.NET中RabbitMQ的使用

概述

  MQ全称为Message Queue, 消息队列(MQ)是一种应用程序对应用程序的通信方法。RabbitMQ是一个在AMQP基础上完整的,可复用的企业消息系统。他遵循Mozilla Public License开源协议。AMQP(高级消息队列协议) 是一个异步消息传递所使用的应用层协议规范,作为线路层协议,而不是API(例如JMS),AMQP 客户端能够无视消息的来源任意发送和接受信息。AMQP的原始用途只是为金融界提供一个可以彼此协作的消息协议,而现在的目标则是为通用消息队列架构提供通用构建工具。因此,面向消息的中间件 (MOM)系统,例如发布/订阅队列,没有作为基本元素实现。AMQP当中有四个概念非常重要(一个虚拟主机持有一组交换机、队列和绑定):

  1. virtual host,虚拟主机
  2. exchange,交换机
  3. queue,队列
  4. binding,绑定

  更多理论性东西可以参考(在Windows上安装Rabbit MQ 指南),针对队列的讲解相当详细

Window下安装RabbbitMQ

文件下载安装

Rabbit MQ 是建立在强大的Erlang OTP平台上,因此安装Rabbit MQ的前提是安装Erlang。通过下面两个连接下载安装3.2.3 版本:

  1. 下载并安装 Erlang OTP For Windows (vR16B03)
  2. 运行安装 Rabbit MQ Server Windows Installer (v3.2.3)

默认安装的Rabbit MQ 监听端口是5672。先安装Erlang OTP后安装RabbitMQ,安装方式默认即可,RabbitMQ可以勾选安装后台服务、服务启动和停止等操作。

激活Rabbit MQ's Management Plugin

使用Rabbit MQ 管理插件,可以更好的可视化方式查看Rabbit MQ 服务器实例的状态,打开CMD命令,cd到安装目录(..\rabbitmq_server-3.2.3\sbin)下,输入下面的命令激活:

rabbitmq-plugins enable rabbitmq_management

要重启服务才能生效,可以执行

net stop RabbitMQ && net start RabbitMQ

输入网址,打开监控页面:  http://localhost:15672 (默认账号和密码:guest 和guest)

配置RabbitMQ用户权限

RabbitMQ是存在用户权限的,默认是guest 密码也是guest,隶属于Administrator管理员下。现需要配置新用户和权限,继续打开CMD命令,cd到安装目录sbin下:

用户操作指令:

::查询服务状态
rabbitmqctl status

::列举虚拟主机列表
rabbitmqctl list_vhosts
::列举用户列表
rabbitmqctl list_users

:: 添加用户和密码 rabbitmqctl add_user hao abc123 :: 设置权限 rabbitmqctl set_permissions yy
".*" ".*" ".*" :: 分配用户组 rabbitmqctl set_user_tags yy administrator
:: 删除guest用户
rabbitmqctl delete_user guest
::修改用户密码
rabbitmqctl change_password {username}  {newpassowrd}

 

.NET中RabbitMQ使用

1、Nuget下载RabbitMQ.Client第三方类库,版本V3.6.5,高版本与.NET Framework 4.5有冲突,RabbitMQ Client地址

2、利用RabbitMQ Clinet类库编码(代码内容有注释,此处不做详细解释,文章后有完整代码的下载地址)

 

  <1>RabbitMQ的direct类型Exchange

   Producter发送消息代码:

        /// <summary>
        /// 连接配置
        /// </summary>
        private static readonly ConnectionFactory rabbitMqFactory = new ConnectionFactory(){
            HostName ="192.168.1.8",UserName="hao",Password="abc123",Port= 5672
        };
        /// <summary>
        /// 路由名称
        /// </summary>
        const string ExchangeName = "justin.exchange";

        //队列名称
        const string QueueName = "justin.queue";
        public static void DirectExchangeSendMsg()
        {
            using (IConnection conn = rabbitMqFactory.CreateConnection())
            {
                using (IModel channel = conn.CreateModel())
                {
                    channel.ExchangeDeclare(ExchangeName, "direct", durable: true, autoDelete: false, arguments: null);
                    channel.QueueDeclare(QueueName, durable: true, autoDelete: false, exclusive: false, arguments: null);
                    channel.QueueBind(QueueName, ExchangeName, routingKey: QueueName);

                    var props = channel.CreateBasicProperties();
                    props.Persistent = true;
                    string vadata = Console.ReadLine();
                    while (vadata != "exit")
                    {
                        var msgBody = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(vadata);
                        channel.BasicPublish(exchange: ExchangeName, routingKey: QueueName, basicProperties: props, body: msgBody);        
                        Console.WriteLine(string.Format("***发送时间:{0},发送完成,输入exit退出消息发送",DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss")));
                        vadata = Console.ReadLine();
                    }                   
                }
            }
        }

   

  Customer接收消息代码:

 

        /// <summary>
        /// 连接配置
        /// </summary>
        private static readonly ConnectionFactory rabbitMqFactory = new ConnectionFactory() {
            HostName = "192.168.1.8", UserName = "hao", Password = "abc123", Port = 5672
        };
        /// <summary>
        /// 路由名称
        /// </summary>
        const string ExchangeName = "justin.exchange";

        //队列名称
        const string QueueName = "justin.queue";
        public static void DirectAcceptExchange()
        {
            using (IConnection conn = rabbitMqFactory.CreateConnection())
            {
                using (IModel channel = conn.CreateModel())
                {
                    channel.ExchangeDeclare(ExchangeName, "direct", durable: true, autoDelete: false, arguments: null);
                    channel.QueueDeclare(QueueName, durable: true, autoDelete: false, exclusive: false, arguments: null);
                    channel.QueueBind(QueueName, ExchangeName, routingKey: QueueName);
                    while (true)
                    { 
                        BasicGetResult msgResponse = channel.BasicGet(QueueName, noAck: true);
                        if (msgResponse != null)
                        {
                            var msgBody = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(msgResponse.Body);
                            Console.WriteLine(string.Format("***接收时间:{0},消息内容:{1}", DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"),msgBody));
                        }

                        //BasicGetResult msgResponse2 = channel.BasicGet(QueueName, noAck: false);

                        ////process message ...

                        //channel.BasicAck(msgResponse2.DeliveryTag, multiple: false);
                        System.Threading.Thread.Sleep(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(1));
                    }
                }
            }
        }

  

  但是这种处理速度较慢,因为循环线程等待。高效的接收消息的方式可以使用EventingBasicConsumer进行消息接收处理,修改代码内容如下:

 

        public static void DirectAcceptExchangeEvent()
        {
            using (IConnection conn = rabbitMqFactory.CreateConnection())
            {
                using (IModel channel = conn.CreateModel())
                {
                    //channel.ExchangeDeclare(ExchangeName, "direct", durable: true, autoDelete: false, arguments: null);
                    channel.QueueDeclare(QueueName, durable: true, autoDelete: false, exclusive: false, arguments: null);
                    //channel.QueueBind(QueueName, ExchangeName, routingKey: QueueName);
                    var consumer = new EventingBasicConsumer(channel);
                    consumer.Received += (model, ea) =>
                    {                        
                        var msgBody = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(ea.Body);
                        Console.WriteLine(string.Format("***接收时间:{0},消息内容:{1}", DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"), msgBody));
                    };
                    channel.BasicConsume(QueueName, noAck: true, consumer: consumer);

                    //已过时用EventingBasicConsumer代替
                    //var consumer2 = new QueueingBasicConsumer(channel);
                    //channel.BasicConsume(QueueName, noAck: true, consumer: consumer);
                    //var msgResponse = consumer2.Queue.Dequeue(); //blocking
                    //var msgBody2 = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(msgResponse.Body);

                    Console.WriteLine("按任意值,退出程序");
                    Console.ReadKey();
                }
            }
        }

  

  但是有些时候,消费者同一时间没有能力处理太多的业务,导致分配过来的队列消息不能及时处理完成,这个时候,我们可以设置BasicQos属性,告诉Broker同一时间将未处理完成的消息分配其他消费者,所以接收消息的地方需要略做修改,代码如下:

 

public static void DirectAcceptExchangeTask()
{
    using (IConnection conn = rabbitMqFactory.CreateConnection())
    {
        using (IModel channel = conn.CreateModel())
        {
            //channel.ExchangeDeclare(ExchangeName, "direct", durable: true, autoDelete: false, arguments: null);
            channel.QueueDeclare(QueueName, durable: true, autoDelete: false, exclusive: false, arguments: null);
            channel.BasicQos(prefetchSize: 0, prefetchCount: 1, global: false);//告诉broker同一时间只处理一个消息
            //channel.QueueBind(QueueName, ExchangeName, routingKey: QueueName);
            var consumer = new EventingBasicConsumer(channel);
            consumer.Received += (model, ea) =>
            {
                var msgBody = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(ea.Body);
                Console.WriteLine(string.Format("***接收时间:{0},消息内容:{1}", DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"), msgBody));
                int dots = msgBody.Split('.').Length - 1;
                System.Threading.Thread.Sleep(dots * 1000);
                Console.WriteLine(" [x] Done");
                //处理完成,告诉Broker可以服务端可以删除消息,分配新的消息过来
                channel.BasicAck(deliveryTag: ea.DeliveryTag, multiple: false);
            };
            //noAck设置false,告诉broker,发送消息之后,消息暂时不要删除,等消费者处理完成再说
            channel.BasicConsume(QueueName, noAck: false, consumer: consumer);

            Console.WriteLine("按任意值,退出程序");
            Console.ReadKey();
        }
    }
}

  

  <2> RabbitMQ的Topic类型Exchange

  Producter 发送消息代码:

        /// <summary>
        /// 连接配置
        /// </summary>
        private static readonly ConnectionFactory rabbitMqFactory = new ConnectionFactory(){
            HostName ="192.168.1.8",UserName="hao",Password="abc123",Port= 5672
        };
        /// <summary>
        /// 路由名称
        /// </summary>
        const string TopExchangeName = "topic.justin.exchange";

        //队列名称
        const string TopQueueName = "topic.justin.queue";

        public static void TopicExchangeSendMsg()
        {
            using (IConnection conn = rabbitMqFactory.CreateConnection())
            {
                using (IModel channel = conn.CreateModel())
                {
                    channel.ExchangeDeclare(TopExchangeName, "topic", durable: false, autoDelete: false, arguments: null);
                    channel.QueueDeclare(TopQueueName, durable: false, autoDelete: false, exclusive: false, arguments: null);
                    channel.QueueBind(TopQueueName, TopExchangeName, routingKey: TopQueueName);
                    //var props = channel.CreateBasicProperties();
                    //props.Persistent = true;
                    string vadata = Console.ReadLine();
                    while (vadata != "exit")
                    {
                        var msgBody = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(vadata);
                        channel.BasicPublish(exchange: TopExchangeName, routingKey: TopQueueName, basicProperties: null, body: msgBody);
                        Console.WriteLine(string.Format("***发送时间:{0},发送完成,输入exit退出消息发送", DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss")));
                        vadata = Console.ReadLine();
                    }
                }
            }
        }

 

  Customer接收消息代码:

 

        /// <summary>
        /// 连接配置
        /// </summary>
        private static readonly ConnectionFactory rabbitMqFactory = new ConnectionFactory() {
            HostName = "192.168.1.8", UserName = "hao", Password = "abc123", Port = 5672
        };

        /// <summary>
        /// 路由名称
        /// </summary>
        const string TopExchangeName = "topic.justin.exchange";

        //队列名称
        const string TopQueueName = "topic.justin.queue";

        public static void TopicAcceptExchange()
        {
            using (IConnection conn = rabbitMqFactory.CreateConnection())
            {
                using (IModel channel = conn.CreateModel())
                {
                    channel.ExchangeDeclare(TopExchangeName, "topic", durable: false, autoDelete: false, arguments: null);
                    channel.QueueDeclare(TopQueueName, durable: false, autoDelete: false, exclusive: false, arguments: null);
                    channel.BasicQos(prefetchSize: 0, prefetchCount: 1, global: false);
                    channel.QueueBind(TopQueueName, TopExchangeName, routingKey: TopQueueName);
                    var consumer = new EventingBasicConsumer(channel);
                    consumer.Received += (model, ea) =>
                    {
                        var msgBody = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(ea.Body);
                        Console.WriteLine(string.Format("***接收时间:{0},消息内容:{1}", DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"), msgBody));
                        int dots = msgBody.Split('.').Length - 1;
                        System.Threading.Thread.Sleep(dots * 1000);
                        Console.WriteLine(" [x] Done");
                        channel.BasicAck(deliveryTag: ea.DeliveryTag, multiple: false);
                    };
                    channel.BasicConsume(TopQueueName, noAck: false, consumer: consumer);

                    Console.WriteLine("按任意值,退出程序");
                    Console.ReadKey();
                }
            }
        }

参考资料:

在 Windows 上安装Rabbit MQ 指南(http://www.cnblogs.com/shanyou/p/4067250.html)

.NET 环境中使用RabbitMQ(http://www.cnblogs.com/yangecnu/p/4227535.html)

RabbitMQ Tutorial(http://www.rabbitmq.com/tutorials/tutorial-six-dotnet.html)

源代码下载

知道的越多,不知道的也就越多,多多学习!

posted @ 2016-10-04 21:28  jiajinhao  阅读(14151)  评论(10编辑  收藏  举报