python操作Excel模块openpyxl

1、 安装

pip install openpyxl

想要在文件中插入图片文件,需要安装pillow安装文件PIL-fork-1.1.7.win-amd64-py2.7.exe

 

· font(字体类):字号、字体颜色、下划线等

· fill(填充类):颜色等

· border(边框类):设置单元格边框

· alignment(位置类):对齐方式

· number_format(格式类):数据格式

· protection(保护类):写保护

 

2、 创建一个excel 文件,并写入不同类的内容

 

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from openpyxl import Workbook
wb = Workbook()    #创建文件对象

# grab the active worksheet
ws = wb.active     #获取第一个sheet

# Data can be assigned directly to cells
ws['A1'] = 42      #写入数字
ws['B1'] = "你好"+"automation test" #写入中文(unicode中文也可)

# Rows can also be appended
ws.append([1, 2, 3])    #写入多个单元格

# Python types will automatically be converted
import datetime
import time
ws['A2'] = datetime.datetime.now()    #写入一个当前时间
#写入一个自定义的时间格式
ws['A3'] =time.strftime("%Y年%m月%d日 %H时%M分%S秒",time.localtime())

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

3、 创建sheet

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from openpyxl import Workbook
wb = Workbook()

ws1 = wb.create_sheet("Mysheet")           #创建一个sheet
ws1.title = "New Title"                    #设定一个sheet的名字
ws2 = wb.create_sheet("Mysheet", 0)      #设定sheet的插入位置 默认插在后面
ws2.title = u"你好"    #设定一个sheet的名字 必须是Unicode

ws1.sheet_properties.tabColor = "1072BA"   #设定sheet的标签的背景颜色

#获取某个sheet对象
print wb.get_sheet_by_name(u"你好"  )
print wb["New Title" ]

#获取全部sheet 的名字,遍历sheet名字
print wb.sheetnames
for sheet_name in wb.sheetnames:
    print sheet_name

print "*"*50

for sheet in wb:
    print sheet.title

#复制一个sheet
wb["New Title" ]["A1"]="zeke"
source = wb["New Title" ]
target = wb.copy_worksheet(source)

# w3 = wb.copy_worksheet(wb['new title'])
# ws3.title = 'new2'
# wb.copy_worksheet(wb['new title']).title = 'hello'
# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

4、 操作单元格

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
wb = Workbook()
ws1 = wb.create_sheet("Mysheet")           #创建一个sheet

ws1["A1"]=123.11
ws1["B2"]="你好"
d = ws1.cell(row=4, column=2, value=10)

print ws1["A1"].value
print ws1["B2"].value
print d.value

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

5、 操作批量的单元格

无论ws.rows还是ws.iter_rows都是一个对象

除上述两个对象外 单行,单列都是一个元祖,多行多列是二维元祖

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
wb = Workbook()

ws1 = wb.create_sheet("Mysheet")           #创建一个sheet

ws1["A1"]=1
ws1["A2"]=2
ws1["A3"]=3

ws1["B1"]=4
ws1["B2"]=5
ws1["B3"]=6

ws1["C1"]=7
ws1["C2"]=8
ws1["C3"]=9

#操作单列
print ws1["A"]
for cell in ws1["A"]:
    print cell.value

#操作多列,获取每一个值
print ws1["A:C"]
for column in ws1["A:C"]:
    for cell in column:
        print cell.value

#操作多行
row_range = ws1[1:3]
print row_range
for row in row_range:
    for cell in row:
        print cell.value

print "*"*50
for row in ws1.iter_rows(min_row=1, min_col=1, max_col=3, max_row=3):
    for cell in row:
        print cell.value

#获取所有行
print ws1.rows
for row in ws1.rows:
    print row

print "*"*50
#获取所有列
print ws1.columns
for col in ws1.columns:
    print col

wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

使用百分数

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl import load_workbook
wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')
wb.guess_types = True
ws=wb.active
ws["D1"]="12%"
print ws["D1"].value

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")
#结果会打印小数

 

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl import load_workbook
wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')
wb.guess_types = False
ws=wb.active
ws["D1"]="12%"
print ws["D1"].value
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")
#结果会打印百分数

 

获取所有的行对象:

#coding=utf-8
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl import load_workbook
wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')
ws=wb.active
rows=[]
for row in ws.iter_rows():
            rows.append(row)
print rows   #所有行
print rows[0] #获取第一行
print rows[0][0] #获取第一行第一列的单元格对象
print rows[0][0].value #获取第一行第一列的单元格对象的值
 
print rows[len(rows)-1] #获取最后行 print rows[-1]
print rows[len(rows)-1][len(rows[0])-1] #获取第后一行和最后一列的单元格对象
print rows[len(rows)-1][len(rows[0])-1].value #获取第后一行和最后一列的单元格对象的值

 

获取所有的列对象:

#coding=utf-8
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl import load_workbook
wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')
ws=wb.active
cols=[]
cols = []
for col in ws.iter_cols():
    cols.append(col)
 
print cols   #所有列
print cols[0]   #获取第一列
print cols[0][0]   #获取第一列的第一行的单元格对象
print cols[0][0].value   #获取第一列的第一行的值
 
print "*"*30
print cols[len(cols)-1]   #获取最后一列
print cols[len(cols)-1][len(cols[0])-1]   #获取最后一列的最后一行的单元格对象
print cols[len(cols)-1][len(cols[0])-1].value   #获取最后一列的最后一行的单元格对象的值

 

6、 操作已经存在文件

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl import load_workbook
wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')
wb.guess_types = True   #猜测格式类型
ws=wb.active
ws["D1"]="12%"
print ws["D1"].value

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")
#注意如果原文件有一些图片或者图标,则保存的时候可能会导致图片丢失

 

7、 单元格类型

 # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl import load_workbook
import datetime
wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')

ws=wb.active
wb.guess_types = True

ws["A1"]=datetime.datetime(2010, 7, 21)
print ws["A1"].number_format

ws["A2"]="12%"
print ws["A2"].number_format

ws["A3"]= 1.1
print ws["A4"].number_format

ws["A4"]= "中国"
print ws["A5"].number_format
# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")
执行结果:
yyyy-mm-dd h:mm:ss
0%
General
General
#如果是常规,显示general,如果是数字,显示'0.00_ ',如果是百分数显示0%
数字需要在Excel中设置数字类型,直接写入的数字是常规类型

 

8、 使用公式

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl import load_workbook

wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')
ws1=wb.active

ws1["A1"]=1
ws1["A2"]=2
ws1["A3"]=3

ws1["A4"] = "=SUM(1, 1)"
ws1["A5"] = "=SUM(A1:A3)"

print ws1["A4"].value  #打印的是公式内容,不是公式计算后的值,程序无法取到计算后的值
print ws1["A5"].value  #打印的是公式内容,不是公式计算后的值,程序无法取到计算后的值

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

9、 合并单元格

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl import load_workbook

wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')
ws1=wb.active

ws.merge_cells('A2:D2')
ws.unmerge_cells('A2:D2')  #合并后的单元格,脚本单独执行拆分操作会报错,需要重新执行合并操作再拆分

# or equivalently
ws.merge_cells(start_row=2,start_column=1,end_row=2,end_column=4)
ws.unmerge_cells(start_row=2,start_column=1,end_row=2,end_column=4)

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

10插入一个图片

需要先安装Pilow,安全文件PIL-fork-1.1.7.win-amd64-py2.7.exe

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import load_workbook
from openpyxl.drawing.image import Image

wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')
ws1=wb.active

img = Image('e:\\1.png')
ws1.add_image(img, 'A1')

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

11、 隐藏单元格

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import load_workbook
from openpyxl.drawing.image import Image

wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')
ws1=wb.active

ws1.column_dimensions.group('A', 'D', hidden=True)   #隐藏a到d列范围内的列
#ws1.row_dimensions 无group方法
# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

12、 画一个柱状图
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import load_workbook
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl.chart import BarChart, Reference, Series

wb = load_workbook('e:\\sample.xlsx')
ws1=wb.active

wb = Workbook()
ws = wb.active
for i in range(10):
    ws.append([i])

values = Reference(ws, min_col=1, min_row=1, max_col=1, max_row=10)
chart = BarChart()
chart.add_data(values)
ws.add_chart(chart, "E15")

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

13、 画一个饼图

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import load_workbook
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl.chart import (PieChart , ProjectedPieChart, Reference)
from openpyxl.chart.series import DataPoint

data = [
    ['Pie', 'Sold'],
    ['Apple', 50],
    ['Cherry', 30],
    ['Pumpkin', 10],
    ['Chocolate', 40],
]

wb = Workbook()
ws = wb.active

for row in data:
    ws.append(row)

pie = PieChart()
labels = Reference(ws, min_col=1, min_row=2, max_row=5)
data = Reference(ws, min_col=2, min_row=1, max_row=5)
pie.add_data(data, titles_from_data=True)
pie.set_categories(labels)
pie.title = "Pies sold by category"

# Cut the first slice out of the pie
slice = DataPoint(idx=0, explosion=20)
pie.series[0].data_points = [slice]

ws.add_chart(pie, "D1")

ws = wb.create_sheet(title="Projection")

data = [
    ['Page', 'Views'],
    ['Search', 95],
    ['Products', 4],
    ['Offers', 0.5],
    ['Sales', 0.5],
]

for row in data:
    ws.append(row)

projected_pie = ProjectedPieChart()
projected_pie.type = "pie"
projected_pie.splitType = "val" # split by value
labels = Reference(ws, min_col=1, min_row=2, max_row=5)
data = Reference(ws, min_col=2, min_row=1, max_row=5)
projected_pie.add_data(data, titles_from_data=True)
projected_pie.set_categories(labels)

ws.add_chart(projected_pie, "A10")

from copy import deepcopy
projected_bar = deepcopy(projected_pie)
projected_bar.type = "bar"
projected_bar.splitType = 'pos' # split by position

ws.add_chart(projected_bar, "A27")

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

14、 设定一个表格区域,并设定表格的格式

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import load_workbook
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl.worksheet.table import Table, TableStyleInfo

wb = Workbook()
ws = wb.active

data = [
    ['Apples', 10000, 5000, 8000, 6000],
    ['Pears',   2000, 3000, 4000, 5000],
    ['Bananas', 6000, 6000, 6500, 6000],
    ['Oranges',  500,  300,  200,  700],
]

# add column headings. NB. these must be strings
ws.append(["Fruit", "2011", "2012", "2013", "2014"])
for row in data:
    ws.append(row)

tab = Table(displayName="Table1", ref="A1:E5")

# Add a default style with striped rows and banded columns
style = TableStyleInfo(name="TableStyleMedium9", showFirstColumn=True,
                       showLastColumn=True, showRowStripes=True, showColumnStripes=True)
#第一列是否和样式第一行颜色一行,第二列是否···
#是否隔行换色,是否隔列换色
tab.tableStyleInfo = style
ws.add_table(tab)

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

15、给单元格设定字体颜色

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl.styles import colors
from openpyxl.styles import Font

wb = Workbook()
ws = wb.active

a1 = ws['A1']
d4 = ws['D4']
ft = Font(color=colors.RED)  # color="FFBB00",颜色编码也可以设定颜色
a1.font = ft
d4.font = ft

# If you want to change the color of a Font, you need to reassign it::
#italic 倾斜字体
a1.font = Font(color=colors.RED, italic=True) # the change only affects A1
a1.value = "abc"

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

16、设定字体和大小

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl.styles import colors
from openpyxl.styles import Font

wb = Workbook()
ws = wb.active

a1 = ws['A1']
d4 = ws['D4']
a1.value = "abc"

from openpyxl.styles import Font
from copy import copy

ft1 = Font(name=u'宋体', size=14)
ft2 = copy(ft1)   #复制字体对象
ft2.name = "Tahoma"

print ft1.name
print ft2.name
print ft2.size # copied from the

a1.font = ft1
# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

17、设定行和列的字体

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl.styles import Font
wb = Workbook()
ws = wb.active

col = ws.column_dimensions['A']
col.font = Font(bold=True)   #将A列设定为粗体
row = ws.row_dimensions[1]
row.font = Font(underline="single")  #将第一行设定为下划线格式

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

18、设定单元格的边框、字体、颜色大小边框背景

 

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl.styles import Font
from openpyxl.styles import NamedStyle, Font, Border, Side,PatternFill

wb = Workbook()
ws = wb.active

highlight = NamedStyle(name="highlight")
highlight.font = Font(bold=True, size=20,color= "ff0100")
highlight.fill = PatternFill("solid", fgColor="DDDDDD")#背景填充
bd = Side(style='thick', color="000000")
highlight.border = Border(left=bd, top=bd, right=bd, bottom=bd)

print dir(ws["A1"])
ws["A1"].style =highlight

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

19、常用的样式属性设置

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from openpyxl import Workbook
from openpyxl.styles import Font
from openpyxl.styles import NamedStyle, Font, Border, Side,PatternFill
from openpyxl.styles import PatternFill, Border, Side, Alignment, Protection, Font

wb = Workbook()
ws = wb.active

ft = Font(name=u'微软雅黑',
    size=11,
    bold=False,
    italic=False,
    vertAlign=None,
    underline='none',
    strike=False,
    color='FF000000')

fill = PatternFill(fill_type="solid",
    start_color='FFEEFFFF',
    end_color='FF001100')

#边框可以选择的值为:'hair', 'medium', 'dashDot', 'dotted', 'mediumDashDot', 'dashed', 'mediumDashed', 'mediumDashDotDot', 'dashDotDot', 'slantDashDot', 'double', 'thick', 'thin']
#diagonal 表示对角线
bd = Border(left=Side(border_style="thin",
              color='FF001000'),
    right=Side(border_style="thin",
               color='FF110000'),
    top=Side(border_style="thin",
             color='FF110000'),
    bottom=Side(border_style="thin",
                color='FF110000'),
    diagonal=Side(border_style=None,
                  color='FF000000'),
    diagonal_direction=0,
    outline=Side(border_style=None,
                 color='FF000000'),
    vertical=Side(border_style=None,
                  color='FF000000'),
    horizontal=Side(border_style=None,
                   color='FF110000')
                )

alignment=Alignment(horizontal='general',
        vertical='bottom',
        text_rotation=0,
        wrap_text=False,
        shrink_to_fit=False,
        indent=0)

number_format = 'General'

protection = Protection(locked=True,
            hidden=False)

ws["B5"].font = ft
ws["B5"].fill =fill
ws["B5"].border = bd
ws["B5"].alignment = alignment
ws["B5"].number_format = number_format

ws["B5"].value ="zeke"

# Save the file
wb.save("e:\\sample.xlsx")

 

posted @ 2018-05-03 17:00 关关雎鸠` 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏