanager:9093
    
    # Load rules once and periodically evaluate them according to the global 'evaluation_interval'.
    rule_files:
      # - "first_rules.yml"
      # - "second_rules.yml"
    
    # A scrape configuration containing exactly one endpoint to scrape:
    # Here it's Prometheus itself.
    scrape_configs:
      # The job name is added as a label `job=<job_name>` to any timeseries scraped from this config.
      - job_name: 'prometheus'
    
        # metrics_path defaults to '/metrics'
        # scheme defaults to 'http'.
    
        static_configs:
        - targets: ['localhost:9099']
    
    
      - job_name: 'node_exporter'
        scrape_interval: 1s
        static_configs:
        - targets: ['a:9199','b:9199','c:9199','d:9199']
        relabel_configs:
        - action: replace
          source_labels: ['__address__']  ##源标签
          regex: (.*):(.*)             ##正则,会匹配到__address__值
          replacement: $1       ##引用正则匹配到的内容
          target_label: HOSTNAME    ##赋予新的标签,名为HOSTNAME
    之后可以访问到Prometheus的Web界面。到此Prometheus的安装结束。更多的参数可以看Prometheus学习系列(二)之Prometheus FIRST STEPSPrometheus学习系列(四)之Prometheus 配置说明

2: Grafana 安装

  • 下载完rpm包之后,直接执行:
    sudo yum localinstall grafana-6.5.1-1.x86_64.rpm
  • 加载systemd服务 & 启动
    直接启动
    $ sudo service grafana-server start
    #配置为在引导时启动
    $ sudo /sbin/chkconfig --add grafana-server
    #加载
    $ systemctl daemon-reload
    #开启 $ systemctl start grafana
    -server
    #查看状态 $ systemctl status grafana
    -server
    #开启启动
    sudo systemctl enable grafana-server.service
  • 日志&数据目录
    日志目录:
    配置为在引导时启动
    
    数据目录:
    /var/lib/grafana/grafana.db
  • 访问URL:
    http://10.47.97.47:3333

在1、2操作中,已经把Prometheus和Grafana安装完毕,现在开始安装Exporter来采集数据。

Exporter是Prometheus的一类数据采集组件的总称。它负责从目标处搜集数据,并将其转化为Prometheus支持的格式。与传统的数据采集组件不同的是,它并不向中央服务器发送数据,而是等待中央服务器主动前来抓取,默认的抓取地址为http://CURRENT_IP:9199/metrics

3. Exporter 安装

① node_exporter 安装

node_exporter的作用是用于机器系统数据收集,监控服务器CPU、内存、磁盘、I/O、网络等等信息。

  • 下载
    wget https://github.com/prometheus/node_exporter/releases/download/v0.18.1/node_exporter-0.18.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
  • 安装
    # 解压
    tar xvf node_exporter-0.18.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
    cp node_exporter /usr/sbin/
    
    #帮助
    node_exporter --help
    
    #开启,端口:9199
    node_exporter --web.listen-address=:9199
  • 加载systemd服务 & 启动 vim /etc/systemd/system/node_exporter.service
    [Unit]
    Description=node_exporter
    Documentation=https://prometheus.io/
    After=network.target
    [Service]
    Type=simple
    User=prometheus
    ExecStart=/usr/sbin/node_exporter --web.listen-address=:9199
    Restart=on-failure
    [Install]
    WantedBy=multi-user.target

    systemctl 启动

    # 加载 
    systemctl daemon-reload
    # 开机启动
    systemctl enable node_exporter.service
    
    # 启动
    systemctl start node_exporter
    # 查看状态
    systemctl status node_exporter

此时,node_exporter启动后已经开始采集指标信息,可以通过地址访问:http://10.47.97.47:9199/metrics 

② mysqld_exporter 安装

mysqld_exporter的作用是用于MySQL数据库数据收集。

  • 下载
    wget https://github.com/prometheus/mysqld_exporter/releases/download/v0.12.1/mysqld_exporter-0.12.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
  • 安装
    # 解压
    tar xvf mysqld_exporter-0.12.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz
    cp mysqld_exporter /usr/sbin/
    
    #帮助
    mysqld_exporter --help
    
    #连接被监控数据库,数据库信息保存在以下的任意一个地方
    1:环境变量
    export DATA_SOURCE_NAME='user:password@(hostname:3306)/'
    ./mysqld_exporter <flags>
    
    2:配置文件
    vim ~/.my.cnf
    
    [client]
    host=10.27.27.27
    port=5381
    user=root
    password=root
  • 启动
    可以放到systemctl里启动,也可以直接运行:
    ./mysqld_exporter 
    INFO[0000] Starting mysqld_exporter (version=0.12.1, branch=HEAD, revision=48667bf7c3b438b5e93b259f3d17b70a7c9aff96)  source="mysqld_exporter.go:257"
    INFO[0000] Build context (go=go1.12.7, user=root@0b3e56a7bc0a, date=20190729-12:35:58)  source="mysqld_exporter.go:258"
    INFO[0000] Enabled scrapers:                             source="mysqld_exporter.go:269"
    INFO[0000]  --collect.global_status                      source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
    INFO[0000]  --collect.global_variables                   source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
    INFO[0000]  --collect.slave_status                       source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
    INFO[0000]  --collect.info_schema.innodb_cmp             source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
    INFO[0000]  --collect.info_schema.innodb_cmpmem          source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
    INFO[0000]  --collect.info_schema.query_response_time    source="mysqld_exporter.go:273"
    INFO[0000] Listening on :9104                            source="mysqld_exporter.go:283"

其他的exporter可以见官网

可视化监控

上面已经安装部署好了Prometheus、Grafana和Exporter,现在需要把这3者联系起来进行数据展示。如已经安装了node_exporter,需要把node_exporter采集的信息配置到Prometheus上。即修改Prometheus配置文件:

在scrape_configs选项组下面添加:

  - job_name: 'node_exporter'
    scrape_interval: 1s
    static_configs:
    - targets: ['localhost:9199']

重启Prometheus:

systemctl restart prometheus

此时可以在Prometheus上进行出图了:通过相关的PromSQL得到各种数据指标,如node_load5。Prometheus上面比较适合做一些调试,不适合看监控指标,需要把结果放到Grafana上进行展示。

在Grafana上(http://10.47.97.47:3333)进行配置数据源。把Prometheus(http://10.47.97.47:9099)做为数据源添加进去。如:

根据实际情况设置好各个值,保存完成。 然后去官网找个模板导入:比如导入的ID是8919:

完成之后,可以看到相关的监控图标了。现在根据表达式自定义一个图:如定义一个CPU使用率:

1-avg(irate(node_cpu_seconds_total{HOSTNAME=~"$hostname",mode='idle'}[1m])) by (HOSTNAME)

HOSTNAME:node_cpu_seconds_total metrice里的一个label。

$hostname:在设置里设置的一个变量。最终展示图如:

关于更多的图可以自行定义,关于PromSQL可以见Prometheus PromQL说明

 

 

posted @ 2020-01-03 15:29  jyzhou  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏