基于ambassador实现K8S灰度发布

为什么需要灰度发布

灰度发布(又名金丝雀发布)是指在黑与白之间,能够平滑过渡的一种发布方式。在其上可以进行A/B testing,即让一部分用户继续用产品特性A,一部分用户开始用产品特性B,如果用户对B没有什么反对意见,那么逐步扩大范围,把所有用户都迁移到B上面来。

总结下一些应用场景:

  • 微服务依赖很多组件,需要在实际环境验证
  • 部署新功能有风险,然后可以通过导流一小部分用户实际使用,来减小风险
  • 让特定的用户访问新版本,比如部署一个版本,只让测试使用
  • A/B Testing,部署两个版本,进行版本对比,比如验证两个推荐服务的推荐效果

灰度发布可以保证整体系统的稳定,在初始灰度的时候就可以发现、调整问题,以保证其影响度。

ambassador介绍

ambassador[æmˈbæsədər],是Kubernetes微服务 API gateway,基于Envoy Proxy。

Open Source Kubernetes-Native API Gateway built on the Envoy Proxy

官方地址:

https://www.getambassador.io/

部署ambassador

按官网提示部署ambassador

cat <<EOF | kubectl apply -f -
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  labels:
    service: ambassador-admin
  name: ambassador-admin
spec:
  type: NodePort
  ports:
  - name: ambassador-admin
    port: 8877
    targetPort: 8877
  selector:
    service: ambassador
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  name: ambassador
rules:
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: [ "endpoints", "namespaces", "secrets", "services" ]
  verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
- apiGroups: [ "getambassador.io" ]
  resources: [ "*" ]
  verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
- apiGroups: [ "apiextensions.k8s.io" ]
  resources: [ "customresourcedefinitions" ]
  verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
- apiGroups: [ "networking.internal.knative.dev" ]
  resources: [ "clusteringresses", "ingresses" ]
  verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
- apiGroups: [ "networking.internal.knative.dev" ]
  resources: [ "ingresses/status", "clusteringresses/status" ]
  verbs: ["update"]
- apiGroups: [ "extensions" ]
  resources: [ "ingresses" ]
  verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
- apiGroups: [ "extensions" ]
  resources: [ "ingresses/status" ]
  verbs: ["update"]
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: ambassador
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: ambassador
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: ambassador
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: ambassador
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: authservices.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: authservices
    singular: authservice
    kind: AuthService
    categories:
    - ambassador-crds
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: consulresolvers.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: consulresolvers
    singular: consulresolver
    kind: ConsulResolver
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: kubernetesendpointresolvers.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: kubernetesendpointresolvers
    singular: kubernetesendpointresolver
    kind: KubernetesEndpointResolver
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: kubernetesserviceresolvers.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: kubernetesserviceresolvers
    singular: kubernetesserviceresolver
    kind: KubernetesServiceResolver
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: mappings.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: mappings
    singular: mapping
    kind: Mapping
    categories:
    - ambassador-crds
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: modules.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: modules
    singular: module
    kind: Module
    categories:
    - ambassador-crds
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: ratelimitservices.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: ratelimitservices
    singular: ratelimitservice
    kind: RateLimitService
    categories:
    - ambassador-crds
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: tcpmappings.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: tcpmappings
    singular: tcpmapping
    kind: TCPMapping
    categories:
    - ambassador-crds
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: tlscontexts.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: tlscontexts
    singular: tlscontext
    kind: TLSContext
    categories:
    - ambassador-crds
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: tracingservices.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: tracingservices
    singular: tracingservice
    kind: TracingService
    categories:
    - ambassador-crds
---
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: logservices.getambassador.io
spec:
  group: getambassador.io
  version: v1
  versions:
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: true
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: logservices
    singular: logservice
    kind: LogService
    categories:
    - ambassador-crds
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: ambassador
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      service: ambassador
  template:
    metadata:
      annotations:
        sidecar.istio.io/inject: "false"
        "consul.hashicorp.com/connect-inject": "false"
      labels:
        service: ambassador
    spec:
      affinity:
        podAntiAffinity:
          preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - weight: 100
            podAffinityTerm:
              labelSelector:
                matchLabels:
                  service: ambassador
              topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
      serviceAccountName: ambassador
      containers:
      - name: ambassador
        image: quay.azk8s.cn/datawire/ambassador:0.86.1
        resources:
          limits:
            cpu: 1
            memory: 400Mi
          requests:
            cpu: 200m
            memory: 100Mi
        env:
        - name: AMBASSADOR_NAMESPACE
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.namespace
        ports:
        - name: http
          containerPort: 8080
        - name: https
          containerPort: 8443
        - name: admin
          containerPort: 8877
        livenessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /ambassador/v0/check_alive
            port: 8877
          initialDelaySeconds: 30
          periodSeconds: 3
        readinessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /ambassador/v0/check_ready
            port: 8877
          initialDelaySeconds: 30
          periodSeconds: 3
        volumeMounts:
        - name: ambassador-pod-info
          mountPath: /tmp/ambassador-pod-info
      volumes:
      - name: ambassador-pod-info
        downwardAPI:
          items:
          - path: "labels"
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.labels
      restartPolicy: Always
      securityContext:
        runAsUser: 8888
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: ambassador
spec:
  type: NodePort
  externalTrafficPolicy: Local
  ports:
   - port: 80
     targetPort: 8080
  selector:
    service: ambassador


EOF

为了方便访问网关,生成一个ingress:


apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
 annotations:
   nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/proxy-body-size: "0"
   nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/proxy-read-timeout: "600"
   nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/proxy-send-timeout: "600"
   kubernetes.io/tls-acme: 'true'
 name: ambassador
spec:
 rules:
 - host: ambassador.iflyresearch.com
   http:
     paths:
     - backend:
         serviceName: ambassador
         servicePort: 80
       path: /

ambassador 配置

ambassador 使用envoy来实现相关的负载,而envoy类似nginx。ambassador的原理大概是读取service里的配置,然后自动生成envoy的配置,当service变更时,动态更新envoy的配置并重启,所以ambassador需要可以访问服务API。

ambassador 的配置是放到metadata的annotations,以getambassador.io/config开头:

  annotations:
    getambassador.io/config: |
      ---
      apiVersion: ambassador/v0
      kind:  Mapping
      name:  {{ .Values.service.name }}_mapping
      prefix: /{{ .Values.service.prefix }}
      service: {{ .Values.service.name }}.{{ .Release.Namespace }}

profix指定如何访问服务,service指定指向那个服务。注意,需要加上namespace名称,否则容易报找不到后端。

ambassador 灰度

ambassador实现灰度可以根据weight权重,或者指定匹配特定的header来实现。

根据weight进行灰度

用法:

部署一个新版本的service,prefix和之前老服务保持一致,但是配置weight,比如20,这样20%的流量会流转到新服务,这样实现A/B Test

---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: svc-gray
  namespace: default
  annotations:
    getambassador.io/config: |
      ---
      apiVersion: ambassador/v0
      kind:  Mapping
      name:  svc1_mapping
      prefix: /svc/
      service: service-gray
	  weight: 20
spec:
  selector:
    app: testservice
  ports:
  - port: 8080
    name: service-gray
    targetPort: http-api

根据请求头 header 进行灰度 (regex_headers 正则匹配)

部署一个新版本,只需要特定的用户才能访问,可以通过该方案来实现。

例如:

---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: svc-gray
  namespace: default
  annotations:
    getambassador.io/config: |
      ---
      apiVersion: ambassador/v0
      kind:  Mapping
      name:  svc1_mapping
      prefix: /svc/
      service: service-gray
	  headers:
        gray: true
spec:
  selector:
    app: testservice
  ports:
  - port: 8080
    name: service-gray
    targetPort: http-api

访问时,当指定gray: true时,访问灰度版本,可以用postman来测试:

POSTMAN


作者:Jadepeng
出处:jqpeng的技术记事本--http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaoqi
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posted @ 2020-01-02 20:32  JadePeng  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏