SpringBoot怎么用之原理分析与配置

1.1 起步依赖原理分析

1.1.1 分析spring-boot-starter-parent

按住Ctrl点击pom.xml中的spring-boot-starter-parent,跳转到了spring-boot-starter-parent的pom.xml,xml配置如下(只摘抄了部分重点配置):

<parent>
  <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-boot-dependencies</artifactId>
  <version>2.0.1.RELEASE</version>
  <relativePath>../../spring-boot-dependencies</relativePath>
</parent>

按住Ctrl点击pom.xml中的spring-boot-starter-dependencies,跳转到了spring-boot-starter-dependencies的pom.xml,xml配置如下(只摘抄了部分重点配置):

<properties>
  	<activemq.version>5.15.3</activemq.version>
  	<antlr2.version>2.7.7</antlr2.version>
  	<appengine-sdk.version>1.9.63</appengine-sdk.version>
  	<artemis.version>2.4.0</artemis.version>
  	<aspectj.version>1.8.13</aspectj.version>
  	<assertj.version>3.9.1</assertj.version>
  	<atomikos.version>4.0.6</atomikos.version>
  	<bitronix.version>2.1.4</bitronix.version>
  	<build-helper-maven-plugin.version>3.0.0</build-helper-maven-plugin.version>
  	<byte-buddy.version>1.7.11</byte-buddy.version>
  	... ... ...
</properties>
<dependencyManagement>
  	<dependencies>
      	<dependency>
        	<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        	<artifactId>spring-boot</artifactId>
        	<version>2.0.1.RELEASE</version>
      	</dependency>
      	<dependency>
        	<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        	<artifactId>spring-boot-test</artifactId>
        	<version>2.0.1.RELEASE</version>
      	</dependency>
      	... ... ...
	</dependencies>
</dependencyManagement>
<build>
  	<pluginManagement>
    	<plugins>
      		<plugin>
        		<groupId>org.jetbrains.kotlin</groupId>
        		<artifactId>kotlin-maven-plugin</artifactId>
        		<version>${kotlin.version}</version>
      		</plugin>
      		<plugin>
        		<groupId>org.jooq</groupId>
        		<artifactId>jooq-codegen-maven</artifactId>
        		<version>${jooq.version}</version>
      		</plugin>
      		<plugin>
        		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        		<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
        		<version>2.0.1.RELEASE</version>
      		</plugin>
          	... ... ...
    	</plugins>
  	</pluginManagement>
</build>

从上面的spring-boot-starter-dependencies的pom.xml中我们可以发现,一部分坐标的版本、依赖管理、插件管理已经定义好,所以我们的SpringBoot工程继承spring-boot-starter-parent后已经具备版本锁定等配置了。所以起步依赖的作用就是进行依赖的传递。

1.1.2 分析spring-boot-starter-web

按住Ctrl点击pom.xml中的spring-boot-starter-web,跳转到了spring-boot-starter-web的pom.xml,xml配置如下(只摘抄了部分重点配置):

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd" xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
  	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
  	<parent>
    	<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    	<artifactId>spring-boot-starters</artifactId>
    	<version>2.0.1.RELEASE</version>
  	</parent>
  	<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  	<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
  	<version>2.0.1.RELEASE</version>
  	<name>Spring Boot Web Starter</name>
  
  	<dependencies>
    	<dependency>
      		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      		<artifactId>spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
      		<version>2.0.1.RELEASE</version>
      		<scope>compile</scope>
    	</dependency>
    	<dependency>
      		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      		<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-json</artifactId>
      		<version>2.0.1.RELEASE</version>
      		<scope>compile</scope>
    	</dependency>
    	<dependency>
      		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      		<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
      		<version>2.0.1.RELEASE</version>
      		<scope>compile</scope>
    	</dependency>
    	<dependency>
      		<groupId>org.hibernate.validator</groupId>
      		<artifactId>hibernate-validator</artifactId>
      		<version>6.0.9.Final</version>
      		<scope>compile</scope>
    	</dependency>
    	<dependency>
      		<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      		<artifactId>spring-web</artifactId>
      		<version>5.0.5.RELEASE</version>
      		<scope>compile</scope>
    	</dependency>
    	<dependency>
      		<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      		<artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
      		<version>5.0.5.RELEASE</version>
      		<scope>compile</scope>
    	</dependency>
  	</dependencies>
</project>

从上面的spring-boot-starter-web的pom.xml中我们可以发现,spring-boot-starter-web就是将web开发要使用的spring-web、spring-webmvc等坐标进行了“打包”,这样我们的工程只要引入spring-boot-starter-web起步依赖的坐标就可以进行web开发了,同样体现了依赖传递的作用。

1.2 自动配置原理解析

按住Ctrl点击查看启动类MySpringBootApplication上的注解@SpringBootApplication

@SpringBootApplication
public class MySpringBootApplication {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(MySpringBootApplication.class);
    }
}

注解@SpringBootApplication的源码

@Target(ElementType.TYPE)
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
@Inherited
@SpringBootConfiguration
@EnableAutoConfiguration
@ComponentScan(excludeFilters = {
		@Filter(type = FilterType.CUSTOM, classes = TypeExcludeFilter.class),
		@Filter(type = FilterType.CUSTOM, classes = AutoConfigurationExcludeFilter.class) })
public @interface SpringBootApplication {

	/**
	 * Exclude specific auto-configuration classes such that they will never be applied.
	 * @return the classes to exclude
	 */
	@AliasFor(annotation = EnableAutoConfiguration.class)
	Class<?>[] exclude() default {};

	... ... ...

}

其中,

@SpringBootConfiguration:等同与@Configuration,既标注该类是Spring的一个配置类

@EnableAutoConfiguration:SpringBoot自动配置功能开启

按住Ctrl点击查看注解@EnableAutoConfiguration

@Target(ElementType.TYPE)
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
@Inherited
@AutoConfigurationPackage
@Import(AutoConfigurationImportSelector.class)
public @interface EnableAutoConfiguration {
	... ... ...
}

其中,@Import(AutoConfigurationImportSelector.class) 导入了AutoConfigurationImportSelector类

按住Ctrl点击查看AutoConfigurationImportSelector源码

public String[] selectImports(AnnotationMetadata annotationMetadata) {
        ... ... ...
        List<String> configurations = getCandidateConfigurations(annotationMetadata,
                                                                   attributes);
        configurations = removeDuplicates(configurations);
        Set<String> exclusions = getExclusions(annotationMetadata, attributes);
        checkExcludedClasses(configurations, exclusions);
        configurations.removeAll(exclusions);
        configurations = filter(configurations, autoConfigurationMetadata);
        fireAutoConfigurationImportEvents(configurations, exclusions);
        return StringUtils.toStringArray(configurations);
}


protected List<String> getCandidateConfigurations(AnnotationMetadata metadata,
			AnnotationAttributes attributes) {
		List<String> configurations = SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactoryNames(
				getSpringFactoriesLoaderFactoryClass(), getBeanClassLoader());
		
		return configurations;
}

其中,SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactoryNames 方法的作用就是从META-INF/spring.factories文件中读取指定类对应的类名称列表

spring.factories 文件中有关自动配置的配置信息如下:

... ... ...

org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.function.client.WebClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.ServletWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.MultipartAutoConfiguration,\

... ... ...

上面配置文件存在大量的以Configuration为结尾的类名称,这些类就是存有自动配置信息的类,而SpringApplication在获取这些类名后再加载

我们以ServletWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration为例来分析源码:

@Configuration
@AutoConfigureOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE)
@ConditionalOnClass(ServletRequest.class)
@ConditionalOnWebApplication(type = Type.SERVLET)
@EnableConfigurationProperties(ServerProperties.class)
@Import({ ServletWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration.BeanPostProcessorsRegistrar.class,
		ServletWebServerFactoryConfiguration.EmbeddedTomcat.class,
		ServletWebServerFactoryConfiguration.EmbeddedJetty.class,
		ServletWebServerFactoryConfiguration.EmbeddedUndertow.class })
public class ServletWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration {
	... ... ...
}

其中,

@EnableConfigurationProperties(ServerProperties.class) 代表加载ServerProperties服务器配置属性类

进入ServerProperties.class源码如下:

@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "server", ignoreUnknownFields = true)
public class ServerProperties {

	/**
	 * Server HTTP port.
	 */
	private Integer port;

	/**
	 * Network address to which the server should bind.
	 */
	private InetAddress address;
  
  	... ... ...
  
}

其中,

prefix = "server" 表示SpringBoot配置文件中的前缀,SpringBoot会将配置文件中以server开始的属性映射到该类的字段中。映射关系如下:

二、SpringBoot的配置文件

2.1 SpringBoot配置文件类型

2.1.1 SpringBoot配置文件类型和作用

SpringBoot是基于约定的,所以很多配置都有默认值,但如果想使用自己的配置替换默认配置的话,就可以使用application.properties或者application.yml(application.yaml)进行配置。

SpringBoot默认会从Resources目录下加载application.properties或application.yml(application.yaml)文件

其中,application.properties文件是键值对类型的文件,之前一直在使用,所以此处不在对properties文件的格式进行阐述。除了properties文件外,SpringBoot还可以使用yml文件进行配置,下面对yml文件进行讲解。

2.1.2 application.yml配置文件

2.1.2.1 yml配置文件简介

YML文件格式是YAML (YAML Aint Markup Language)编写的文件格式,YAML是一种直观的能够被电脑识别的的数据数据序列化格式,并且容易被人类阅读,容易和脚本语言交互的,可以被支持YAML库的不同的编程语言程序导入,比如: C/C++, Ruby, Python, Java, Perl, C#, PHP等。YML文件是以数据为核心的,比传统的xml方式更加简洁。

YML文件的扩展名可以使用.yml或者.yaml。

2.1.2.2 yml配置文件的语法

2.1.2.2.1 配置普通数据
  • 语法: key: value

  • 示例代码:

  • name: haohao
    
  • 注意:value之前有一个空格

2.1.2.2.2 配置对象数据
  • 语法:

    ​ key:

    ​ key1: value1

    ​ key2: value2

    ​ 或者:

    ​ key: {key1: value1,key2: value2}

  • 示例代码:

  • person:
      name: haohao
      age: 31
      addr: beijing
    
    #或者
    
    person: {name: haohao,age: 31,addr: beijing}
    
  • 注意:key1前面的空格个数不限定,在yml语法中,相同缩进代表同一个级别

2.1.2.2.2 配置Map数据

同上面的对象写法

2.1.2.2.3 配置数组(List、Set)数据
  • 语法:

    ​ key:

    ​ - value1

    ​ - value2

    或者:

    ​ key: [value1,value2]

  • 示例代码:

  • city:
      - beijing
      - tianjin
      - shanghai
      - chongqing
      
    #或者
    
    city: [beijing,tianjin,shanghai,chongqing]
    
    #集合中的元素是对象形式
    student:
      - name: zhangsan
        age: 18
        score: 100
      - name: lisi
        age: 28
        score: 88
      - name: wangwu
        age: 38
        score: 90
    
  • 注意:value1与之间的 - 之间存在一个空格

2.1.3 SpringBoot配置信息的查询

上面提及过,SpringBoot的配置文件,主要的目的就是对配置信息进行修改的,但在配置时的key从哪里去查询呢?我们可以查阅SpringBoot的官方文档

文档URL:https://docs.spring.io/spring-boot/docs/2.0.1.RELEASE/reference/htmlsingle/#common-application-properties

常用的配置摘抄如下:

# QUARTZ SCHEDULER (QuartzProperties)
spring.quartz.jdbc.initialize-schema=embedded # Database schema initialization mode.
spring.quartz.jdbc.schema=classpath:org/quartz/impl/jdbcjobstore/tables_@@platform@@.sql # Path to the SQL file to use to initialize the database schema.
spring.quartz.job-store-type=memory # Quartz job store type.
spring.quartz.properties.*= # Additional Quartz Scheduler properties.

# ----------------------------------------
# WEB PROPERTIES
# ----------------------------------------

# EMBEDDED SERVER CONFIGURATION (ServerProperties)
server.port=8080 # Server HTTP port.
server.servlet.context-path= # Context path of the application.
server.servlet.path=/ # Path of the main dispatcher servlet.

# HTTP encoding (HttpEncodingProperties)
spring.http.encoding.charset=UTF-8 # Charset of HTTP requests and responses. Added to the "Content-Type" header if not set explicitly.

# JACKSON (JacksonProperties)
spring.jackson.date-format= # Date format string or a fully-qualified date format class name. For instance, `yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss`.

# SPRING MVC (WebMvcProperties)
spring.mvc.servlet.load-on-startup=-1 # Load on startup priority of the dispatcher servlet.
spring.mvc.static-path-pattern=/** # Path pattern used for static resources.
spring.mvc.view.prefix= # Spring MVC view prefix.
spring.mvc.view.suffix= # Spring MVC view suffix.

# DATASOURCE (DataSourceAutoConfiguration & DataSourceProperties)
spring.datasource.driver-class-name= # Fully qualified name of the JDBC driver. Auto-detected based on the URL by default.
spring.datasource.password= # Login password of the database.
spring.datasource.url= # JDBC URL of the database.
spring.datasource.username= # Login username of the database.

# JEST (Elasticsearch HTTP client) (JestProperties)
spring.elasticsearch.jest.password= # Login password.
spring.elasticsearch.jest.proxy.host= # Proxy host the HTTP client should use.
spring.elasticsearch.jest.proxy.port= # Proxy port the HTTP client should use.
spring.elasticsearch.jest.read-timeout=3s # Read timeout.
spring.elasticsearch.jest.username= # Login username.

我们可以通过配置application.poperties 或者 application.yml 来修改SpringBoot的默认配置

例如:

application.properties文件

server.port=8888
server.servlet.context-path=demo

application.yml文件

server:
  port: 8888
  servlet:
    context-path: /demo

2.2 配置文件与配置类的属性映射方式

2.2.1 使用注解@Value映射

我们可以通过@Value注解将配置文件中的值映射到一个Spring管理的Bean的字段上

例如:

application.properties配置如下:

person:
  name: zhangsan
  age: 18

或者,application.yml配置如下:

person:
  name: zhangsan
  age: 18

实体Bean代码如下:

@Controller
public class QuickStartController {

    @Value("${person.name}")
    private String name;
    @Value("${person.age}")
    private Integer age;


    @RequestMapping("/quick")
    @ResponseBody
    public String quick(){
        return "springboot 访问成功! name="+name+",age="+age;
    }

}

浏览器访问地址:http://localhost:8080/quick 结果如下:

2.2.2 使用注解@ConfigurationProperties映射

通过注解@ConfigurationProperties(prefix="配置文件中的key的前缀")可以将配置文件中的配置自动与实体进行映射

application.properties配置如下:

person:
  name: zhangsan
  age: 18

或者,application.yml配置如下:

person:
  name: zhangsan
  age: 18

实体Bean代码如下:

@Controller
@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "person")
public class QuickStartController {

    private String name;
    private Integer age;

    @RequestMapping("/quick")
    @ResponseBody
    public String quick(){
        return "springboot 访问成功! name="+name+",age="+age;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public void setAge(Integer age) {
        this.age = age;
    }
}

浏览器访问地址:http://localhost:8080/quick

注意:使用@ConfigurationProperties方式可以进行配置文件与实体字段的自动映射,但需要字段必须提供set方法才可以,而使用@Value注解修饰的字段不需要提供set方法

posted @ 2020-01-04 13:00  有梦想的老王  阅读(1393)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报