MySQL高可用复制管理工具 —— Orchestrator使用

背景

在上一篇「MySQL高可用复制管理工具 —— Orchestrator介绍」中大致介绍了Orchestrator的功能、配置和部署,当然最详细的说明可以查阅官方文档。本文开始对Orchestrator的各方面进行测试和说明。

测试说明

环境介绍

服务器环境:

三台服务器
1:MySQL实例(3306是orch的后端数据库,3307是MySQL主从架构「开启GTID」)
Master :192.168.163.131:3307
Slave  :192.168.163.132:3307
Slave  :192.168.163.133:3307

2:hosts(etc/hosts):
192.168.163.131 test1
192.168.163.132 test2
192.168.163.133 test3

这里需要注意的是,orch检测主库宕机依赖从库的IO线程(本身连不上主库后,还会通过从库再去检测主库是否异常),所以默认change搭建的主从感知主库宕机的等待时间过长,需要需要稍微改下:

change master to master_host='192.168.163.131',master_port=3307,master_user='rep',master_password='rep',master_auto_position=1,MASTER_HEARTBEAT_PERIOD=2,MASTER_CONNECT_RETRY=1, MASTER_RETRY_COUNT=86400;
set global slave_net_timeout=8;

slave_net_timeout(全局变量):MySQL5.7.7之后,默认改成60秒。该参数定义了从库从主库获取数据等待的秒数,超过这个时间从库会主动退出读取,中断连接,并尝试重连。

master_heartbeat_period:复制心跳的周期。默认是slave_net_timeout的一半。Master在没有数据的时候,每master_heartbeat_period秒发送一个心跳包,这样 Slave 就能知道 Master 是不是还正常。

slave_net_timeout是设置在多久没收到数据后认为网络超时,之后 Slave 的 IO 线程会重新连接 Master 。结合这两个设置就可以避免由于网络问题导致的复制延误。master_heartbeat_period 单位是秒,可以是个带上小数,如 10.5,最高精度为 1 毫秒。

重试策略为
备库过了slave-net-timeout秒还没有收到主库来的数据,它就会开始第一次重试。然后每过 master-connect-retry 秒,备库会再次尝试重连主库。直到重试了 master-retry-count 次,它才会放弃重试。如果重试的过程中,连上了主库,那么它认为当前主库是好的,又会开始 slave-net-timeout 秒的等待。 slave-net-timeout 的默认值是 60 秒, master-connect-retry 默认为 60 秒, master-retry-count 默认为 86400 次。也就是说,如果主库一分钟都没有任何数据变更发送过来,备库才会尝试重连主库。

这样,主库宕机之后,约8~10秒感知主库异常,Orchestrator开始切换。另外还需要注意的是,orch默认是用主机名来进行管理的,需要在mysql的配置文件里添加:report_host和report_port参数。

数据库环境:

Orchestrator后端数据库:
在启动Orchestrator程序的时候,会自动在数据库里创建orchestrator数据库,保存orchestrator的一些数据信息。

Orchestrator管理的数据库:
在配置文件里配置的一些query参数,需要在每个被管理的目标库里有meta库来保留一些元信息(类似cmdb功能),比如用pt-heartbeat来验证主从延迟;用cluster表来保存别名、数据中心等。

如下面是测试环境的cluster表信息:

> CREATE TABLE `cluster` (
  `anchor` tinyint(4) NOT NULL,
  `cluster_name` varchar(128) CHARACTER SET ascii NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `cluster_domain` varchar(128) CHARACTER SET ascii NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `data_center` varchar(128) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`anchor`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8

>select * from cluster;
+--------+--------------+----------------+-------------+
| anchor | cluster_name | cluster_domain | data_center |
+--------+--------------+----------------+-------------+
|      1 | test         | CaoCao         | BJ          |
+--------+--------------+----------------+-------------+

测试说明

开启Orchestrator进程:

./orchestrator --config=/etc/orchestrator.conf.json http

在浏览器里输入三台主机的任意主机的IP加端口(http://192.168.163.131:3000)进入到Web管理界面,在Clusters导航的Discover里输入任意一台被管理MySQL实例的信息。添加完成之后,Web界面效果:

在web上可以进行相关的管理,关于Web上的相关按钮的说明,下面会做相关说明

1.  部分可修改的参数(点击Web上需要被修改实例的任意图标):

说明

Instance Alias :实例别名
Last seen       :  最后检测时间
Self coordinates :自身的binlog位点信息
Num replicas :有几个从库
Server ID    : MySQL server_id
Server UUID :    MySQL UUID
Version :    版本
Read only : 是否只读
Has binary logs :是否开启binlog
Binlog format    :binlog 模式
Logs slave updates :是否开启log_slave_updates
GTID supported :是否支持GTID
GTID based replication :是否是基于GTID的复制
GTID mode    :复制是否开启了GTID
Executed GTID set :复制中执行过的GTID列表
Uptime :启动时间
Allow TLS :是否开启TLS
Cluster :集群别名
Audit :审计实例
Agent :Agent实例

说明:上面图中,后面有按钮的都是可以在Web上进行修改的功能,如:是否只读,是否开启GTID的复制等。其中Begin Downtime 会将实例标记为已停用,此时如果发生Failover,该实例不会参与。

2.  任意改变主从的拓扑结构:可以直接在图上拖动变更复制,会自动恢复拓扑关系:

3.  主库挂了之后自动Failover,如:

图中显示,当主挂掉之后,拓扑结构里自动剔除该主节点,选择一个最合适的从库提升成主库,并修复复制拓扑。在Failover过程当中,可以查看/tmp/recovery.log文件(配置文件里定死),里面包含了在Failover过程中Hooks执行的外部脚本,类似MHA的master_ip_failover_script参数。可以通过外部脚本进行相应的如:VIP切换、Proxy修改、DNS修改、中间件修改、LVS修改等等,具体的执行脚本可以根据自己的实际情况编写。

4.  Orchestrator高可用。因为在一开始就已经部署了3台,通过配置文件里的Raft参数进行通信。只要有2个节点的Orchestrator正常,就不会影响使用,如果出现2个节点的Orchestrator异常,则Failover会失败。2个节点异常的图如下:

图中的各个节点全部显示灰色,此时Raft算法失效,导致Orch的Failover功能失败。相对比MHA的Manager的单点,Orchestrator通过Raft算法解决了本身的高可用性以及解决网络隔离问题,特别是跨数据中心网络异常。这里说明下Raft,通过共识算法:

      Orchestrator节点能够选择具有仲裁的领导者(leader)。如有3个orch节点,其中一个可以成为leader(3节点仲裁大小为2,5节点仲裁大小为3)。只允许leader进行修改,每个MySQL拓扑服务器将由三个不同的orchestrator节点独立访问,在正常情况下,三个节点将看到或多或少相同的拓扑图,但他们每个都会独立分析写入其自己的专用后端数据库服务器:

① 所有更改都必须通过leader。

② 在启用raft模式上禁止使用orchestrator客户端。

③ 在启用raft模式上使用orchestrator-client,orchestrator-client可以安装在没有orchestrator上的服务器。

④ 单个orchestrator节点的故障不会影响orchestrator的可用性。在3节点设置上,最多一个服务器可能会失败。在5节点设置上,2个节点可能会失败。

⑤ Orchestrator节点异常关闭,然后再启动。它将重新加入Raft组,并接收遗漏的任何事件,只要有足够的Raft记录。

⑥ 要加入比日志保留允许的更长/更远的orchestrator节点或者数据库完全为空的节点,需要从另一个活动节点克隆后端DB

关于Raft更多的信息见:https://github.com/github/orchestrator/blob/master/docs/raft.md

Orchestrator高可用有2种方式,第一种就是上面说的通过Raft(推荐),另一种是通过后端数据库的同步。详细信息见文档。文档里详细比较了两种高可用性部署方法。两种方法的图如下:

到这里,Orchestrator的基本功能已经实现,包括主动Failover、修改拓扑结构以及Web上的可视化操作。

5. Web上各个按钮的功能说明

①:Home下的status:查看orch的状态:包括运行时间、版本、后端数据库以及各个Raft节点的状态。

②:Cluster下的dashboard:查看orch下的所有被管理的MySQL实例。

③:Cluster下的Failure analysis:查看故障分析以及包括记录的故障类型列表。

④:Cluster下的Discover:用来发现被管理的MySQL实例。

⑤:Audit下的Failure detection:故障检测信息,包含历史信息。

⑥:Audit下的Recovery:故障恢复信息以及故障确认。

⑦:Audit下的Agent:是一个在MySQL主机上运行并与orchestrator通信的服务,能够向orch提供操作系统,文件系统和LVM信息,以及调用某些命令和脚本。

⑧:导航栏里的图标,对应左边导航栏的图标:

第1行:集群别名的查看修改。

第2行:pools。

第3行:Compact display,紧凑展示。

第4行:Pool indicator,池指示器。

第5行:Colorize DC,每个数据中心用不同颜色展示。

第6行:Anonymize,匿名集群中的主机名。

注意:左边导航栏里的图标,表示实例的概括:实例名、别名、故障检测和恢复等信息。

⑧:导航栏里的图标,表示是否禁止全局恢复。禁止掉的话不会进行Failover。

⑨:导航栏里的图标,表示是否开启刷新页面(默认60一次)。

⑩:导航栏里的图标,表示MySQL实例迁移模式。

Smart mode:自动选择迁移模式,让Orch自己选择迁移模式。
Classic mode:经典迁移模式,通过binlog和position进行迁移。
GTID mode:GTID迁移模式。
Pseudo GTID mode:伪GTID迁移模式。

到此,Orchestrator的基本测试和Web说明已经介绍完毕。和MHA比已经有很大的体验提升,不仅在Web进行部分参数的设置修改,还可以改变复制拓扑,最重要的是解决MHA Manager单点的问题。还有什么理由不替换MHA呢?:)

工作流程说明

Orchestrator实现了自动Failover,现在来看看自动Failover的大致流程是怎么样的。

1. 检测流程

① orchestrator利用复制拓扑,先检查主本身,并观察其slaves。

② 如果orchestrator本身连不上主,可以连上该主的从,则通过从去检测,若在从上也看不到主(IO Thread)「2次检查」,判断Master宕机。

该检测方法比较合理,当从都连不上主了,则复制肯定有出问题,故会进行切换。所以在生产中非常可靠。

检测发生故障后并不都会进行自动恢复,比如:禁止全局恢复、设置了shutdown time、上次恢复离本次恢复时间在RecoveryPeriodBlockSeconds设置的时间内、失败类型不被认为值得恢复等。检测与恢复无关,但始终启用。 每次检测都会执行OnFailureDetectionProcesses Hooks。

配置故障检测

{
  "FailureDetectionPeriodBlockMinutes": 60,
}

Hooks相关参数:
{
  "OnFailureDetectionProcesses": [
    "echo 'Detected {failureType} on {failureCluster}. Affected replicas: {countReplicas}' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
}

MySQL复制相关调整:
slave_net_timeout
MASTER_CONNECT_RETRY

2. 恢复流程

 恢复的实例需要支持:GTID、伪GTID、开启Binlog。恢复的配置如下:

{
  "RecoveryPeriodBlockSeconds": 3600,
  "RecoveryIgnoreHostnameFilters": [],
  "RecoverMasterClusterFilters": [
    "thiscluster",
    "thatcluster"
  ],
  "RecoverMasterClusterFilters": ["*"],
  "RecoverIntermediateMasterClusterFilters": [
    "*"
  ],
}

{
  "ApplyMySQLPromotionAfterMasterFailover": true,
  "PreventCrossDataCenterMasterFailover": false,
  "FailMasterPromotionIfSQLThreadNotUpToDate": true,
  "MasterFailoverLostInstancesDowntimeMinutes": 10,
  "DetachLostReplicasAfterMasterFailover": true,
}

Hooks:
{
  "PreGracefulTakeoverProcesses": [
    "echo 'Planned takeover about to take place on {failureCluster}. Master will switch to read_only' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
  "PreFailoverProcesses": [
    "echo 'Will recover from {failureType} on {failureCluster}' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
  "PostFailoverProcesses": [
    "echo '(for all types) Recovered from {failureType} on {failureCluster}. Failed: {failedHost}:{failedPort}; Successor: {successorHost}:{successorPort}' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
  "PostUnsuccessfulFailoverProcesses": [],
  "PostMasterFailoverProcesses": [
    "echo 'Recovered from {failureType} on {failureCluster}. Failed: {failedHost}:
    {failedPort}; Promoted: {successorHost}:{successorPort}' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
  "PostIntermediateMasterFailoverProcesses": [],
  "PostGracefulTakeoverProcesses": [
    "echo 'Planned takeover complete' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
}

具体的参数含义请参考「MySQL高可用复制管理工具 —— Orchestrator介绍」。在执行故障检测和恢复的时候都可以执行外部自定义脚本(hooks),来配合使用(VIP、Proxy、DNS)。

可以恢复中继主库(DeadIntermediateMaster)和主库:

中继主库:恢复会找其同级的节点进行做主从。匹配副本按照哪些实例具有log-slave-updates、实例是否延迟、它们是否具有复制过滤器、哪些版本的MySQL等等

主库:恢复可以指定提升特定的从库「提升规则」(register-candidate),提升的从库不一定是最新的,而是选择最合适的,设置完提升规则之后,有效期为1个小时。

提升规则选项有:

prefer      --比较喜欢
neutral    --中立(默认)
prefer_not --比较不喜欢
must_not  --拒绝

恢复支持的类型有:自动恢复优雅的恢复手动恢复手动强制恢复,恢复的时候也可以执行相应的Hooks参数。具体的恢复流程可以看恢复流程的说明。关于恢复的配置可以官方说明

补充:每次恢复除了自动的Failover之外,都需要配合执行自己定义的Hooks的脚本来处理外部的一些操作:VIP修改、DNS修改、Proxy修改等等。所以这么多Hooks的参数该如何设置呢?哪个参数需要执行,哪个参数不需要执行,以及Hooks的执行顺序是怎么样的?虽然文章里有介绍,但为了更好的进行说明,下面进行各种恢复场景执行Hooks的顺序:

   "OnFailureDetectionProcesses": [   #检测故障时执行
    "echo '②  Detected {failureType} on {failureCluster}. Affected replicas: {countSlaves}' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
  "PreGracefulTakeoverProcesses": [   #在主变为只读之前立即执行
    "echo '①   Planned takeover about to take place on {failureCluster}. Master will switch to read_only' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
  "PreFailoverProcesses": [   #在执行恢复操作之前立即执行
    "echo '③  Will recover from {failureType} on {failureCluster}' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
  "PostMasterFailoverProcesses": [ #在主恢复成功结束时执行
    "echo '④  Recovered from {failureType} on {failureCluster}. Failed: {failedHost}:{failedPort}; Promoted: {successorHost}:{successorPort}' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
  "PostFailoverProcesses": [   #在任何成功恢复结束时执行
    "echo '⑤  (for all types) Recovered from {failureType} on {failureCluster}. Failed: {failedHost}:{failedPort}; Successor: {successorHost}:{successorPort}' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
  "PostUnsuccessfulFailoverProcesses": [  #在任何不成功的恢复结束时执行
    "echo '⑧  >> /tmp/recovery.log'"
  ],
  "PostIntermediateMasterFailoverProcesses": [  #在成功的中间主恢复结束时执行
    "echo '⑥ Recovered from {failureType} on {failureCluster}. Failed: {failedHost}:{failedPort}; Successor: {successorHost}:{successorPort}' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
  "PostGracefulTakeoverProcesses": [   #在旧主位于新晋升的主之后执行
    "echo '⑦ Planned takeover complete' >> /tmp/recovery.log"
  ],
View Code
 主库宕机,自动Failover
②  Detected UnreachableMaster on test1:3307. Affected replicas: 2
②  Detected DeadMaster on test1:3307. Affected replicas: 2
③  Will recover from DeadMaster on test1:3307
④  Recovered from DeadMaster on test1:3307. Failed: test1:3307; Promoted: test2:3307
⑤  (for all types) Recovered from DeadMaster on test1:3307. Failed: test1:3307; Successor: test2:3307

 优雅的主从切换:test2:3307优雅的切换到test1:3307,切换之后需要手动执行start slave
  orchestrator-client -c graceful-master-takeover -a test2:3307 -d test1:3307
①  Planned takeover about to take place on test2:3307. Master will switch to read_only
②  Detected DeadMaster on test2:3307. Affected replicas: 1
③  Will recover from DeadMaster on test2:3307
④  Recovered from DeadMaster on test2:3307. Failed: test2:3307; Promoted: test1:3307
⑤  (for all types) Recovered from DeadMaster on test2:3307. Failed: test2:3307; Successor: test1:3307
⑦ Planned takeover complete

 手动恢复,当从库进入停机或则维护模式,此时主库宕机,不会自动Failover,需要手动执行恢复,指定死掉的主实例:
  orchestrator-client -c recover -i test1:3307
②  Detected UnreachableMaster on test1:3307. Affected replicas: 2
②  Detected DeadMaster on test1:3307. Affected replicas: 2
③  Will recover from DeadMaster on test1:3307
④  Recovered from DeadMaster on test1:3307. Failed: test1:3307; Promoted: test2:3307
⑤  (for all types) Recovered from DeadMaster on test1:3307. Failed: test1:3307; Successor: test2:3307

 手动强制恢复,不管任何情况,都进行恢复:
  orchestrator-client -c force-master-failover -i test2:3307
②  Detected DeadMaster on test2:3307. Affected replicas: 2
③  Will recover from DeadMaster on test2:3307
②  Detected AllMasterSlavesNotReplicating on test2:3307. Affected replicas: 2
④  Recovered from DeadMaster on test2:3307. Failed: test2:3307; Promoted: test1:3307
⑤  (for all types) Recovered from DeadMaster on test2:3307. Failed: test2:3307; Successor: test1:3307

其中上面的情况下,⑥和⑧都没执行。因为⑥是执行中间主库时候执行的,没有中间主库(级联复制)可以不用设置。⑧是恢复失败的时候执行的,上面恢复没有出现失败,可以定义一些告警提醒。

生产环境上部署

在生产上部署Orchestrator,可以参考文档

1.  Orchestrator首先需要确认本身高可用的后端数据库是用单个MySQL,MySQL复制还是本身的Raft。

2. 运行发现服务(web、orchestrator-client) 

orchestrator-client -c discover -i this.hostname.com

3. 确定提升规则(某些服务器更适合被提升)

orchestrator -c register-candidate -i ${::fqdn} --promotion-rule ${promotion_rule}

4. 如果服务器出现问题,将在Web界面上的问题下拉列表中显示。使用Downtiming则不会在问题列表里显示,并且也不会进行恢复,处于维护模式。

orchestrator -c begin-downtime -i ${::fqdn} --duration=5m --owner=cron --reason=continuous_downtime"

也可以用API:
curl -s "http://my.orchestrator.service:80/api/begin-downtime/my.hostname/3306/wallace/experimenting+failover/45m"

5. 伪GTID,如果MySQL没有开启GTID,则可以开启伪GTID实现类似GTID的功能。

6. 保存元数据,元数据大部分通过参数的query来获取,比如在自的表cluster里获取集群的别名(DetectClusterAliasQuery)、数据中心(DetectDataCenterQuery)、域名(DetectClusterDomainQuery)等,以及复制的延迟(pt-heartbeat)、是否半同步(DetectSemiSyncEnforcedQuery)。以及可以通过正则匹配:DataCenterPattern、PhysicalEnvironmentPattern等。

7. 可以给实例打标签

命令行、API的使用

Orchestrator不仅有Web界面来进行查看和管理,还可以通过命令行(orchestrator-client)和API(curl)来执行更多的管理命令,现在来说明几个比较常用方法。

通过help来看下有哪些可以执行的命令:./orchestrator-client --help,命令的说明可以看手册说明

Usage: orchestrator-client -c <command> [flags...]
Example: orchestrator-client -c which-master -i some.replica
Options:

  -h, --help
    print this help
  -c <command>, --command <command>
    indicate the operation to perform (see listing below)
  -a <alias>, --alias <alias>
    cluster alias
  -o <owner>, --owner <owner>
    name of owner for downtime/maintenance commands
  -r <reason>, --reason <reason>
    reason for downtime/maintenance operation
  -u <duration>, --duration <duration>
    duration for downtime/maintenance operations
  -R <promotion rule>, --promotion-rule <promotion rule>
    rule for 'register-candidate' command
  -U <orchestrator_api>, --api <orchestrator_api>
    override $orchestrator_api environemtn variable,
    indicate where the client should connect to.
  -P <api path>, --path <api path>
    With '-c api', indicate the specific API path you wish to call
  -b <username:password>, --auth <username:password>
    Specify when orchestrator uses basic HTTP auth.
  -q <query>, --query <query>
    Indicate query for 'restart-replica-statements' command
  -l <pool name>, --pool <pool name>
    pool name for pool related commands
  -H <hostname> -h <hostname>
    indicate host for resolve and raft operations

    help                                     Show available commands
    which-api                                Output the HTTP API to be used
    api                                      Invoke any API request; provide --path argument
    async-discover                           Lookup an instance, investigate it asynchronously. Useful for bulk loads
    discover                                 Lookup an instance, investigate it
    forget                                   Forget about an instance's existence
    forget-cluster                           Forget about a cluster
    topology                                 Show an ascii-graph of a replication topology, given a member of that topology
    topology-tabulated                       Show an ascii-graph of a replication topology, given a member of that topology, in tabulated format
    clusters                                 List all clusters known to orchestrator
    clusters-alias                           List all clusters known to orchestrator
    search                                   Search for instances matching given substring
    instance"|"which-instance                Output the fully-qualified hostname:port representation of the given instance, or error if unknown
    which-master                             Output the fully-qualified hostname:port representation of a given instance's master
    which-replicas                           Output the fully-qualified hostname:port list of replicas of a given instance
    which-broken-replicas                    Output the fully-qualified hostname:port list of broken replicas of a given instance
    which-cluster-instances                  Output the list of instances participating in same cluster as given instance
    which-cluster                            Output the name of the cluster an instance belongs to, or error if unknown to orchestrator
    which-cluster-master                     Output the name of a writable master in given cluster
    all-clusters-masters                     List of writeable masters, one per cluster
    all-instances                            The complete list of known instances
    which-cluster-osc-replicas               Output a list of replicas in a cluster, that could serve as a pt-online-schema-change operation control replicas
    which-cluster-osc-running-replicas       Output a list of healthy, replicating replicas in a cluster, that could serve as a pt-online-schema-change operation control replicas
    downtimed                                List all downtimed instances
    dominant-dc                              Name the data center where most masters are found
    submit-masters-to-kv-stores              Submit a cluster's master, or all clusters' masters to KV stores
    relocate                                 Relocate a replica beneath another instance
    relocate-replicas                        Relocates all or part of the replicas of a given instance under another instance
    match                                    Matches a replica beneath another (destination) instance using Pseudo-GTID
    match-up                                 Transport the replica one level up the hierarchy, making it child of its grandparent, using Pseudo-GTID
    match-up-replicas                        Matches replicas of the given instance one level up the topology, making them siblings of given instance, using Pseudo-GTID
    move-up                                  Move a replica one level up the topology
    move-below                               Moves a replica beneath its sibling. Both replicas must be actively replicating from same master.
    move-equivalent                          Moves a replica beneath another server, based on previously recorded "equivalence coordinates"
    move-up-replicas                         Moves replicas of the given instance one level up the topology
    make-co-master                           Create a master-master replication. Given instance is a replica which replicates directly from a master.
    take-master                              Turn an instance into a master of its own master; essentially switch the two.
    move-gtid                                Move a replica beneath another instance via GTID
    move-replicas-gtid                       Moves all replicas of a given instance under another (destination) instance using GTID
    repoint                                  Make the given instance replicate from another instance without changing the binglog coordinates. Use with care
    repoint-replicas                         Repoint all replicas of given instance to replicate back from the instance. Use with care
    take-siblings                            Turn all siblings of a replica into its sub-replicas.
    tags                                     List tags for a given instance
    tag-value                                List tags for a given instance
    tag                                      Add a tag to a given instance. Tag in "tagname" or "tagname=tagvalue" format
    untag                                    Remove a tag from an instance
    untag-all                                Remove a tag from all matching instances
    tagged                                   List instances tagged by tag-string. Format: "tagname" or "tagname=tagvalue" or comma separated "tag0,tag1=val1,tag2" for intersection of all.
    submit-pool-instances                    Submit a pool name with a list of instances in that pool
    which-heuristic-cluster-pool-instances   List instances of a given cluster which are in either any pool or in a specific pool
    begin-downtime                           Mark an instance as downtimed
    end-downtime                             Indicate an instance is no longer downtimed
    begin-maintenance                        Request a maintenance lock on an instance
    end-maintenance                          Remove maintenance lock from an instance
    register-candidate                       Indicate the promotion rule for a given instance
    register-hostname-unresolve              Assigns the given instance a virtual (aka "unresolved") name
    deregister-hostname-unresolve            Explicitly deregister/dosassociate a hostname with an "unresolved" name
    stop-replica                             Issue a STOP SLAVE on an instance
    stop-replica-nice                        Issue a STOP SLAVE on an instance, make effort to stop such that SQL thread is in sync with IO thread (ie all relay logs consumed)
    start-replica                            Issue a START SLAVE on an instance
    restart-replica                          Issue STOP and START SLAVE on an instance
    reset-replica                            Issues a RESET SLAVE command; use with care
    detach-replica                           Stops replication and modifies binlog position into an impossible yet reversible value.
    reattach-replica                         Undo a detach-replica operation
    detach-replica-master-host               Stops replication and modifies Master_Host into an impossible yet reversible value.
    reattach-replica-master-host             Undo a detach-replica-master-host operation
    skip-query                               Skip a single statement on a replica; either when running with GTID or without
    gtid-errant-reset-master                 Remove errant GTID transactions by way of RESET MASTER
    gtid-errant-inject-empty                 Apply errant GTID as empty transactions on cluster's master
    enable-semi-sync-master                  Enable semi-sync (master-side)
    disable-semi-sync-master                 Disable semi-sync (master-side)
    enable-semi-sync-replica                 Enable semi-sync (replica-side)
    disable-semi-sync-replica                Disable semi-sync (replica-side)
    restart-replica-statements               Given `-q "<query>"` that requires replication restart to apply, wrap query with stop/start slave statements as required to restore instance to same replication state. Print out set of statements
    can-replicate-from                       Check if an instance can potentially replicate from another, according to replication rules
    can-replicate-from-gtid                  Check if an instance can potentially replicate from another, according to replication rules and assuming Oracle GTID
    is-replicating                           Check if an instance is replicating at this time (both SQL and IO threads running)
    is-replication-stopped                   Check if both SQL and IO threads state are both strictly stopped.
    set-read-only                            Turn an instance read-only, via SET GLOBAL read_only := 1
    set-writeable                            Turn an instance writeable, via SET GLOBAL read_only := 0
    flush-binary-logs                        Flush binary logs on an instance
    last-pseudo-gtid                         Dump last injected Pseudo-GTID entry on a server
    recover                                  Do auto-recovery given a dead instance, assuming orchestrator agrees there's a problem. Override blocking.
    graceful-master-takeover                 Gracefully promote a new master. Either indicate identity of new master via '-d designated.instance.com' or setup replication tree to have a single direct replica to the master.
    force-master-failover                    Forcibly discard master and initiate a failover, even if orchestrator doesn't see a problem. This command lets orchestrator choose the replacement master
    force-master-takeover                    Forcibly discard master and promote another (direct child) instance instead, even if everything is running well
    ack-cluster-recoveries                   Acknowledge recoveries for a given cluster; this unblocks pending future recoveries
    ack-all-recoveries                       Acknowledge all recoveries
    disable-global-recoveries                Disallow orchestrator from performing recoveries globally
    enable-global-recoveries                 Allow orchestrator to perform recoveries globally
    check-global-recoveries                  Show the global recovery configuration
    replication-analysis                     Request an analysis of potential crash incidents in all known topologies
    raft-leader                              Get identify of raft leader, assuming raft setup
    raft-health                              Whether node is part of a healthy raft group
    raft-leader-hostname                     Get hostname of raft leader, assuming raft setup
    raft-elect-leader                        Request raft re-elections, provide hint for new leader's identity
View Code

orchestrator-client不需要和Orchestrator服务放一起,不需要访问后端数据库,在任意一台上都可以。

注意:因为配置了Raft,有多个Orchestrator,所以需要ORCHESTRATOR_API的环境变量,orchestrator-client会自动选择leader。如:

export ORCHESTRATOR_API="test1:3000/api test2:3000/api test3:3000/api"

1. 列出所有集群:clusters

默认:

# orchestrator-client -c clusters
test2:3307

返回包含集群别名:clusters-alias

# orchestrator-client -c clusters-alias
test2:3307,test

2. 发现指定实例:discover/async-discover

同步发现:

# orchestrator-client -c discover -i test1:3307
test1:3307

异步发现:适用于批量

# orchestrator-client -c async-discover -i test1:3307
:null

3. 忘记指定对象:forget/forget-cluster

忘记指定实例:

# orchestrator-client -c forget -i test1:3307

忘记指定集群:

# orchestrator-client -c forget-cluster -i test

4. 打印指定集群的拓扑:topology/topology-tabulated

普通返回:

# orchestrator-client -c topology -i test1:3307
test2:3307   [0s,ok,5.7.25-0ubuntu0.16.04.2-log,rw,ROW,>>,GTID]
+ test1:3307 [0s,ok,5.7.25-0ubuntu0.16.04.2-log,ro,ROW,>>,GTID]
+ test3:3307 [0s,ok,5.7.25-log,ro,ROW,>>,GTID]

列表返回:

# orchestrator-client -c topology-tabulated -i test1:3307
test2:3307  |0s|ok|5.7.25-0ubuntu0.16.04.2-log|rw|ROW|>>,GTID
+ test1:3307|0s|ok|5.7.25-0ubuntu0.16.04.2-log|ro|ROW|>>,GTID
+ test3:3307|0s|ok|5.7.25-log                 |ro|ROW|>>,GTID

5. 查看使用哪个API:自己会选择出leader。which-api

# orchestrator-client -c which-api
test3:3000/api

也可以通过 http://192.168.163.133:3000/api/leader-check 查看。

6. 调用api请求,需要和 -path 参数一起:api..-path

# orchestrator-client -c api -path clusters
[ "test2:3307" ]
# orchestrator-client -c api -path leader-check
"OK"
# orchestrator-client -c api -path status
{ "Code": "OK", "Message": "Application node is healthy"...}

7. 搜索实例:search

# orchestrator-client -c search -i test
test2:3307
test1:3307
test3:3307

8. 打印指定实例的主库:which-master 

# orchestrator-client -c which-master -i test1:3307
test2:3307
# orchestrator-client -c which-master -i test3:3307
test2:3307
# orchestrator-client -c which-master -i test2:3307 #自己本身是主库
:0

9. 打印指定实例的从库:which-replicas 

# orchestrator-client -c which-replicas -i test2:3307
test1:3307
test3:3307

10. 打印指定实例的实例名:which-instance 

# orchestrator-client -c instance -i test1:3307
test1:3307

11. 打印指定主实例从库异常的列表:which-broken-replicas,模拟test3的复制异常:

# orchestrator-client -c which-broken-replicas -i test2:3307
test3:3307

12. 给出一个实例或则集群别名,打印出该实例所在集群下的所有其他实例。which-cluster-instances

# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster-instances -i test
test1:3307
test2:3307
test3:3307
root@test1:~# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster-instances -i test1:3307
test1:3307
test2:3307
test3:3307

13. 给出一个实例,打印该实的集群名称:默认是hostname:port。which-cluster 

# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster -i test1:3307
test2:3307# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster -i test2:3307
test2:3307# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster -i test3:3307
test2:3307

14. 打印出指定实例/集群名或则所有所在集群的可写实例,:which-cluster-master

指定实例:which-cluster-master

# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster-master -i test2:3307
test2:3307
# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster-master -i test
test2:3307

所有实例:all-clusters-masters,每个集群返回一个

# orchestrator-client -c all-clusters-masters
test1:3307

15. 打印出所有实例:all-instances

# orchestrator-client -c all-instances
test2:3307
test1:3307
test3:3307

16. 打印出集群中可以作为pt-online-schema-change操作的副本列表:which-cluster-osc-replicas 

~# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster-osc-replicas -i test
test1:3307
test3:3307
root@test1:~# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster-osc-replicas -i test2:3307
test1:3307
test3:3307

17. 打印出集群中可以作为pt-online-schema-change可以操作的健康的副本列表:which-cluster-osc-running-replicas

# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster-osc-running-replicas -i test
test1:3307
test3:3307
# orchestrator-client -c which-cluster-osc-running-replicas -i test1:3307
test1:3307
test3:3307

18. 打印出所有在维护(downtimed)的实例:downtimed

# orchestrator-client -c downtimed
test1:3307
test3:3307

19. 打印出进群中主的数据中心:dominant-dc

# orchestrator-client -c dominant-dc
BJ

20. 将集群的主提交到KV存储。submit-masters-to-kv-stores

# orchestrator-client -c submit-masters-to-kv-stores 
mysql/master/test:test2:3307
mysql/master/test/hostname:test2
mysql/master/test/port:3307
mysql/master/test/ipv4:192.168.163.132
mysql/master/test/ipv6:

21. 迁移从库到另一个实例上:relocate

# orchestrator-client -c relocate -i test3:3307 -d test1:3307   #迁移test3:3307作为test1:3307的从库
test3:3307<test1:3307

查看
# orchestrator-client -c topology -i test2:3307
test2:3307     [0s,ok,5.7.25-0ubuntu0.16.04.2-log,rw,ROW,>>,GTID]
+ test1:3307   [0s,ok,5.7.25-0ubuntu0.16.04.2-log,ro,ROW,>>,GTID]
  + test3:3307 [0s,ok,5.7.25-log,ro,ROW,>>,GTID]

22. 迁移一个实例的所有从库到另一个实例上:relocate-replicas

# orchestrator-client -c relocate-replicas -i test1:3307 -d test2:3307   #迁移test1:3307下的所有从库到test2:3307下,并列出被迁移的从库的实例名
test3:3307

23. 将slave在拓扑上向上移动一级,对应web上的是在Classic Model下进行拖动:move-up

# orchestrator-client -c move-up -i test3:3307 -d test2:3307
test3:3307<test2:3307

 结构从 test2:3307 -> test1:3307 -> test3:3307 变成 test2:3307 -> test1:3307

                              -> test3:3307

24. 将slave在拓扑上向下移动一级(移到同级的下面),对应web上的是在Classic Model下进行拖动:move-below

# orchestrator-client -c move-below -i test3:3307 -d test1:3307
test3:3307<test1:3307

 结构从 test2:3307 -> test1:3307  变成  test2:3307 -> test1:3307 -> test3:3307

           -> test3:3307

25. 将给定实例的所有从库在拓扑上向上移动一级,基于Classic Model模式:move-up-replicas

# orchestrator-client -c move-up-replicas -i test1:3307  
 test3:3307

 结构从 test2:3307 -> test1:3307 -> test3:3307 变成 test2:3307 -> test1:3307

                             -> test3:3307

26. 创建主主复制,将给定实例直接和当前主库做成主主复制:make-co-master

# orchestrator-client -c make-co-master -i test1:3307
test1:3307<test2:3307

27.将实例转换为自己主人的主人,切换两个:take-master 

# orchestrator-client -c take-master -i test3:3307
test3:3307<test2:3307

结构从 test2:3307 -> test1:3307 -> test3:3307 变成 test2:3307 -> test3:3307 -> test1:3307

28. 通过GTID移动副本,move-gtid:

通过orchestrator-client执行报错:

# orchestrator-client -c move-gtid -i test3:3307 -d test1:3307
parse error: Invalid numeric literal at line 1, column 9
parse error: Invalid numeric literal at line 1, column 9
parse error: Invalid numeric literal at line 1, column 9

通过orchestrator执行是没问题,需要添加--ignore-raft-setup参数:

# orchestrator -c move-gtid -i test3:3307 -d test2:3307 --ignore-raft-setup
test3:3307<test2:3307

29.通过GTID移动指定实例下的所有slaves到另一个实例,move-replicas-gtid

通过orchestrator-client执行报错:

# orchestrator-client -c move-replicas-gtid -i test3:3307 -d test1:3307
jq: error (at <stdin>:1): Cannot index string with string "Key"

通过orchestrator执行是没问题,需要添加--ignore-raft-setup参数: 

# ./orchestrator -c move-replicas-gtid -i test2:3307 -d test1:3307 --ignore-raft-setup
test3:3307

30. 将给定实例的同级slave,变更成他的slave,take-siblings

# orchestrator-client -c take-siblings -i test3:3307
test3:3307<test1:3307

结构从 test1:3307 -> test2:3307  变成  test1:3307 -> test3:3307 -> test2:3307

           -> test3:3307

31. 给指定实例打上标签,tag

# orchestrator-client -c tag -i test1:3307 --tag 'name=AAA'
test1:3307 

32. 列出指定实例的标签,tags:

# orchestrator-client -c tags -i test1:3307
name=AAA 

33. 列出给定实例的标签值:tag-value

# orchestrator-client -c tag-value -i test1:3307 --tag "name"
AAA

34. 移除指定实例上的标签:untag

# orchestrator-client -c untag -i test1:3307 --tag "name=AAA"
test1:3307 

35. 列出打过某个标签的实例,tagged:

# orchestrator-client -c tagged -t name
test3:3307
test1:3307
test2:3307

36. 标记指定实例进入停用模式,包括时间、操作人、和原因,begin-downtime:

# orchestrator-client -c begin-downtime -i test1:3307 -duration=10m -owner=zjy -reason 'test'
test1:3307

37. 移除指定实例的停用模式,end--downtime:

# orchestrator-client -c end-downtime -i test1:3307
test1:3307

38. 请求指定实例上的维护锁:拓扑更改需要将锁放在最小受影响的实例上,以避免在同一个实例上发生两个不协调的操作,begin-maintenance :

# orchestrator-client -c begin-maintenance -i test1:3307 --reason "XXX"
test1:3307

锁默认10分钟后过期,有参数MaintenanceExpireMinutes。

39. 移除指定实例上的维护锁:end-maintenance

# orchestrator-client -c end-maintenance -i test1:3307
test1:3307

40. 设置提升规则,恢复时可以指定一个实例进行提升:register-candidate:需要和promotion-rule一起使用

# orchestrator-client -c register-candidate -i test3:3307 --promotion-rule prefer 
test3:3307

提升test3:3307的权重,如果进行Failover,会成为Master。

41. 指定实例执行停止复制:

普通的:stop slave:stop-replica

# orchestrator-client -c stop-replica -i test2:3307
test2:3307

应用完relay log,在stop slave:stop-replica-nice

# orchestrator-client -c stop-replica-nice -i test2:3307
test2:3307

42.指定实例执行开启复制: start-replica 

# orchestrator-client -c start-replica -i test2:3307
test2:3307

43. 指定实例执行复制重启:restart-replica

# orchestrator-client -c restart-replica -i test2:3307
test2:3307

44.指定实例执行复制重置:reset-replica

# orchestrator-client -c reset-replica -i test2:3307
test2:3307

45.分离副本:非GTID修改binlog position,detach-replica :

# orchestrator-client -c detach-replica -i test2:3307

46.恢复副本:reattach-replica 

# orchestrator-client -c reattach-replica  -i test2:3307 

47.分离副本:注释master_host来分离,detach-replica-master-host :如Master_Host: //test1

# orchestrator-client -c detach-replica-master-host -i test2:3307
test2:3307

48. 恢复副本:reattach-replica-master-host

# orchestrator-client -c reattach-replica-master-host -i test2:3307
test2:3307

49. 跳过SQL线程的Query,如主键冲突,支持在GTID和非GTID下:skip-query 

# orchestrator-client -c skip-query -i test2:3307
test2:3307

50. 将错误的GTID事务当做空事务应用副本的主上:gtid-errant-inject-empty「web上的fix」

# orchestrator-client -c gtid-errant-inject-empty  -i test2:3307
test2:3307 

51.  通过RESET MASTER删除错误的GTID事务:gtid-errant-reset-master 

# orchestrator-client -c gtid-errant-reset-master  -i test2:3307
test2:3307

52. 设置半同步相关的参数:

orchestrator-client -c $variable -i test1:3307
    enable-semi-sync-master      主上执行开启半同步
    disable-semi-sync-master      主上执行关闭半同步
    enable-semi-sync-replica       从上执行开启半同步
    disable-semi-sync-replica      从上执行关闭半同步

53. 执行需要stop/start slave配合的SQL:restart-replica-statements

# orchestrator-client -c restart-replica-statements -i test3:3307 -query "change master to auto_position=1" | jq .[] -r 
stop slave io_thread;
stop slave sql_thread;
change master to auto_position=1;
start slave sql_thread;
start slave io_thread;

# orchestrator-client -c restart-replica-statements -i test3:3307 -query "change master to master_auto_position=1" | jq .[] -r  |  mysql -urep -p -htest3 -P3307
Enter password: 

54.根据复制规则检查实例是否可以从另一个实例复制(GTID和非GTID):

非GTID,can-replicate-from: 

# orchestrator-client -c can-replicate-from -i test3:3307 -d test1:3307
test1:3307

GTID:can-replicate-from-gtid

# orchestrator-client -c can-replicate-from-gtid -i test3:3307 -d test1:3307
test1:3307 

55. 检查指定实例是否在复制:is-replicating 

#有返回在复制
# orchestrator-client -c is-replicating -i test2:3307
test2:3307

#没有返回,不在复制
# orchestrator-client -c is-replicating -i test1:3307

56.检查指定实例的IO和SQL限制是否都停止: 

# orchestrator-client -c is-replicating -i test2:3307

57.将指定实例设置为只读,通过SET GLOBAL read_only=1,set-read-only:

# orchestrator-client -c set-read-only -i test2:3307
test2:3307

58.将指定实例设置为读写,通过SET GLOBAL read_only=0,set-writeable

# orchestrator-client -c set-writeable -i test2:3307
test2:3307

59. 轮询指定实例的binary log,flush-binary-logs

# orchestrator-client -c flush-binary-logs -i test1:3307
test1:3307

60. 手动执行恢复,指定一个死机的实例,recover:

# orchestrator-client -c recover -i test2:3307
test3:3307

测试下来,该参数会让处理停机或则维护状态下的实例进行强制恢复。结构:

test1:3307 -> test2:3307 -> test3:3307(downtimed)  当test2:3307死掉之后,此时test3:3307处于停机状态,不会进行Failover,执行后变成

test1:3307 -> test2:3307

     -> test3:3307

61. 优雅的进行主和指定从切换,graceful-master-takeover:

# orchestrator-client -c graceful-master-takeover -a test1:3307 -d test2:3307
test2:3307

结构从test1:3307 -> test2:3307 变成 test2:3307 -> test1:3307。新主指定变成读写,新从变成只读,还需要手动start slave。

注意需要配置:需要从元表里找到复制的账号和密码。

"ReplicationCredentialsQuery":"SELECT repl_user, repl_pass from meta.cluster where anchor=1"

62. 手动强制执行恢复,即使orch没有发现问题,force-master-failover:转移之后老主独立,需要手动加入到集群。

# orchestrator-client -c force-master-failover -i test1:3307
test3:3307

63.强行丢弃master并指定的一个实例,force-master-takeover:老主(test1)独立,指定从(test2)提升为master

# orchestrator-client -c force-master-takeover -i test1:3307 -d test2:3307
test2:3307

64. 确认集群恢复理由,在web上的Audit->Recovery->Acknowledged 按钮确认,/ack-all-recoveries 

确认指定集群:ack-cluster-recoveries

# orchestrator-client -c ack-cluster-recoveries  -i test2:3307 -reason=''
test1:3307

确认所有集群:ack-all-recoveries 

# orchestrator-client -c ack-all-recoveries  -reason='OOOPPP'
eason=XYZ

65.检查、禁止、开启orchestrator执行全局恢复:

检查:check-global-recoveries

# orchestrator-client -c check-global-recoveries
enabled

禁止:disable-global-recoveries

# orchestrator-client -c disable-global-recoveries
disabled

开启:enable--global-recoveries

# orchestrator-client -c enable-global-recoveries
enabled

66. 检查分析复制拓扑中存在的问题:replication-analysis

# orchestrator-client -c replication-analysis
test1:3307 (cluster test1:3307): ErrantGTIDStructureWarning

67. raft检测:leader查看、健康监测、迁移leader:

查看leader节点
# orchestrator-client -c raft-leader
192.168.163.131:10008

健康监测
# orchestrator-client -c raft-health
healthy

leader 主机名
# orchestrator-client -c  raft-leader-hostname 
test1

指定主机选举leader
# orchestrator-client -c raft-elect-leader -hostname test3
test3

68.伪GTID相关参数:

match      #使用Pseudo-GTID指定一个从匹配到指定的另一个(目标)实例下
match-up #Transport the replica one level up the hierarchy, making it child of its grandparent, using Pseudo-GTID
match-up-replicas  #Matches replicas of the given instance one level up the topology, making them siblings of given instance, using Pseudo-GTID
last-pseudo-gtid #Dump last injected Pseudo-GTID entry on a server

到此关于Orchestrator的使用以及命令行说明已经介绍完毕,Web API可以在Orchestrator API查看,通过命令行和API上的操作可以更好的进行自动化开发。

总结:

Orchestrator是一款开源(go编写)的MySQL复制拓扑管理工具,支持MySQL主从复制拓扑关系的调整、主库故障自动切换、手动主从切换等功能。提供Web界面展示MySQL集群的拓扑关系及状态,可以更改MySQL实例的部分配置信息,也提供命令行和api接口。相对比MHA,Orchestrator自身可以部署多个节点,通过raft分布式一致性协议来保证自身的高可用。

 

更多玩法MySQL High Availability at GitHub,翻译文 GitHub 的 MySQL 高可用性实践分享

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 万物之中,希望至美 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
posted @ 2019-02-22 11:10  jyzhou  阅读(20889)  评论(4编辑  收藏  举报