RPC-Thrift(四)

Client

  Thrift客户端有两种:同步客户端和异步客户端。

  同步客户端

    同步客户端比较简单,以RPC-Thrift(一)中的的例子为基础进行研究源码,先看一下类图。

    

    TServiceClient:用于以同步方式与TService进行通信;

    Iface接口和Client类都是通过Thrift文件自动生成的代码。

    TServiceClient

      TServiceClient定义了基础的向Server发送请求和从Server接收响应的方法。

public abstract class TServiceClient {
  public TServiceClient(TProtocol prot) {
    this(prot, prot);
  }
  public TServiceClient(TProtocol iprot, TProtocol oprot) {
    iprot_ = iprot;
    oprot_ = oprot;
  }
  protected TProtocol iprot_;//输入TProtocol
  protected TProtocol oprot_;//输出TProtocol
  protected int seqid_;//序列号
  public TProtocol getInputProtocol() {
    return this.iprot_;
  }
  public TProtocol getOutputProtocol() {
    return this.oprot_;
  }
  //向Server发送请求
  protected void sendBase(String methodName, TBase args) throws TException {
    //写消息头,seqid_只是简单的++,非线程安全,接收响应时要进行seqid_的校验
    oprot_.writeMessageBegin(new TMessage(methodName, TMessageType.CALL, ++seqid_));
    args.write(oprot_);//写参数
    oprot_.writeMessageEnd();
    oprot_.getTransport().flush();//发送
  }
  //从Server接收响应
  protected void receiveBase(TBase result, String methodName) throws TException {
    TMessage msg = iprot_.readMessageBegin();//读消息头,若没有数据一直等待,详见TTransport的实现
    if (msg.type == TMessageType.EXCEPTION) {
      //异常消息通过TApplicationException读取
      TApplicationException x = TApplicationException.read(iprot_);
      iprot_.readMessageEnd();
      throw x;
    }
    if (msg.seqid != seqid_) {
      //序列号不一致报异常
      throw new TApplicationException(TApplicationException.BAD_SEQUENCE_ID, methodName + " failed: out of sequence response");
    }
    result.read(iprot_);//读数据,由其result子类实现
    iprot_.readMessageEnd();
  }
}

    Iface

  public interface Iface {
    //thrift中定义的方法
    public ResultCommon sayHello(String paramJson) throws org.apache.thrift.TException;
  }

 

    Client

  public static class Client extends org.apache.thrift.TServiceClient implements Iface {
    //Client工厂类
    public static class Factory implements org.apache.thrift.TServiceClientFactory<Client> {
      public Factory() {}
      public Client getClient(org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocol prot) {
        return new Client(prot);
      }
      public Client getClient(org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocol iprot, org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocol oprot) {
        return new Client(iprot, oprot);
      }
    }
    public Client(org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocol prot)
    {
      super(prot, prot);
    }
    public Client(org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocol iprot, org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocol oprot) {
      super(iprot, oprot);
    }
    //sayHello方法调用入口
    public ResultCommon sayHello(String paramJson) throws org.apache.thrift.TException
    {
      send_sayHello(paramJson);//发送请求
      return recv_sayHello();//接收响应
    }
    //发送请求
    public void send_sayHello(String paramJson) throws org.apache.thrift.TException
    {
      sayHello_args args = new sayHello_args();//组装参数
      args.setParamJson(paramJson);
      sendBase("sayHello", args);//调用父类的sendBase方法发送请求
    }
    //接收响应
    public ResultCommon recv_sayHello() throws org.apache.thrift.TException
    {
      sayHello_result result = new sayHello_result();
      receiveBase(result, "sayHello");//调用父类的receiveBase方法发送请求
      if (result.isSetSuccess()) {
        return result.success;
      }
      throw new org.apache.thrift.TApplicationException(org.apache.thrift.TApplicationException.MISSING_RESULT, "sayHello failed: unknown result");
    }
  }

 

 

  异步客户端

    异步客户端实现比较复杂,通过回调实现,先看一个异步客户端的例子。异步客户端需要使用TNonblockingSocket,通过AsyncMethodCallback接收服务端的回调。

 1 String paramJson = "{\"wewe\":\"111\"}";
 2 TNonblockingSocket tNonblockingSocket = new TNonblockingSocket("127.0.0.1", 8090);//使用非阻塞TNonblockingSocket
 3 TAsyncClientManager tAsyncClientManager = new TAsyncClientManager();
 4 HelloService.AsyncClient asyncClient = new HelloService.AsyncClient.Factory(tAsyncClientManager, new TBinaryProtocol.Factory()).getAsyncClient(tNonblockingSocket);
 5 asyncClient.sayHello(paramJson, new AsyncMethodCallback<HelloService.AsyncClient.sayHello_call>() {
 6     @Override
 7     public void onError(Exception exception) {
 8         //...
 9     }
10     @Override
11     public void onComplete(sayHello_call response) {
12         ResultCommon resultCommon = response.getResult();
13         System.out.println(resultCommon.getDesc());
14     }
15 });

    涉及到的类结构图如下:

    

    TAsyncClient:异步客户端抽象类,通过Thrift文件生成的AsyncClient需继承该类;

    TAsyncClientManager:异步客户端管理类,包含一个selector线程,用于转换方法调用对象;

    TAsyncMethodCall:封装了异步方法调用,Thrift文件定义的所有方法都会在AsyncClient中生成对应的继承于TAsyncMethodCall的内部类(如sayHello_call);

    AsyncMethodCallback:接收服务端回调的接口,用户需要定义实现该接口的类。

 

    TAsyncClient

      TAsyncClient为异步客户端提供了公共的属性和方法。

public abstract class TAsyncClient {
  protected final TProtocolFactory ___protocolFactory;
  protected final TNonblockingTransport ___transport;
  protected final TAsyncClientManager ___manager;//异步客户端管理类
  protected TAsyncMethodCall ___currentMethod;//异步方法调用
  private Exception ___error;
  private long ___timeout;
  public TAsyncClient(TProtocolFactory protocolFactory, TAsyncClientManager manager, TNonblockingTransport transport) {
    this(protocolFactory, manager, transport, 0);
  }
  public TAsyncClient(TProtocolFactory protocolFactory, TAsyncClientManager manager, TNonblockingTransport transport, long timeout) {
    this.___protocolFactory = protocolFactory;
    this.___manager = manager;
    this.___transport = transport;
    this.___timeout = timeout;
  }
  public TProtocolFactory getProtocolFactory() {
    return ___protocolFactory;
  }
  public long getTimeout() {
    return ___timeout;
  }
  public boolean hasTimeout() {
    return ___timeout > 0;
  }
  public void setTimeout(long timeout) {
    this.___timeout = timeout;
  }
  //客户端是否处于异常状态
  public boolean hasError() {
    return ___error != null;
  }
  public Exception getError() {
    return ___error;
  }
  //检查是否准备就绪,如果当前Cilent正在执行一个方法或处于error状态则报异常
  protected void checkReady() {
    if (___currentMethod != null) {
      throw new IllegalStateException("Client is currently executing another method: " + ___currentMethod.getClass().getName());
    }
    if (___error != null) {
      throw new IllegalStateException("Client has an error!", ___error);
    }
  }
  //执行完成时delegate方法会调用该方法,将___currentMethod置为null
  protected void onComplete() {
    ___currentMethod = null;
  }
  //执行出现异常时delegate方法会调用该方法,
  protected void onError(Exception exception) {
    ___transport.close();//关闭连接
    ___currentMethod = null;//将___currentMethod置为null
    ___error = exception;//异常信息
  }
}

 

    AsyncClient

      AsyncClient类是通过Thrift文件自动生成的,在该类中含有每个方法的调用入口,并且为每个方法生成了一个方法调用类方法名_call,如sayHello_call。sayHello_call实现了父类TAsyncMethodCall的连个抽象方法:write_args和getResult,因为每个方法的参数和返回值不同,所以这两个方法需要具体子类实现。

  public static class AsyncClient extends org.apache.thrift.async.TAsyncClient implements AsyncIface {
    //AsyncClient工厂类
    public static class Factory implements org.apache.thrift.async.TAsyncClientFactory<AsyncClient> {
      private org.apache.thrift.async.TAsyncClientManager clientManager;
      private org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocolFactory protocolFactory;
      public Factory(org.apache.thrift.async.TAsyncClientManager clientManager, org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocolFactory protocolFactory) {
        this.clientManager = clientManager;
        this.protocolFactory = protocolFactory;
      }
      public AsyncClient getAsyncClient(org.apache.thrift.transport.TNonblockingTransport transport) {
        return new AsyncClient(protocolFactory, clientManager, transport);
      }
    }
    public AsyncClient(org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocolFactory protocolFactory, org.apache.thrift.async.TAsyncClientManager clientManager, org.apache.thrift.transport.TNonblockingTransport transport) {
      super(protocolFactory, clientManager, transport);
    }
    //sayHello方法调用入口
    public void sayHello(String paramJson, org.apache.thrift.async.AsyncMethodCallback<sayHello_call> resultHandler) throws org.apache.thrift.TException {
      checkReady();//检查当前Client是否可用
      //创建方法调用实例
      sayHello_call method_call = new sayHello_call(paramJson, resultHandler, this, ___protocolFactory, ___transport);
      this.___currentMethod = method_call;
      //调用TAsyncClientManager的call方法
      ___manager.call(method_call);
    }
    public static class sayHello_call extends org.apache.thrift.async.TAsyncMethodCall {
      private String paramJson;
      public sayHello_call(String paramJson, org.apache.thrift.async.AsyncMethodCallback<sayHello_call> resultHandler, org.apache.thrift.async.TAsyncClient client, org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocolFactory protocolFactory, org.apache.thrift.transport.TNonblockingTransport transport) throws org.apache.thrift.TException {
        super(client, protocolFactory, transport, resultHandler, false);
        this.paramJson = paramJson;
      }
      //发送请求
      public void write_args(org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocol prot) throws org.apache.thrift.TException {
        prot.writeMessageBegin(new org.apache.thrift.protocol.TMessage("sayHello", org.apache.thrift.protocol.TMessageType.CALL, 0));
        sayHello_args args = new sayHello_args();
        args.setParamJson(paramJson);
        args.write(prot);
        prot.writeMessageEnd();
      }
      //获取返回结果
      public ResultCommon getResult() throws org.apache.thrift.TException {
        if (getState() != org.apache.thrift.async.TAsyncMethodCall.State.RESPONSE_READ) {
          throw new IllegalStateException("Method call not finished!");
        }
        org.apache.thrift.transport.TMemoryInputTransport memoryTransport = new org.apache.thrift.transport.TMemoryInputTransport(getFrameBuffer().array());
        org.apache.thrift.protocol.TProtocol prot = client.getProtocolFactory().getProtocol(memoryTransport);
        return (new Client(prot)).recv_sayHello();
      }
    }
  }  

 

    TAsyncClientManager

      TAsyncClientManager是异步客户端管理类,它为维护了一个待处理的方法调用队列pendingCalls,并通过SelectThread线程监听selector事件,当有就绪事件时进行方法调用的处理。

public class TAsyncClientManager {
  private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(TAsyncClientManager.class.getName());
  private final SelectThread selectThread;
  //TAsyncMethodCall待处理队列
  private final ConcurrentLinkedQueue<TAsyncMethodCall> pendingCalls = new ConcurrentLinkedQueue<TAsyncMethodCall>();
  //初始化TAsyncClientManager,新建selectThread线程并启动
  public TAsyncClientManager() throws IOException {
    this.selectThread = new SelectThread();
    selectThread.start();
  }
  //方法调用
  public void call(TAsyncMethodCall method) throws TException {
    if (!isRunning()) {
      throw new TException("SelectThread is not running");
    }
    method.prepareMethodCall();//做方法调用前的准备
    pendingCalls.add(method);//加入待处理队列
    selectThread.getSelector().wakeup();//唤醒selector,很重要,因为首次执行方法调用时select Thread还阻塞在selector.select()上
  }
  public void stop() {
    selectThread.finish();
  }
  public boolean isRunning() {
    return selectThread.isAlive();
  }
  //SelectThread线程类,处理方法调用的核心
  private class SelectThread extends Thread {
    private final Selector selector;
    private volatile boolean running;
    private final TreeSet<TAsyncMethodCall> timeoutWatchSet = new TreeSet<TAsyncMethodCall>(new TAsyncMethodCallTimeoutComparator());

    public SelectThread() throws IOException {
      this.selector = SelectorProvider.provider().openSelector();
      this.running = true;
      this.setName("TAsyncClientManager#SelectorThread " + this.getId());
      setDaemon(true);//非守护线程
    }
    public Selector getSelector() {
      return selector;
    }
    public void finish() {
      running = false;
      selector.wakeup();
    }
    public void run() {
      while (running) {
        try {
          try {
            
            if (timeoutWatchSet.size() == 0) {
              //如果超时TAsyncMethodCall监控集合为空,直接无限期阻塞监听select()事件。TAsyncClientManager刚初始化时是空的
              selector.select();
            } else {
              //如果超时TAsyncMethodCall监控集合不为空,则计算Set中第一个元素的超时时间戳是否到期
              long nextTimeout = timeoutWatchSet.first().getTimeoutTimestamp();
              long selectTime = nextTimeout - System.currentTimeMillis();
              if (selectTime > 0) {
                //还没有到期,超时监听select()事件,超过selectTime自动唤醒selector
                selector.select(selectTime);
              } else {
                //已经到期,立刻监听select()事件,不会阻塞selector
                selector.selectNow();
              }
            }
          } catch (IOException e) {
            LOGGER.error("Caught IOException in TAsyncClientManager!", e);
          }
          //监听到就绪事件或者selector被唤醒会执行到此处
          transitionMethods();//处理就绪keys
          timeoutMethods();//超时方法调用处理
          startPendingMethods();//处理pending的方法调用
        } catch (Exception exception) {
          LOGGER.error("Ignoring uncaught exception in SelectThread", exception);
        }
      }
    }
    //监听到就绪事件或者selector被唤醒,如果有就绪的SelectionKey就调用methodCall.transition(key);
    private void transitionMethods() {
      try {
        Iterator<SelectionKey> keys = selector.selectedKeys().iterator();
        while (keys.hasNext()) {
          SelectionKey key = keys.next();
          keys.remove();
          if (!key.isValid()) {
            //跳过无效key,方法调用出现异常或key被取消等会导致无效key
            continue;
          }
          TAsyncMethodCall methodCall = (TAsyncMethodCall)key.attachment();
          //调用methodCall的transition方法,执行相关的动作并将methodCall的状态转换为下一个状态
          methodCall.transition(key);
          //如果完成或发生错误,从timeoutWatchSet删除该methodCall
          if (methodCall.isFinished() || methodCall.getClient().hasError()) {
            timeoutWatchSet.remove(methodCall);
          }
        }
      } catch (ClosedSelectorException e) {
        LOGGER.error("Caught ClosedSelectorException in TAsyncClientManager!", e);
      }
    }
    //超时方法调用处理
    private void timeoutMethods() {
      Iterator<TAsyncMethodCall> iterator = timeoutWatchSet.iterator();
      long currentTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
      while (iterator.hasNext()) {
        TAsyncMethodCall methodCall = iterator.next();
        if (currentTime >= methodCall.getTimeoutTimestamp()) {
          //如果超时,从timeoutWatchSet中删除并调用onError()方法
          iterator.remove();
          methodCall.onError(new TimeoutException("Operation " + methodCall.getClass() + " timed out after " + (currentTime - methodCall.getStartTime()) + " ms."));
        } else {
          //如果没有超时,说明之后的TAsyncMethodCall也不会超时,跳出循环,因为越早进入timeoutWatchSet的TAsyncMethodCall越先超时。
          break;
        }
      }
    }
    //开始等待的方法调用,循环处理pendingCalls中的methodCall
    private void startPendingMethods() {
      TAsyncMethodCall methodCall;
      while ((methodCall = pendingCalls.poll()) != null) {
        // Catch registration errors. method will catch transition errors and cleanup.
        try {
          //向selector注册并设置初次状态
          methodCall.start(selector);
          //如果客户端指定了超时时间且transition成功,将methodCall加入到timeoutWatchSet
          TAsyncClient client = methodCall.getClient();
          if (client.hasTimeout() && !client.hasError()) {
            timeoutWatchSet.add(methodCall);
          }
        } catch (Exception exception) {
          //异常处理
          LOGGER.warn("Caught exception in TAsyncClientManager!", exception);
          methodCall.onError(exception);
        }
      }
    }
  }
  //TreeSet用的比较器,判断是否是同一个TAsyncMethodCall实例
  private static class TAsyncMethodCallTimeoutComparator implements Comparator<TAsyncMethodCall> {
    public int compare(TAsyncMethodCall left, TAsyncMethodCall right) {
      if (left.getTimeoutTimestamp() == right.getTimeoutTimestamp()) {
        return (int)(left.getSequenceId() - right.getSequenceId());
      } else {
        return (int)(left.getTimeoutTimestamp() - right.getTimeoutTimestamp());
      }
    }
  }
}

 

 

    TAsyncMethodCall

      TAsyncMethodCall实现了对方法调用的封装。一次方法调用过程就是一个TAsyncMethodCall实例的生命周期。TAsyncMethodCall实例在整个生命周期内有以下状态,正常情况下的状态状态过程为:CONNECTING -> WRITING_REQUEST_SIZE -> WRITING_REQUEST_BODY -> READING_RESPONSE_SIZE -> READING_RESPONSE_BODY -> RESPONSE_READ,如果任何一个过程中发生了异常则直接转换为ERROR状态。

  public static enum State {
    CONNECTING,//连接状态
    WRITING_REQUEST_SIZE,//写请求size
    WRITING_REQUEST_BODY,//写请求体
    READING_RESPONSE_SIZE,//读响应size
    READING_RESPONSE_BODY,//读响应体
    RESPONSE_READ,//读响应完成
    ERROR;//异常状态
  }

 

      TAsyncMethodCall的源码分析如下:

public abstract class TAsyncMethodCall<T> {
  private static final int INITIAL_MEMORY_BUFFER_SIZE = 128;
  private static AtomicLong sequenceIdCounter = new AtomicLong(0);//序列号计数器private State state = null;//状态在start()方法中初始化
  protected final TNonblockingTransport transport;
  private final TProtocolFactory protocolFactory;
  protected final TAsyncClient client;
  private final AsyncMethodCallback<T> callback;//回调实例
  private final boolean isOneway;
  private long sequenceId;//序列号
  
  private ByteBuffer sizeBuffer;//Java NIO概念,frameSize buffer
  private final byte[] sizeBufferArray = new byte[4];//4字节的消息Size字节数组
  private ByteBuffer frameBuffer;//Java NIO概念,frame buffer

  private long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();

  protected TAsyncMethodCall(TAsyncClient client, TProtocolFactory protocolFactory, TNonblockingTransport transport, AsyncMethodCallback<T> callback, boolean isOneway) {
    this.transport = transport;
    this.callback = callback;
    this.protocolFactory = protocolFactory;
    this.client = client;
    this.isOneway = isOneway;
    this.sequenceId = TAsyncMethodCall.sequenceIdCounter.getAndIncrement();
  }
  protected State getState() {
    return state;
  }
  protected boolean isFinished() {
    return state == State.RESPONSE_READ;
  }
  protected long getStartTime() {
    return startTime;
  }
  protected long getSequenceId() {
    return sequenceId;
  }
  public TAsyncClient getClient() {
    return client;
  }
  public boolean hasTimeout() {
    return client.hasTimeout();
  }
  public long getTimeoutTimestamp() {
    return client.getTimeout() + startTime;
  }
  //将请求写入protocol,由子类实现
  protected abstract void write_args(TProtocol protocol) throws TException;
  //方法调用前的准备处理,初始化frameBuffer和sizeBuffer
  protected void prepareMethodCall() throws TException {
    //TMemoryBuffer内存缓存传输类,继承了TTransport
    TMemoryBuffer memoryBuffer = new TMemoryBuffer(INITIAL_MEMORY_BUFFER_SIZE);
    TProtocol protocol = protocolFactory.getProtocol(memoryBuffer);
    write_args(protocol);//将请求写入protocol

    int length = memoryBuffer.length();
    frameBuffer = ByteBuffer.wrap(memoryBuffer.getArray(), 0, length);

    TFramedTransport.encodeFrameSize(length, sizeBufferArray);
    sizeBuffer = ByteBuffer.wrap(sizeBufferArray);
  }
  //向selector注册并设置开始状态,可能是连接状态或写状态
  void start(Selector sel) throws IOException {
    SelectionKey key;
    if (transport.isOpen()) {
      state = State.WRITING_REQUEST_SIZE;
      key = transport.registerSelector(sel, SelectionKey.OP_WRITE);
    } else {
      state = State.CONNECTING;
      key = transport.registerSelector(sel, SelectionKey.OP_CONNECT);
      //如果是非阻塞连接初始化会立即成功,转换为写状态并修改感兴趣事件
      if (transport.startConnect()) {
        registerForFirstWrite(key);
      }
    }
    key.attach(this);//将本methodCall附加在key上
  }
  void registerForFirstWrite(SelectionKey key) throws IOException {
    state = State.WRITING_REQUEST_SIZE;
    key.interestOps(SelectionKey.OP_WRITE);
  }
  protected ByteBuffer getFrameBuffer() {
    return frameBuffer;
  }
  //转换为下一个状态,根据不同的状态做不同的处理。该方法只会在selector thread中被调用,不用担心并发
  protected void transition(SelectionKey key) {
    // 确保key是有效的
    if (!key.isValid()) {
      key.cancel();
      Exception e = new TTransportException("Selection key not valid!");
      onError(e);
      return;
    }
    try {
      switch (state) {
        case CONNECTING:
          doConnecting(key);//建连接
          break;
        case WRITING_REQUEST_SIZE:
          doWritingRequestSize();//写请求size
          break;
        case WRITING_REQUEST_BODY:
          doWritingRequestBody(key);//写请求体
          break;
        case READING_RESPONSE_SIZE:
          doReadingResponseSize();//读响应size
          break;
        case READING_RESPONSE_BODY:
          doReadingResponseBody(key);//读响应体
          break;
        default: // RESPONSE_READ, ERROR, or bug
          throw new IllegalStateException("Method call in state " + state
              + " but selector called transition method. Seems like a bug...");
      }
    } catch (Exception e) {
      key.cancel();
      key.attach(null);
      onError(e);
    }
  }
  //出现异常时的处理
  protected void onError(Exception e) {
    client.onError(e);//置Client异常信息
    callback.onError(e);//回调异常方法
    state = State.ERROR;//置当前对象为ERROR状态
  }
  //读响应消息体
  private void doReadingResponseBody(SelectionKey key) throws IOException {
    if (transport.read(frameBuffer) < 0) {
      throw new IOException("Read call frame failed");
    }
    if (frameBuffer.remaining() == 0) {
      cleanUpAndFireCallback(key);
    }
  }
  //方法调用完成的处理
  private void cleanUpAndFireCallback(SelectionKey key) {
    state = State.RESPONSE_READ;//状态转换为读取response完成
    key.interestOps(0);//清空感兴趣事件
    key.attach(null);//清理key的附加信息
    client.onComplete();//将client的___currentMethod置为null
    callback.onComplete((T)this);//回调onComplete方法
  }
  //读响应size,同样可能需要多多次直到把sizeBuffer读满
  private void doReadingResponseSize() throws IOException {
    if (transport.read(sizeBuffer) < 0) {
      throw new IOException("Read call frame size failed");
    }
    if (sizeBuffer.remaining() == 0) {
      state = State.READING_RESPONSE_BODY;
      //读取FrameSize完成,为frameBuffer分配FrameSize大小的空间用于读取响应体
      frameBuffer = ByteBuffer.allocate(TFramedTransport.decodeFrameSize(sizeBufferArray));
    }
  }
  //写请求体
  private void doWritingRequestBody(SelectionKey key) throws IOException {
    if (transport.write(frameBuffer) < 0) {
      throw new IOException("Write call frame failed");
    }
    if (frameBuffer.remaining() == 0) {
      if (isOneway) {
        //如果是单向RPC,此时方法调用已经结束,清理key并进行回调
        cleanUpAndFireCallback(key);
      } else {
        //非单向RPC,状态转换为READING_RESPONSE_SIZE
        state = State.READING_RESPONSE_SIZE;
        //重置sizeBuffer,准备读取frame size
        sizeBuffer.rewind();
        key.interestOps(SelectionKey.OP_READ);//修改感兴趣事件
      }
    }
  }
  //写请求size到transport,可能会写多次直到sizeBuffer.remaining() == 0才转换状态
  private void doWritingRequestSize() throws IOException {
    if (transport.write(sizeBuffer) < 0) {
      throw new IOException("Write call frame size failed");
    }
    if (sizeBuffer.remaining() == 0) {
      state = State.WRITING_REQUEST_BODY;
    }
  }
  //建立连接
  private void doConnecting(SelectionKey key) throws IOException {
    if (!key.isConnectable() || !transport.finishConnect()) {
      throw new IOException("not connectable or finishConnect returned false after we got an OP_CONNECT");
    }
    registerForFirstWrite(key);
  }
}

 

 

  总结

    最后总结一下异步客户端的处理流程,如下图所示。

    需要注意的是,一个AsyncClient实例只能同时处理一个方法调用,必须等待前一个方法调用完成后才能使用该AsyncClient实例调用其他方法,疑问:和同步客户端相比有什么优势?不用等返回结果,可以干其他的活?又能干什么活呢?如果客户端使用了连接池(也是AsyncClient实例池,一个AsyncClient实例对应一个连接),该线程不用等待前一个连接进行方法调用的返回结果,就可以去线程池获取一个可用的连接,使用新的连接进行方法调用,而原来的连接在收到返回结果后,状态变为可用,返回给连接池。这样相对于同步客户端单个线程串行发送请求的情况,异步客户端单个线程进行发送请求的效率会大大提高,需要的线程数变小,但是可能需要的连接数会增大,单个请求的响应时间会变长。在线程数是性能瓶颈,或对请求的响应时间要求不高的情况下,使用异步客户端比较合适。

 

    

 

posted @ 2018-01-11 18:57  在周末  阅读(1191)  评论(0编辑  收藏