CentOS+nginx+uwsgi+Python 多站点环境搭建

环境:

CentOS X64 6.4

nginx 1.5.6

Python 2.7.5

正文:

一:安装需要的类库及Python2.7.5

安装必要的开发包

yum groupinstall "Development tools"

yum install zlib-devel bzip2-devel pcre-devel openssl-devel ncurses-devel sqlite-devel readline-devel tk-devel

CentOS 自带Python2.6.6,但我们可以再安装Python2.7.5:

cd ~
wget http://python.org/ftp/python/2.7.5/Python-2.7.5.tar.bz2
tar xvf Python-2.7.5.tar.bz2
cd Python-2.7.5
./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make && make altinstall

安装完毕后,可是使用”python2.7”命令进入python2.7的环境。

二:安装Python包管理

easy_install包 https://pypi.python.org/pypi/distribute

方便安装Python的开发包

cd ~
wget https://pypi.python.org/packages/source/d/distribute/distribute-0.6.49.tar.gz
tar xf distribute-0.6.49.tar.gz
cd distribute-0.6.49
python2.7 setup.py install
easy_install --version

红色部分必须是“python2.7”,否则将安装到默认的2.6环境内。

pip包 https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pip

安装pip的好处是可以pip list、pip uninstall 管理Python包, easy_install没有这个功能,只有uninstall

easy_install pip
pip --version

三:安装uwsgi

uwsgi:https://pypi.python.org/pypi/uWSGI

uwsgi参数详解:http://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.org/en/latest/Options.html

pip install uwsgi
uwsgi --version

测试uwsgi是否正常:

新建test.py文件,内容如下:

def application(env, start_response):
        start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type','text/html')])
        return "Hello World"

然后在终端运行:

uwsgi --http :8001 --wsgi-file test.py

在浏览器内输入:http://127.0.0.1:8001,看是否有“Hello World”输出,若没有输出,请检查你的安装过程。

四:安装django

pip install django

测试django是否正常,运行:

django-admin.py startproject demosite
cd demosite
python2.7 manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8002

在浏览器内输入:http://127.0.0.1:8002,检查django是否运行正常。

五:安装nginx

cd ~
wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.5.6.tar.gz
tar xf nginx-1.5.6.tar.gz
cd nginx-1.5.6
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx-1.5.6 \
--with-http_stub_status_module \
--with-http_gzip_static_module
make && make install

六:配置uwsgi

uwsgi支持ini、xml等多种配置方式,但个人感觉ini更方便:

在/ect/目录下新建uwsgi9090.ini,添加如下配置:

[uwsgi]
socket = 127.0.0.1:9090
master = true         //主进程
vhost = true          //多站模式
no-stie = true        //多站模式时不设置入口模块和文件
workers = 2           //子进程数
reload-mercy = 10     
vacuum = true         //退出、重启时清理文件
max-requests = 1000   
limit-as = 512
buffer-sizi = 30000
pidfile = /var/run/uwsgi9090.pid    //pid文件,用于下面的脚本启动、停止该进程
daemonize = /website/uwsgi9090.log

设置uwsgi开机启动,在/ect/init.d/目录下新建uwsgi9090文件,内容如下:

#! /bin/sh
# chkconfig: 2345 55 25
# Description: Startup script for uwsgi webserver on Debian. Place in /etc/init.d and
# run 'update-rc.d -f uwsgi defaults', or use the appropriate command on your
# distro. For CentOS/Redhat run: 'chkconfig --add uwsgi'
 
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          uwsgi
# Required-Start:    $all
# Required-Stop:     $all
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: starts the uwsgi web server
# Description:       starts uwsgi using start-stop-daemon
### END INIT INFO
 
# Author:   licess
# website:  http://lnmp.org
 
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
DESC="uwsgi daemon"
NAME=uwsgi9090
DAEMON=/usr/local/bin/uwsgi
CONFIGFILE=/etc/$NAME.ini
PIDFILE=/var/run/$NAME.pid
SCRIPTNAME=/etc/init.d/$NAME
 
set -e
[ -x "$DAEMON" ] || exit 0
 
do_start() {
    $DAEMON $CONFIGFILE || echo -n "uwsgi already running"
}
 
do_stop() {
    $DAEMON --stop $PIDFILE || echo -n "uwsgi not running"
    rm -f $PIDFILE
    echo "$DAEMON STOPED."
}
 
do_reload() {
    $DAEMON --reload $PIDFILE || echo -n "uwsgi can't reload"
}
 
do_status() {
    ps aux|grep $DAEMON
}
 
case "$1" in
 status)
    echo -en "Status $NAME: \n"
    do_status
 ;;
 start)
    echo -en "Starting $NAME: \n"
    do_start
 ;;
 stop)
    echo -en "Stopping $NAME: \n"
    do_stop
 ;;
 reload|graceful)
    echo -en "Reloading $NAME: \n"
    do_reload
 ;;
 *)
    echo "Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {start|stop|reload}" >&2
    exit 3
 ;;
esac
 
exit 0
uwsgi9090

然后在终端执行:

-- 添加服务
chkconfig --add uwsgi9090 
-- 设置开机启动
chkconfig uwsgi9090 on

七:设置nginx

找到nginx的安装目录,打开conf/nginx.conf文件,修改server配置

server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  localhost;
        
        location / {            
            include  uwsgi_params;
            uwsgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9090;              //必须和uwsgi中的设置一致
            uwsgi_param UWSGI_SCRIPT demosite.wsgi;  //入口文件,即wsgi.py相对于项目根目录的位置,“.”相当于一层目录
            uwsgi_param UWSGI_CHDIR /demosite;       //项目根目录
            index  index.html index.htm;
            client_max_body_size 35m;
        }
    }

设置nginx开机启动,在/ect/init.d/目录下新建nginx文件,内容如下:

#!/bin/sh
#
# nginx - this script starts and stops the nginx daemon
#
# chkconfig:   - 85 15
# description:  Nginx is an HTTP(S) server, HTTP(S) reverse \
#               proxy and IMAP/POP3 proxy server
# processname: nginx
# config:      /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
# pidfile:     /var/run/nginx.pid
  
# Source function library.
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
  
# Source networking configuration.
. /etc/sysconfig/network
  
# Check that networking is up.
[ "$NETWORKING" = "no" ] && exit 0
  
nginx="/opt/nginx-1.5.6/sbin/nginx"
prog=$(basename $nginx)

NGINX_CONF_FILE="/opt/nginx-1.5.6/conf/nginx.conf"
  
[ -f /etc/sysconfig/nginx ] && . /etc/sysconfig/nginx
  
lockfile=/var/lock/subsys/nginx  
 
start() {
    [ -x $nginx ] || exit 5
    [ -f $NGINX_CONF_FILE ] || exit 6
    echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
    daemon $nginx -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
    retval=$?
    echo
    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && touch $lockfile
    return $retval
}
  
stop() {
    echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
    killproc $prog -QUIT
    retval=$?
    echo
    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && rm -f $lockfile
    return $retval
}
  
restart() {
    configtest || return $?
    stop
    sleep 1
    start
}
  
reload() {
    configtest || return $?
    echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
    killproc $nginx -HUP
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
}
  
force_reload() {
    restart
}
  
configtest() {
  $nginx -t -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
}
  
rh_status() {
    status $prog
}
  
rh_status_q() {
    rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1
}
  
case "$1" in
    start)
        rh_status_q && exit 0
        $1
        ;;
    stop)
        rh_status_q || exit 0
        $1
        ;;
    restart|configtest)
        $1
        ;;
    reload)
        rh_status_q || exit 7
        $1
        ;;
    force-reload)
        force_reload
        ;;
    status)
        rh_status
        ;;
    condrestart|try-restart)
        rh_status_q || exit 0
            ;;
    *)
        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|condrestart|try-restart|reload|force-reload|configtest}"
        exit 2
esac
nginx

然后在终端执行:

-- 添加服务
chkconfig --add nginx 
-- 设置开机启动
chkconfig nginx on

八:测试

OK,一切配置完毕,在终端运行

service uwsgi9090 start
service nginx start

在浏览器输入:http://127.0.0.1,恭喜你可以看到django的“It work”了~

九:多站配置

我采用运行多个uwsgi服务的方法来实现多个站点。

重复第六步,创建uwsgi9091.ini,并相应修改文件中的

socket = 127.0.0.1:9091
pidfile = /var/run/uwsgi9091.pid
daemonize = /website/uwsgi9091.log

并创建服务uwsgi9091,设置开机启动。

然后修改nginx的配置文件为:

server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  localhost;
        
        location / {            
            include  uwsgi_params;
            uwsgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9090;
            uwsgi_param UWSGI_SCRIPT demosite.wsgi;
            uwsgi_param UWSGI_CHDIR /website/demosite;
            index  index.html index.htm;
            client_max_body_size 35m;
        }
    }

    server {
        listen       1300;
        
        location / {            
            include  uwsgi_params;
            uwsgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9091;
            uwsgi_param UWSGI_SCRIPT DjangoStudy.wsgi;
            uwsgi_param UWSGI_CHDIR /website/DjangoStudy;
            index  index.html index.htm;
        }
    }
nginx

然后我们就可以通过http://127.0.0.1:1300来访问新的网站了。

十:其他配置

防火墙设置

CentOS默认关闭外部对80、3306等端口的访问,所以要在其他计算机访问这台服务器,就必须修改防火墙配置,打开/etc/sysconfig/iptables

在“-A INPUT –m state --state NEW –m tcp –p –dport 22 –j ACCEPT”,下添加:

-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p -dport 80 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p -dport 3306 -j ACCEPT

然后保存,并关闭该文件,在终端内运行下面的命令,刷新防火墙配置:

service iptables restart

安装Mysqldb

yum -y install mysql-devel

easy_install-2.7 MySQL-python

注意红色部分,easy_install-2.7,否则它将默认安装到Python2.6环境内。

  

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 

2014年12月02日添加: 

CentOS 7中默认使用Firewalld做防火墙,所以修改iptables后,在重启系统后,根本不管用。 

Firewalld中添加端口方法如下: 

firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=3306/tcp --permanent 

firewall-cmd --reload

 

posted @ 2013-10-21 19:04  Xiongpq  阅读(27203)  评论(19编辑  收藏