网上有很多对控制文件损坏恢复的文章,但个人觉得介绍的恢复方法比较零散、不够全面,并且为什么要用这种方法来做恢复没有说的很具体,对很多刚接触这部分的朋友可能不是太好理解。


现在这篇文章就主要通过三部分来介绍控制文件恢复相关的内容:

1、控制文件损坏的场景,以及不同场景在满足不同的条件时可以用哪些方法来恢复的介绍;

2、针对不同恢复方法给出具体的恢复思路;

3、模拟几种恢复方法的操作;


一、不同场景在满足不同的条件时的恢复方法:

 

二、针对不同的恢复方法给出具体的恢复思路:

2.1、通过重新拷贝冗余的控制文件
1、在线或者关闭数据库后损坏了其中部分控制文件;
2、shutdown abort关闭数据库;
3、拷贝其中一个完好的控制文件;
4、startup启动数据库。


2.2、 通过备份控制文件进行完全恢复

1、在线或者关闭数据库后损坏了所有控制文件;
2、shutdown abort关闭数据库;
3、startup nomount启动数据库;
4、restore controlfile from ‘xxx’;从备份中还原控制文件;
5、alter database mount;
5、recover database using backup controlfile until cancel,在执行时选择auto自动应用所有的归档文件;
6、再次执行recover database using backup controlfile until cancel,选择应用未归档的redo文件;
7、alter database open resetlogs;

2.3、通过备份控制文件进行不完全恢复

1、在线或者关闭数据库后损坏了所有控制文件;
2、shutdown abort关闭数据库;
3、startup nomount启动数据库;
4、restore controlfile from ‘xxx’;从备份中还原控制文件;
5、alter database mount;
6、recover database using backup controlfile until cancel,在执行时选择auto自动应用尽可能多的归档文件;
7、alter database open resetlogs;

2.4、通过备份控制文件进行重建的恢复(noresetlogs方式)
1、在线或者关闭数据库后损坏了所有控制文件;
2、shutdown abort关闭数据库;
3、startup nomount启动数据库;
4、restore controlfile from ‘xxx’;从备份中还原控制文件;
5、alter database mount;
6、alter database backup controlfile to trace,生成创建控制文件的脚本;
7、shutdown immediate并启动到startup nomount状态;
8、使用noresetlogs方式创建控制文件;
9、recover database恢复数据库;
10、恢复完后通过alter database open打开数据库;

2.5、通过备份控制文件进行重建的恢复(resetlogs方式)

1、在线或者关闭数据库后损坏了所有控制文件;
2、shutdown abort关闭数据库;
3、startup nomount启动数据库;
4、restore controlfile from ‘xxx’;从备份中还原控制文件;
5、alter database mount;
6、alter database backup controlfile to trace,生成创建控制文件的脚本;
7、shutdown immediate并启动到startup nomount状态
8、使用resetlogs方式创建控制文件;
9、如果未归档的redo文件可用时,则直接recover database,然后选用未归档的redo文件应用,
最后通过alter database open resetlogs方式打开数据库。
10、如果未归档的redo文件不可用时,则需要设置隐含参数_allow_resetlogs_corruption为true跳
过一致性检查,最后用alter database open resetlogs方式打开数据库。
注:打开数据库后很多情况下会出现需要推进scn的问题。

2.6、通过手工重建的控制文件进行恢复(noresetlogs方式)

1、在线或者关闭数据库后损坏了所有控制文件;
2、shutdown abort关闭数据库;
3、startup nomount启动数据库;
4、构造控制文件;
下面的步骤参考2.4的第八步;

 

2.7、通过手工重建的控制文件进行恢复(resetlogs方式)

1、在线或者关闭数据库后损坏了所有控制文件;
2、shutdown abort关闭数据库;
3、startup nomount启动数据库;
4、构造控制文件;
下面的步骤参考2.5的第八步;

三、模拟几种恢复方法的操作:

下面主要对这三种恢复方法(通过备份控制文件进行完全恢复、通过备份控制文件进行重建的恢复(noresetlogs方式)、通过备份控制文件进行重建的恢复(resetlogs方式))的操作模拟,因为其他的几种恢复方法要么比较简单要么跟这三种方法共通。


3.1、通过备份控制文件进行完全恢复


1、查看数据库基本信息和数据库状态
SQL> show parameter db_name


NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_name string leonliao


SQL> show parameter control_files


NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
control_files string /home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/
control01.ctl, /home/oracle/or
adata/leonliao/control02.ctl
SQL> select open_mode from v$database;


OPEN_MODE
--------------------
READ WRITE


2、备份控制文件
RMAN> backup current controlfile;


3、数据库在线时删除所有控制文件
[oracle@leon1 leonliao]$ rm -rf control0*ctl
[oracle@leon1 leonliao]$ pwd
/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao


4、无法正常关闭数据库只能shutdown abort
SQL> shutdown immediate
Database closed.
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/control01.ctl'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3


SQL> shutdown abort
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL>


5、启动数据库到nomount状态并还原备份的控制文件
SQL> startup nomount
ORACLE instance started.


Total System Global Area 626327552 bytes
Fixed Size 2230952 bytes
Variable Size 184550744 bytes
Database Buffers 432013312 bytes
Redo Buffers 7532544 bytes


RMAN> restore controlfile from '/u01/app/oracle/dbs/01qvmql3_1_1';


6、将数据库启动到mount状态并开始恢复
SQL> alter database mount;


Database altered.


SQL>
SQL>
SQL> recover database using backup controlfile until cancel;
ORA-00279: change 1181770 generated at 03/05/2016 05:02:58 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/arch/1_6_905662043.dbf
ORA-00280: change 1181770 for thread 1 is in sequence #6

 


Specify log: {<RET>=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}
auto <<<<<选择auto,自动应用所有的归档文件
ORA-00308: cannot open archived log
'/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/arch/1_6_905662043.dbf'
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

 


ORA-00308: cannot open archived log
'/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/arch/1_6_905662043.dbf'
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

 


ORA-01547: warning: RECOVER succeeded but OPEN RESETLOGS would get error below
ORA-01152: file 1 was not restored from a sufficiently old backup
ORA-01110: data file 1: '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/system01.dbf'

 


SQL> recover database using backup controlfile until cancel; <<<<<由于未归档的redo文件需要手动应用
ORA-00279: change 1181770 generated at 03/05/2016 05:02:58 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/arch/1_6_905662043.dbf
ORA-00280: change 1181770 for thread 1 is in sequence #6

 


Specify log: {<RET>=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}
/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/redo03.log <<<<<在关闭数据库前可以查看当前current的redo文件是哪一个,不清楚可以一个个应用直到提示Log applied为止
Log applied.
Media recovery complete.

 


7、以open resetlogs方式打开数据库
SQL> alter database open resetlogs;


Database altered.


SQL>
SQL> select open_mode from v$database;


OPEN_MODE
--------------------
READ WRITE

3.2、 通过备份控制文件进行重建的恢复(noresetlogs方式)
1、查看数据库基本信息和数据库状态
SQL> show parameter db_name


NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_name string leonliao


SQL> show parameter control_files


NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
control_files string /home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/
control01.ctl, /home/oracle/or
adata/leonliao/control02.ctl
SQL> select open_mode from v$database;


OPEN_MODE
--------------------
READ WRITE


2、备份控制文件
RMAN> backup current controlfile;


3、数据库在线时删除所有控制文件
[oracle@leon1 leonliao]$ rm -rf control0*ctl
[oracle@leon1 leonliao]$ pwd
/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao

4、无法正常关闭数据库只能shutdown abort
SQL> shutdown immediate
Database closed.
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/control01.ctl'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3


SQL> shutdown abort
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL>


5、启动数据库到nomount状态并还原备份的控制文件
SQL> startup nomount
ORACLE instance started.


Total System Global Area 626327552 bytes
Fixed Size 2230952 bytes
Variable Size 184550744 bytes
Database Buffers 432013312 bytes
Redo Buffers 7532544 bytes


RMAN> restore controlfile from '/u01/app/oracle/dbs/03qvmrqj_1_1';


6、将数据库启动到mount状态并生成创建控制文件的脚本
SQL> alter database mount;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database backup controlfile to trace;

Database altered.

 

7、shutdown immediate并启动到startup nomount状态创建控制文件
SQL> shutdown immediate
ORA-01109: database not open
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup nomount
ORACLE instance started.


Total System Global Area 626327552 bytes
Fixed Size 2230952 bytes
Variable Size 184550744 bytes
Database Buffers 432013312 bytes
Redo Buffers 7532544 bytes
SQL> CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "LEONLIAO" NORESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG
2 MAXLOGFILES 16
3 MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
4 MAXDATAFILES 100
5 MAXINSTANCES 8
6 MAXLOGHISTORY 292
7 LOGFILE
8 GROUP 1 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/redo01.log' SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,
9 GROUP 2 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/redo02.log' SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,
10 GROUP 3 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/redo03.log' SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512
11 -- STANDBY LOGFILE
12 DATAFILE
13 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/system01.dbf',
14 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/sysaux01.dbf',
15 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/undotbs01.dbf',
16 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/users01.dbf'
17 CHARACTER SET ZHS16GBK
18 ;

Control file created.


8、开始恢复
SQL> recover database;
ORA-00283: recovery session canceled due to errors
ORA-00264: no recovery required

9、以open方式打开数据库
SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL> select open_mode from v$database;

OPEN_MODE
--------------------
READ WRITE

3.3、通过备份控制文件进行重建的恢复(resetlogs方式)

1、查看数据库基本信息和数据库状态
SQL> show parameter db_name


NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_name string leonliao


SQL> show parameter control_files


NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
control_files string /home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/
control01.ctl, /home/oracle/or
adata/leonliao/control02.ctl

SQL> select * from v$logfile;


GROUP# STATUS TYPE MEMBER IS_
---------- ------- ------- -------------------------------------------------- ---
1 ONLINE /home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/redo01.log NO
3 ONLINE /home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/redo03.log NO
2 ONLINE /home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/redo02.log NO

SQL> select open_mode from v$database;


OPEN_MODE
--------------------
READ WRITE


2、备份控制文件
RMAN> backup current controlfile;


3、数据库在线时删除所有控制文件和redo文件
[oracle@leon1 leonliao]$ rm -rf control0*ctl
[oracle@leon1 leonliao]$ rm -rf redo0*log
[oracle@leon1 leonliao]$ pwd
/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao

4、无法正常关闭数据库只能shutdown abort
SQL> shutdown immediate
Database closed.
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/control01.ctl'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

SQL> shutdown abort
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL>

5、启动数据库到nomount状态并还原备份的控制文件
SQL> startup nomount
ORACLE instance started.


Total System Global Area 626327552 bytes
Fixed Size 2230952 bytes
Variable Size 184550744 bytes
Database Buffers 432013312 bytes
Redo Buffers 7532544 bytes


RMAN> restore controlfile from '/u01/app/oracle/dbs/01qvmtbj_1_1';


6、将数据库启动到mount状态并生成创建控制文件的脚本
SQL> alter database mount;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database backup controlfile to trace;

Database altered.

 

7、shutdown immediate并启动到startup nomount状态创建resetlogs的控制文件
SQL> shutdown immediate
ORA-01109: database not open
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup nomount
ORACLE instance started.


Total System Global Area 626327552 bytes
Fixed Size 2230952 bytes
Variable Size 184550744 bytes
Database Buffers 432013312 bytes
Redo Buffers 7532544 bytes
SQL> CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "LEONLIAO" RESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG
2 MAXLOGFILES 16
3 MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
4 MAXDATAFILES 100
5 MAXINSTANCES 8
6 MAXLOGHISTORY 292
7 LOGFILE
8 GROUP 1 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/redo01.log' SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,
9 GROUP 2 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/redo02.log' SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512,
10 GROUP 3 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/redo03.log' SIZE 50M BLOCKSIZE 512
11 -- STANDBY LOGFILE
12 DATAFILE
13 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/system01.dbf',
14 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/sysaux01.dbf',
15 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/undotbs01.dbf',
16 '/home/oracle/oradata/leonliao/users01.dbf'
17 CHARACTER SET ZHS16GBK
18 ;

Control file created.


8、因为所有redo文件都删除了,无法恢复,所以会出现一致性的问题,通过设置隐含参数_allow_resetlogs_corruption为true跳过一致性检查;
SQL> alter system set "_allow_resetlogs_corruption"=true scope=spfile;

System altered.

SQL> shutdown immediate
ORA-01109: database not open
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 626327552 bytes
Fixed Size 2230952 bytes
Variable Size 184550744 bytes
Database Buffers 432013312 bytes
Redo Buffers 7532544 bytes
Database mounted.

9、以open resetlogs方式打开数据库
SQL> alter database open resetlogs;

Database altered.

SQL> select open_mode from v$database;

OPEN_MODE
--------------------
READ WRITE
————————————————

原文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/liaocongyuan1314/article/details/50827086

 posted on 2021-08-12 14:42  xibuhaohao  阅读(252)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报