Android中Handler机制(一) post和sendMessage方法执行过程

1、Handler类中post方法以及sendMessage方法的统一

Handler类post方法如下:

    public final boolean post(@NonNull Runnable r) {
       return  sendMessageDelayed(getPostMessage(r), 0);
    }

    private static Message getPostMessage(Runnable r) {
        Message m = Message.obtain();
        m.callback = r;
        return m;
    }

可以看出post方法是通过调用sendMessageDelayed方法实现的,最后执行message中的callback(见下文2.3

sendMessage方法如下:

    public final boolean sendMessage(@NonNull Message msg) {
        return sendMessageDelayed(msg, 0);
    }

也是通过sendMessageDelayed方法实现的

2、Handler类中sendMessageDelayed执行过程

2.1、sendMessageDelayed方法

    public final boolean sendMessageDelayed(@NonNull Message msg, long delayMillis) {
        if (delayMillis < 0) {
            delayMillis = 0;
        }
        return sendMessageAtTime(msg, SystemClock.uptimeMillis() + delayMillis);
    }

    public boolean sendMessageAtTime(@NonNull Message msg, long uptimeMillis) {
        MessageQueue queue = mQueue;
        if (queue == null) {
            RuntimeException e = new RuntimeException(
                    this + " sendMessageAtTime() called with no mQueue");
            Log.w("Looper", e.getMessage(), e);
            return false;
        }
        return enqueueMessage(queue, msg, uptimeMillis);
    }

    private boolean enqueueMessage(@NonNull MessageQueue queue, @NonNull Message msg,
            long uptimeMillis) {
        msg.target = this;
        msg.workSourceUid = ThreadLocalWorkSource.getUid();

        if (mAsynchronous) {
            msg.setAsynchronous(true);
        }
        return queue.enqueueMessage(msg, uptimeMillis);
    }

sendMessageDelayed方法调用sendMessageAtTime方法,指定消息被处理的时间, enqueueMessage方法表示将消息插入到消息队列中,最终将Message插入到MessageQueue类型的mQueue中。

2.2、Handler中mQueue赋值过程

    public Handler(@Nullable Callback callback, boolean async) {
        if (FIND_POTENTIAL_LEAKS) {
            final Class<? extends Handler> klass = getClass();
            if ((klass.isAnonymousClass() || klass.isMemberClass() || klass.isLocalClass()) &&
                    (klass.getModifiers() & Modifier.STATIC) == 0) {
                Log.w(TAG, "The following Handler class should be static or leaks might occur: " +
                    klass.getCanonicalName());
            }
        }

        //获取当前线程的Looper
        mLooper = Looper.myLooper();
        if (mLooper == null) {
            throw new RuntimeException(
                "Can't create handler inside thread " + Thread.currentThread()
                        + " that has not called Looper.prepare()");
        }
        mQueue = mLooper.mQueue;
        mCallback = callback;
        mAsynchronous = async;
    }

  
    public Handler(@NonNull Looper looper, @Nullable Callback callback, boolean async) {
        mLooper = looper;
        mQueue = looper.mQueue;
        mCallback = callback;
        mAsynchronous = async;
    }

handler的构造方法最终会调用这两个方法中的一个,如果传入Looper,就对mLooper赋值,如果没有传入,就获取当前线程的Looper。对mLooper赋值后,获取Looper的消息队列mQueue, 赋值给handler中mQueue。

2.3、Looper对象创建、mQueue赋值及取值

(1) Looper对象创建以及mQueue属性赋值

Looper仅有一个私有构造方法,其中quitAllowed表示是否可停止

    private Looper(boolean quitAllowed) {
        mQueue = new MessageQueue(quitAllowed);
        mThread = Thread.currentThread();
    }

Looper类中最终创建Looper的方法有三个,其中sThreadLocal表示线程局部变量,隔离每个线程的变量,确保每个线程至多只有一个Looper

    public static void prepare() {
        prepare(true);
    }

    private static void prepare(boolean quitAllowed) {
        if (sThreadLocal.get() != null) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Only one Looper may be created per thread");
        }
        sThreadLocal.set(new Looper(quitAllowed));
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the current thread as a looper, marking it as an
     * application's main looper. The main looper for your application
     * is created by the Android environment, so you should never need
     * to call this function yourself.  See also: {@link #prepare()}
     */
    public static void prepareMainLooper() {
        prepare(false);
        synchronized (Looper.class) {
            if (sMainLooper != null) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("The main Looper has already been prepared.");
            }
            sMainLooper = myLooper();
        }
    }

prepareMainLooper方法在应用主线程中创建Looper,查找该方法的调用,发现在ActivityThread类main方法中进行调用的(这里只分析ActivityThread类)。

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "ActivityThreadMain");

        // Install selective syscall interception
        AndroidOs.install();

        // CloseGuard defaults to true and can be quite spammy.  We
        // disable it here, but selectively enable it later (via
        // StrictMode) on debug builds, but using DropBox, not logs.
        CloseGuard.setEnabled(false);

        Environment.initForCurrentUser();

        // Make sure TrustedCertificateStore looks in the right place for CA certificates
        final File configDir = Environment.getUserConfigDirectory(UserHandle.myUserId());
        TrustedCertificateStore.setDefaultUserDirectory(configDir);

        Process.setArgV0("<pre-initialized>");

        Looper.prepareMainLooper();

        // Find the value for {@link #PROC_START_SEQ_IDENT} if provided on the command line.
        // It will be in the format "seq=114"
        long startSeq = 0;
        if (args != null) {
            for (int i = args.length - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
                if (args[i] != null && args[i].startsWith(PROC_START_SEQ_IDENT)) {
                    startSeq = Long.parseLong(
                            args[i].substring(PROC_START_SEQ_IDENT.length()));
                }
            }
        }
        ActivityThread thread = new ActivityThread();
        thread.attach(false, startSeq);

        if (sMainThreadHandler == null) {
            sMainThreadHandler = thread.getHandler();
        }

        if (false) {
            Looper.myLooper().setMessageLogging(new
                    LogPrinter(Log.DEBUG, "ActivityThread"));
        }

        // End of event ActivityThreadMain.
        Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
        Looper.loop();

        throw new RuntimeException("Main thread loop unexpectedly exited");
    }

倒数第二行中Looper.loop方法就是不断进行消息循环的关键所在。

(2) mQueue中取出Message

Looper中loop方法

       public static void loop() {
        final Looper me = myLooper();
        if (me == null) {
            throw new RuntimeException("No Looper; Looper.prepare() wasn't called on this thread.");
        }
        final MessageQueue queue = me.mQueue;

        // Make sure the identity of this thread is that of the local process,
        // and keep track of what that identity token actually is.
        Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
        final long ident = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();

        // Allow overriding a threshold with a system prop. e.g.
        // adb shell 'setprop log.looper.1000.main.slow 1 && stop && start'
        final int thresholdOverride =
                SystemProperties.getInt("log.looper."
                        + Process.myUid() + "."
                        + Thread.currentThread().getName()
                        + ".slow", 0);

        boolean slowDeliveryDetected = false;

        for (;;) {
            Message msg = queue.next(); // might block
            if (msg == null) {
                // No message indicates that the message queue is quitting.
                return;
            }

            // This must be in a local variable, in case a UI event sets the logger
            final Printer logging = me.mLogging;
            if (logging != null) {
                logging.println(">>>>> Dispatching to " + msg.target + " " +
                        msg.callback + ": " + msg.what);
            }
            // Make sure the observer won't change while processing a transaction.
            final Observer observer = sObserver;

            final long traceTag = me.mTraceTag;
            long slowDispatchThresholdMs = me.mSlowDispatchThresholdMs;
            long slowDeliveryThresholdMs = me.mSlowDeliveryThresholdMs;
            if (thresholdOverride > 0) {
                slowDispatchThresholdMs = thresholdOverride;
                slowDeliveryThresholdMs = thresholdOverride;
            }
            final boolean logSlowDelivery = (slowDeliveryThresholdMs > 0) && (msg.when > 0);
            final boolean logSlowDispatch = (slowDispatchThresholdMs > 0);

            final boolean needStartTime = logSlowDelivery || logSlowDispatch;
            final boolean needEndTime = logSlowDispatch;

            if (traceTag != 0 && Trace.isTagEnabled(traceTag)) {
                Trace.traceBegin(traceTag, msg.target.getTraceName(msg));
            }

            final long dispatchStart = needStartTime ? SystemClock.uptimeMillis() : 0;
            final long dispatchEnd;
            Object token = null;
            if (observer != null) {
                token = observer.messageDispatchStarting();
            }
            long origWorkSource = ThreadLocalWorkSource.setUid(msg.workSourceUid);
            try {
                msg.target.dispatchMessage(msg);
                if (observer != null) {
                    observer.messageDispatched(token, msg);
                }
                dispatchEnd = needEndTime ? SystemClock.uptimeMillis() : 0;
            } catch (Exception exception) {
                if (observer != null) {
                    observer.dispatchingThrewException(token, msg, exception);
                }
                throw exception;
            } finally {
                ThreadLocalWorkSource.restore(origWorkSource);
                if (traceTag != 0) {
                    Trace.traceEnd(traceTag);
                }
            }
            if (logSlowDelivery) {
                if (slowDeliveryDetected) {
                    if ((dispatchStart - msg.when) <= 10) {
                        Slog.w(TAG, "Drained");
                        slowDeliveryDetected = false;
                    }
                } else {
                    if (showSlowLog(slowDeliveryThresholdMs, msg.when, dispatchStart, "delivery",
                            msg)) {
                        // Once we write a slow delivery log, suppress until the queue drains.
                        slowDeliveryDetected = true;
                    }
                }
            }
            if (logSlowDispatch) {
                showSlowLog(slowDispatchThresholdMs, dispatchStart, dispatchEnd, "dispatch", msg);
            }

            if (logging != null) {
                logging.println("<<<<< Finished to " + msg.target + " " + msg.callback);
            }

            // Make sure that during the course of dispatching the
            // identity of the thread wasn't corrupted.
            final long newIdent = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
            if (ident != newIdent) {
                Log.wtf(TAG, "Thread identity changed from 0x"
                        + Long.toHexString(ident) + " to 0x"
                        + Long.toHexString(newIdent) + " while dispatching to "
                        + msg.target.getClass().getName() + " "
                        + msg.callback + " what=" + msg.what);
            }

            msg.recycleUnchecked();
        }
    }

loop方法不断地从MessageQueue中取Message,并由msg的target进行处理,而Message的target就是handler,对应的处理方法如下:

    public void dispatchMessage(@NonNull Message msg) {
        if (msg.callback != null) {
            handleCallback(msg);
        } else {
            if (mCallback != null) {
                if (mCallback.handleMessage(msg)) {
                    return;
                }
            }
            handleMessage(msg);
        }
    }

    private static void handleCallback(Message message) {
        message.callback.run();
    }

    public void handleMessage(@NonNull Message msg) {
    }

(1) 如果Message的callback不为null,就执行callback的run方法

(2) 如果mCallback不为null,就执行mCallback接口的回调方法handleMessage,

(3) 如果mCallback不为null且handleMessage返回true,就不再由handler的handleMessage方法进行处理。

这就是handler中传入Callback以及重写handler的handleMessage方法可以处理消息的原因。

3、其他问题

handler中发送消息线程安全吗? 线程安全, MessageQueue中插入消息enqueueMessage方法以及取消息next都是线程安全的,都使用了synchronized进行加锁

子线程中如何进行消息循环? 通过Looper.prepare()方法创建Looper,再调用Looper.loop()不断地从当前线程对应Looper的MessageQueue中取出消息进行处理。

线程可以有多个handler吗?如果可以,为什么消息能发送到对应的handler? 单个线程可以有多个handler, 这些handler对应一个Looper, 消息发送时Message的target会赋值为对应的handler, 消息处理时由target——对应的handler处理。

posted @ 2020-10-27 11:22  笪笠  阅读(1503)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报