Kubernetes-10:Ingress-nginx介绍及演示

Ingress介绍

 

Ingress是什么?

ingress 是除了 hostport  nodeport  clusterIP以及云环境专有的负载均衡器外的访问方式,官方提供了Nginx ingress controller。ingress-nginx本身就是nodeport模式

 

Ingress能做什么?

k8s中,不管是哪种类型的svc,不管是用iptables还是ipvs实现端口转发实现负载均衡,也只是实现了四层的负载均衡,但是,如果有需求要进行七层负载均衡呢?比如你想将你的网站设置为https呢?Ingress就是来帮你解决此问题的。

 

Ingress工作原理及主要组成部分?

工作原理:

类似于Nginx,可以理解为在Ingress建立一个个映射规则,Ingress Controller通过监听Ingress这个api对象里的规则并转化为Nginx/HAporxy等的配置,然后对外部提供服务。

组成部分:

ingress controller:

核心是一个deployment,实现方式有很多种,比如Nignx、HAproxy、trafik、lstio,需要编写的yaml有:Deployment、Service、ConfigMap、ServiceAccount(Auth),其中Service类型可以是NodePort或者LoadBalance

ingress resources:这个是类型为ingress的k8s api对象,主要面向开发人员。

 

1、下载Ingress

### 进入官网下载
https://kubernetes.github.io/ingress-nginx/deploy/

里边会有提示:

Using NodePort:

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/ingress-nginx/controller-0.32.0/deploy/static/provider/baremetal/deploy.yaml
### 可以看到,本身就是一个yaml文件,可以先下载到本地

 

然后进行安装:

### 查看yaml文件中用到了那个image,可以预先下载下来,所有node都要下载
[root@Centos8 ~]# grep image /usr/local/install-k8s/ingress/deploy.yaml 
          image: quay.io/kubernetes-ingress-controller/nginx-ingress-controller:0.32.0
          imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
          image: jettech/kube-webhook-certgen:v1.2.0
          imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
          image: jettech/kube-webhook-certgen:v1.2.0
          imagePullPolicy:

### 下载完毕后,直接执行构建命令
[root@Centos8 ingress]# kubectl apply -f deploy.yaml 
namespace/ingress-nginx created
serviceaccount/ingress-nginx created
configmap/ingress-nginx-controller created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/ingress-nginx created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/ingress-nginx created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/ingress-nginx created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/ingress-nginx created
service/ingress-nginx-controller-admission created
service/ingress-nginx-controller created
deployment.apps/ingress-nginx-controller created
validatingwebhookconfiguration.admissionregistration.k8s.io/ingress-nginx-admission created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/ingress-nginx-admission created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/ingress-nginx-admission created
job.batch/ingress-nginx-admission-create created
job.batch/ingress-nginx-admission-patch created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/ingress-nginx-admission created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/ingress-nginx-admission created
serviceaccount/ingress-nginx-admission created

ok,安装完毕
可以看到,创建了一个ingress-nginx的namespace
ingress-nginx本身所有的规则全部放在ingress-nginx这个名称空间下
例如:查看pod svc
[root@Centos8 k8sYaml]# kubectl get pod -n ingress-nginx
NAME                                        READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
ingress-nginx-admission-create-lrsvp        0/1     Completed   0          10m
ingress-nginx-admission-patch-5hk9n         0/1     Completed   0          10m
ingress-nginx-controller-5575c6cd9d-2sblm   1/1     Running     0          32m

[root@Centos8 k8sYaml]# kubectl get svc -n ingress-nginx
NAME                                 TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)                      AGE
ingress-nginx-controller             NodePort    10.107.76.91   <none>        80:30361/TCP,443:31087/TCP   114m
ingress-nginx-controller-admission   ClusterIP   10.96.12.12    <none>        443/TCP                      114m

可以看到ingress-nginx的svc的端口映射关系为:
80:30361/TCP,443:31087/TCP
后边的所有测试,需访问http则访问30361端口,访问https则访问31087端口

 

2、创建Igress HTTP代理访问

 

 1)首先创建deployment、Pod

2)其次创建SVC,通过SVC来绑定与Pod之间的连接

3)然后创建ingress,实现svc与ingress的绑定

4)最后外网通过访问ingress映射到SVC再到具体的Pod

最后注意:ingress是通过域名进行实现转发的,所以在测试的时候不要忘记将所有用到的域名及ip加入到hosts文件中

 

1)创建Deployment与svc

### www1的创建
vim svc-deployment1.yml
...
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: ingress-http1
  namespace: default
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: myapp
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: myapp
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: myapp1
        image: hub.vfancloud.com/test/myapp:v1
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        ports:
        - name: http
          containerPort: 80
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: ingress-svc1
  namespace: default
spec:
  type: ClusterIP
  selector:
    app: myapp
  ports:
  - name: http
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: ingress1
spec:
  rules:
  - host: www1.wuzi.com
    http:
      paths:
      - path: /
        backend:
          serviceName: ingress-svc1
          servicePort: 80
...

kubectl apply -f svc-deployment1.yml


vim svc-deployment2.yml
...
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: ingress-http2
  namespace: default
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: myapp2
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: myapp2
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: myapp2
        image: hub.vfancloud.com/test/myapp:v2
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        ports:
        - name: http
          containerPort: 80
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: ingress-svc2
  namespace: default
spec:
  type: ClusterIP
  selector:
    app: myapp2
  ports:
  - name: http
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: ingress2
spec:
  rules:
  - host: www2.wuzi.com
    http:
      paths:
      - path: /
        backend:
          serviceName: ingress-svc2
          servicePort: 80
...

kubectl apply -f svc-deployment2.yml

 

两个都构建完成,测试访问:

http://www1.wuzi.com:30361

 

 

 http://www2.wuzi.com:30361

 

 

 一个v1版本,一个v2版本

 

 

4、Ingress HTTPS代理访问

 

 

1)创建https证书

mkdir https
cd https
## 创建私钥key
[root@Centos8 https]# openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 2048
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus (2 primes)
........+++++
...............................................................+++++
e is 65537 (0x010001)
Enter pass phrase for server.key:
Verifying - Enter pass phrase for server.key:

## 创建csr请求
[root@Centos8 https]# openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr
Enter pass phrase for server.key:
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:cn
State or Province Name (full name) []:bj
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:bj
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:vfan
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:vfan
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:
Email Address []:
Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

## 去除私钥的连接密码
[root@Centos8 https]# cp server.key{,.org}
[root@Centos8 https]# openssl rsa -in server.key.org -out server.key

## 生成证书文件
openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt

## 生成tls格式
[root@Centos8 https]# kubectl create secret tls tls-secret --key server.key --cert server.crt
secret/tls-secret created

 

2)创建deployment、svc、ingress

vim ingress-https.yaml
...
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: ingress-deployment
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      name: in-https
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        name: in-https
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: in-https
        image: hub.vfancloud.com/test/myapp:v3
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        ports:
        - name: http
          containerPort: 80
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: ingress-https
spec:
  selector:
    name: in-https
  ports:
  - name: http
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80
    protocol: TCP
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: ingress-https
spec:
  tls:
  - hosts:
    - www3.wuzi.com
    secretName: tls-secret
  rules:
  - host: www3.wuzi.com
    http:
      paths:
      - path: /
        backend:
          serviceName: ingress-https
          servicePort: 80
...

[root@Centos8 https]# kubectl apply -f ingress-https.yaml 

[root@Centos8 https]# kubectl get ingress
NAME            HOSTS           ADDRESS           PORTS     AGE
ingress-https   www3.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80, 443   16m
ingress1        www1.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80        45m
ingress2        www2.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80        45m

 

测试访问ingress https

注意,访问的是svc的443相对应的端口

导航栏输入:https://www3.wuzi.com:31087

 

 ok,访问到了

 

 

5、Nginx进行BasicAuth

### 首先使用htpasswd命令创建BasicAuth用户,切记,保存的文件名一定要是auth
[root@Centos8 auth]# htpasswd -c auth vfan
New password: 
Re-type new password: 
Adding password for user vfan

### 创建secret
[root@Centos8 auth]# kubectl create secret generic basic-auth --from-file=auth
secret/basic-auth created

### 创建yaml文件
vim auth.yaml
...
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: ingress-auth
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      name: auth
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        name: auth
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: ingress-auth
        image: hub.vfancloud.com/test/myapp:v4
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        ports:
        - name: http
          containerPort: 80
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: svc-auth
spec:
  selector:
    name: auth
  ports:
  - name: http
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80
    protocol: TCP
---
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: ingress-with-auth
  annotations:
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-type: basic
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-secret: basic-auth
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/auth-realm: 'Authentication Required - vfan'
spec:
  rules:
  - host: www4.wuzi.com
    http:
      paths:
      - path: /
        backend:
          serviceName: auth-svc
          servicePort: 80
...
[root@Centos8 auth]# kubectl apply -f auth.yaml

[root@Centos8 auth]# kubectl  get ingress
NAME            HOSTS           ADDRESS           PORTS     AGE
ingress-with-auth    www4.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80        94s
ingress-https   www3.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80, 443   33m
ingress1        www1.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80        62m
ingress2        www2.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80        62m

测试访问:

http://www4.wuzi.com:30361/

 

 

6、Ingress-Nginx重写

Name

Description

Values

nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target

必须将流量重定向到的目标URI

string

nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/ssl-redirect

指示位置部分是否仅可访问SSL(Ingress包含证书时默认为True)

bool

nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/force-ssl-redirect

即使未启用TLS,也强制将重定向到HTTPS

bool

nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/app-root

定义如果在“ /”上下文中,控制器必须重定向的应用程序根

string

nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/use-regex

指示在Ingress上定义的路径是否使用正则表达式

bool

示例:

将访问www5.wuzi.com 访问 / 目录的流量全部转发至https://www3.wuzi.com:31087

vim rewrite.yaml
...
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  annotations:
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/rewrite-target: https://www3.wuzi.com:31087
  name: rewrite
  namespace: default
spec:
  rules:
  - host: www5.wuzi.com
    http:
      paths:
      - backend:
          serviceName: ingress-svc1
          servicePort: 80
        path: /
...

[root@Centos8 rewrite]# kubectl create -f rewrite.yaml 
ingress.networking.k8s.io/rewrite created

[root@Centos8 rewrite]# kubectl get ingress 
NAME                HOSTS           ADDRESS           PORTS     AGE
ingress-https       www3.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80, 443   148m
ingress-with-auth   www4.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80        20m
ingress1            www1.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80        177m
ingress2            www2.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80        177m
rewrite             www5.wuzi.com   192.168.152.253   80        41s

测试访问:

http://www5.wuzi.com:30361 

 

 已跳转

 

posted @ 2020-07-05 22:58  vfanCloud  阅读(1329)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报