Linux and Python

ELK 之三:Kibana 使用与Tomcat、Nginx 日志格式处理

一:kibana安装:

  kibana主要是搜索elasticsearch的数据,并进行数据可视化的展现,新版使用nodejs。

1、下载地址:

https://www.elastic.co/downloads/kibana

2、解压安装:

[root@node6 local]# tar xvf kibana-4.1.1-linux-x64.tar.gz 
[root@node6 local]# mv kibana-4.1.1-linux-x64 kibana
[root@node6 ~]# cd /usr/local/kibana/
[root@node6 kibana]# ls
bin config LICENSE.txt node plugins README.txt src

3、编辑配置文件:

[root@node6 kibana]# cd config/
[root@node6 config]# ls
kibana.yml
[root@node6 config]# vim kibana.yml
elasticsearch_url: "http://192.168.10.206:9200"

4、直接启动:

[root@node6 kibana]# bin/kibana 
{"name":"Kibana","hostname":"node6.a.com","pid":3942,"level":30,"msg":"No existing kibana index found","time":"2016-04-12T12:20:50.069Z","v":0}
{"name":"Kibana","hostname":"node6.a.com","pid":3942,"level":30,"msg":"Listening on 0.0.0.0:5601","time":"2016-04-12T12:20:50.096Z","v":0}

 5、验证启动:

[root@node6 ~]# ps -ef | grep  kibana
root       3942   3745  3 20:20 pts/2    00:00:01 bin/../node/bin/node bin/../src/bin/kibana.js
root       3968   3947  0 20:21 pts/3    00:00:00 grep kibana
[root@node6 ~]# ss -tnl | grep 5601
LISTEN     0      128                       *:5601                     *:*   

 6、后台启动:

[root@node6 kibana]# nohup  bin/kibana &
[1] 3975

7、访问测试:默认监听端口5601
http://192.168.10.206:5601

8、配置索引:索引的名称要和logstash的output生成的索引能进行匹配才可以

9、查看数据:默认显示最新的500个文档

10、数据精确搜索:

11、搜索高级语法:

status:404 OR status:500  #搜索状态是404或者是500之一的
status:301 AND status:200  #搜索即是301和200同时匹配的
status:[200 TO 300] :搜索指定范围的

12、保存常用的搜索语法:


 

二:其他的常用模块:

1、系统日志收集---> syslog:配置syslog结果写入到elasticsearch,指定端口514,主机就是要收集日志的服务器IP地址,即可使用

2、访问日志:nginx转换成json格式

3、错误日志:使用codec插件:

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/logstash/1.5/codec-plugins.html
input {
  stdin {
    codec => multiline {  #多行日志,比如java的日志
      pattern => "^\s"  #pattern => ".*\t.*"  #找到换行符,会把多行认为是一行,即会把当前行和上一行合成一行,直到有换行符结束
      what => "previous"
    }
  }
}

4、运行日志 codec => json,如果不是json要使用grok进行匹配,相对比较麻烦,如果丢日志就看logstash.log,另外检查日志是否有效的json格式:

json效验地址:http://www.bejson.com/

5、kibana的时区和时间问题:kibana会自动根据浏览器将时间加8小时,通过logstash写入会自动解决,如果通过python脚本等写入会产生时间问题

6、在地图显示IP具体来源地址:

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/logstash/1.5/filter-plugins.html

7、条件判断:

input {
  file {
    type => "apache"
    path => "/var/log/apache.log"
  }
  file {
    type => "tomcat"
    path => "/var/log/tomcat.log"
  }
}
filter {
if [type] == "apache" { #假如索引为apache,就执行以下操作 redis { data_type => "list" key => "system-message-jack" host => "192.168.10.205" port => "6379" db => "0" } if [type] == "tomcat" { #假如索引为tomcat,就执行一次操作 redis { data_type => "list" key => "system-message-tomcat" host => "192.168.10.205" port => "6379" db => "1" #写不同的数据库 } }

 nginx 最好设置buffer大小,64k

kibana要添加elastsearch的key

搜索的语法:直接搜索键值  a:b  AND ALL NOT进行匹配。范围 [200-299]

6.测试logstash配置文件语法是否正确:

6.1:配置正确的检查结果:

[root@elk-server2 conf.d]# /etc/init.d/logstash configtest
Configuration OK

6.2:语法错误的显示结果:

[root@elk-server2 tianqi]# /etc/init.d/logstash configtest
The given configuration is invalid. Reason: Expected one of #, {, } at line 17, column 53 (byte 355) after output {
    if  [type] == "nginx3"  {
        elasticsearch {
                hosts => ["192.168.0.251:9200"]
                index => "logstash-newsmart-nginx3-" {:level=>:fatal}  #会指明语法错误的具体地方

 

三:tomcat日志:

1、tomcat日志默认不是json格式的,但是logstash分析的时候就没有key和valus了,所以我们可以将tomcat日志的格式定义为json的格式:

directory="logs"  prefix="localhost_access_log." suffix=".log"
     pattern="{"client":"%h",  "client user":"%l",   "authenticated":"%u",   "access time":"%t",     "method":"%r",   "status":"%s",  "send bytes":"%b",  "Query?string":"%q",  "partner":"%{Referer}i",  "Agent version":"%{User-Agent}i"}"/>

2、取到的日志结果为:

{"client":"180.95.129.206",  "client user":"-",   "authenticated":"-",   "access time":"[20/Apr/2016:03:47:40 +0000]",     "method":"GET /image/android_logo.png HTTP/1.1",   "status":"200",  "send bytes":"1915",  "Query string":"",  "partner":"http://mobile.weathercn.com/index.do?id=101160101&partner=1000001003",  "Agent version":"Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 5.1.1; zh-cn; NX510J Build/LMY47V) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko)Version/4.0 Chrome/37.0.0.0 MQQBrowser/6.6 Mobile Safari/537.36"}

3、在线验证是否合法的json格式:

地址:http://www.bejson.com/,将完整的一行日志复制到验证框,然后点验证即可:结果如下

 

四:nginx 日志格式处理:

1、编辑nginx.conf配置文件,自定义一个日志格式:

[root@node5 ~]# vim  /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

2、添加内容如下:

    log_format logstash_json '{"@timestamp":"$time_iso8601",'
        '"host":"$server_addr",'
        '"clientip":"$remote_addr",'
        '"size":$body_bytes_sent,'
        '"responsetime":$request_time,'
        '"upstreamtime":"$upstream_response_time",'
        '"upstreamhost":"$upstream_addr",'
        '"http_host":"$host",'
        '"url":"$uri",'
        '"domain":"$host",'
        '"xff":"$http_x_forwarded_for",'
        '"referer":"$http_referer",'
        '"agent":"$http_user_agent",'
        '"status":"$status"}';

 3、编辑主机配置:

[root@node5 ~]# grep -v "#"  /etc/nginx/conf.d/locathost.conf  | grep -v "^$" 
server {
    listen       9009; #监听的端口
    server_name  www.a.com;  #主机名
    
    access_log  /var/log/nginx/json.access.log  logstash_json;  #定义日志路径为/var/log/nginx/json.access.log,并引用在主配置文件nginx.conf中定义的json日志格式
    include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;
    location / {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
        index  index.html index.htm;
    }
    error_page  404              /404.html;
    location = /404.html {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
    }
    error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
    location = /50x.html {
        root   /usr/share/nginx/html;
    }
}

4、重启nginx,查看日志格式是json格式了:

[root@node5 ~]# tail /var/log/nginx/json.access.log 
{"@timestamp":"2016-04-12T22:15:19+08:00","host":"192.168.10.205","clientip":"192.168.10.205","size":3698,"responsetime":0.000,"upstreamtime":"-","upstreamhost":"-","http_host":"192.168.10.205","url":"/index.html","domain":"192.168.10.205","xff":"-","referer":"-","agent":"ApacheBench/2.3","status":"200"}
{"@timestamp":"2016-04-12T22:15:19+08:00","host":"192.168.10.205","clientip":"192.168.10.205","size":3698,"responsetime":0.000,"upstreamtime":"-","upstreamhost":"-","http_host":"192.168.10.205","url":"/index.html","domain":"192.168.10.205","xff":"-","referer":"-","agent":"ApacheBench/2.3","status":"200"}
{"@timestamp":"2016-04-12T22:15:19+08:00","host":"192.168.10.205","clientip":"192.168.10.205","size":3698,"responsetime":0.000,"upstreamtime":"-","upstreamhost":"-","http_host":"192.168.10.205","url":"/index.html","domain":"192.168.10.205","xff":"-","referer":"-","agent":"ApacheBench/2.3","status":"200"}
{"@timestamp":"2016-04-12T22:15:19+08:00","host":"192.168.10.205","clientip":"192.168.10.205","size":3698,"responsetime":0.000,"upstreamtime":"-","upstreamhost":"-","http_host":"192.168.10.205","url":"/index.html","domain":"192.168.10.205","xff":"-","referer":"-","agent":"ApacheBench/2.3","status":"200"}
{"@timestamp":"2016-04-12T22:15:19+08:00","host":"192.168.10.205","clientip":"192.168.10.205","size":3698,"responsetime":0.001,"upstreamtime":"-","upstreamhost":"-","http_host":"192.168.10.205","url":"/index.html","domain":"192.168.10.205","xff":"-","referer":"-","agent":"ApacheBench/2.3","status":"200"}
{"@timestamp":"2016-04-12T22:15:19+08:00","host":"192.168.10.205","clientip":"192.168.10.205","size":3698,"responsetime":0.000,"upstreamtime":"-","upstreamhost":"-","http_host":"192.168.10.205","url":"/index.html","domain":"192.168.10.205","xff":"-","referer":"-","agent":"ApacheBench/2.3","status":"200"}

5、在线效验日志格式是否正确:

效验地址:http://www.bejson.com/

 

五:画图功能

在地图显示IP的访问次数统计:

1、在elasticsearch服务器用户家目录下载一个Filebeat 模板:

cd ~
curl -O https://gist.githubusercontent.com/thisismitch/3429023e8438cc25b86c/raw/d8c479e2a1adcea8b1fe86570e42abab0f10f364/filebeat-index-template.json #这是一个模板文件

2、加载模板:

[root@elk-server1 ~]# curl -XPUT 'http://192.168.0.251:9200/_template/filebeat?pretty' -d@filebeat-index-template.json  #是elasticsearch监听的IP地址
{
  "acknowledged" : true  #一定要返回true才表示成功
}

3、下载GeoIP 数据库文件:

[root@elk-server1 ~]# cd /etc/logstash/
[root@elk-server1 logstash]# curl -O "http://geolite.maxmind.com/download/geoip/database/GeoLiteCity.dat.gz"
[root@elk-server1 logstash]# gunzip GeoLiteCity.dat.gz
[root@elk-server1 logstash]# ls
conf.d  GeoLiteCity.dat  #确认文件存在

4、配置logstash使用GeoIP:

[root@elk-server1 logstash]# vim /etc/logstash/conf.d/11-mobile-tomcat-access.conf  #logstash的文件配置要以.conf结尾

input {
        redis {
                data_type => "list"
                key => "mobile-tomcat-access-log"
                host => "192.168.0.251"
                port => "6379"
                db => "0"
                codec  => "json"
        }
}

#input部分为从redis读取客户端logstash分析提交后的访问日志

filter {
        if [type] == "mobile-tomcat" {
        geoip {
                source => "client"  #client 是客户端logstash收集日志时定义的公网IP的key名称,一定要和实际名称一致,因为要通过此名称获取到其对于的ip地址
                target => "geoip"
                database => "/etc/logstash/GeoLiteCity.dat"
                add_field => [ "[geoip][coordinates]", "%{[geoip][longitude]}" ]
                add_field => [ "[geoip][coordinates]", "%{[geoip][latitude]}"  ]
        }
    mutate {
      convert => [ "[geoip][coordinates]", "float"]
        }
    }
}


output { 
        if [type] == "mobile-tomcat" {
        elasticsearch {
                hosts => ["192.168.0.251"]
                manage_template => true
                index => "logstash-mobile-tomcat-access-log-%{+YYYY.MM.dd}" #index的名称一定要是logstash开头的,否则会在使用地图的时候出现geoIP type无法找找到的类似错误
                flush_size => 2000
                idle_flush_time => 10
                }
        }
}

5、在kibana界面添加新的索引,然后visualize---->Tile map---->From a new search---->Select a index patterm--->选择之前的index---->Geo coordinates,然后点绿色的运行按钮即可:

 

posted @ 2016-04-12 21:48 jack.hang 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏