基于Django的Rest Framework框架的解析器

一 解析器的作用

根据请求头 content-type 选择对应的解析器对请求体内容进行处理。

有application/json,x-www-form-urlencoded,form-data等格式

二 全局使用解析器

setting里

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REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    'DEFAULT_PARSER_CLASSES':[
        'rest_framework.parsers.JSONParser'
        'rest_framework.parsers.FormParser'
        'rest_framework.parsers.MultiPartParser'
    ]

}
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路由:

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view()),
]

视图函数:

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from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response

class TestView(APIView):
    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)
        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
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三 局部使用解析器

a. 仅处理请求头content-type为application/json的请求体

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from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views.s5_parser import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.request import Request
from rest_framework.parsers import JSONParser


class TestView(APIView):
    parser_classes = [JSONParser, ]

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)

        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)

        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
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b. 仅处理请求头content-type为application/x-www-form-urlencoded 的请求体

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from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.request import Request
from rest_framework.parsers import FormParser


class TestView(APIView):
    parser_classes = [FormParser, ]

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)

        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)

        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
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c. 仅处理请求头content-type为multipart/form-data的请求体

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from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.request import Request
from rest_framework.parsers import MultiPartParser


class TestView(APIView):
    parser_classes = [MultiPartParser, ]

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)
        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
    <input type="text" name="user" />
    <input type="file" name="img">

    <input type="submit" value="提交">

</form>
</body>
</html>
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d. 仅上传文件

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from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/(?P<filename>[^/]+)', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.request import Request
from rest_framework.parsers import FileUploadParser


class TestView(APIView):
    parser_classes = [FileUploadParser, ]

    def post(self, request, filename, *args, **kwargs):
        print(filename)
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)
        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="http://127.0.0.1:8000/test/f1.numbers" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
    <input type="text" name="user" />
    <input type="file" name="img">

    <input type="submit" value="提交">

</form>
</body>
</html>
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e. 同时多个Parser

当同时使用多个parser时,rest framework会根据请求头content-type自动进行比对,并使用对应parser

 

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from django.conf.urls import url, include
from web.views import TestView

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'test/', TestView.as_view(), name='test'),
]
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.request import Request
from rest_framework.parsers import JSONParser, FormParser, MultiPartParser


class TestView(APIView):
    parser_classes = [JSONParser, FormParser, MultiPartParser, ]

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        print(request.content_type)

        # 获取请求的值,并使用对应的JSONParser进行处理
        print(request.data)
        # application/x-www-form-urlencoded 或 multipart/form-data时,request.POST中才有值
        print(request.POST)
        print(request.FILES)
        return Response('POST请求,响应内容')

    def put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return Response('PUT请求,响应内容')
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四 源码分析

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1 在调用request.data时,才进行解析,由此入手
    @property
    def data(self):
        if not _hasattr(self, '_full_data'):
            self._load_data_and_files()
        return self._full_data
        
2 查看self._load_data_and_files()方法---->self._data, self._files = self._parse()

        def _parse(self):
            #用户请求头里content_type的值
            media_type = self.content_type

            #self.parsers 就是用户配置的parser_classes = [FileUploadParser,FormParser ]
            #self里就有content_type,传入此函数
            parser = self.negotiator.select_parser(self, self.parsers)

3 查看self.negotiator.select_parser(self, self.parsers)
     def select_parser(self, request, parsers):
        #同过media_type和request.content_type比较,来返回解析器,然后调用解析器的解析方法
        #每个解析器都有media_type = 'multipart/form-data'属性
        for parser in parsers:
            if media_type_matches(parser.media_type, request.content_type):
                return parser
        return None
    
4 最终调用parser的解析方法来解析parsed = parser.parse(stream, media_type, self.parser_context)
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1 Request实例化,parsers=self.get_parsers()
    Request(
                request,
                parsers=self.get_parsers(),
                authenticators=self.get_authenticators(),
                negotiator=self.get_content_negotiator(),
                parser_context=parser_context
            )
2 get_parsers方法,循环实例化出self.parser_classes中类对象
    def get_parsers(self):
        return [parser() for parser in self.parser_classes]            

3 self.parser_classes 先从类本身找,找不到去父类找即APIVIew 中的
    parser_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_PARSER_CLASSES
4 api_settings是一个对象,对象里找DEFAULT_PARSER_CLASSES属性,找不到,会到getattr方法
        def __getattr__(self, attr):
            if attr not in self.defaults:
                raise AttributeError("Invalid API setting: '%s'" % attr)

            try:
                #调用self.user_settings方法,返回一个字典,字典再取attr属性
                val = self.user_settings[attr]
            except KeyError:
                # Fall back to defaults
                val = self.defaults[attr]

            # Coerce import strings into classes
            if attr in self.import_strings:
                val = perform_import(val, attr)

            # Cache the result
            self._cached_attrs.add(attr)
            setattr(self, attr, val)
            return val
 5 user_settings方法 ,通过反射去setting配置文件里找REST_FRAMEWORK属性,找不到,返回空字典
    @property
    def user_settings(self):
        if not hasattr(self, '_user_settings'):
            self._user_settings = getattr(settings, 'REST_FRAMEWORK', {})
        return self._user_settings
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posted @ 2019-12-12 15:10  程序小王的生命周期  阅读(68)  评论(0编辑  收藏