Nginx 学习笔记(一)如何配置一个安全的HTTPS网站服务器

一、系统环境

1、系统:Ubuntu 16.04.2 LTS

2、WEB服务器:Openresty11.2.5

二、开始配置

1、获取certbot客户端

wget https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto
chmod a+x certbot-auto

2、停止Nginx服务

sudo systemctl stop nginx.service

3、生成证书

./certbot-auto certonly --standalone --email `你的邮箱地址` -d `你的域名地址`

当前网站有多个域名时需在后面增加,例如:

./certbot-auto certonly --standalone --email `你的邮箱地址` -d `你的域名1` -d `你的域名2`

sudo ./certbot-auto  certonly --standalone --email "yourEmail@qq.com" -d "www.tinywan.com" 
-d "live.tinywan.com" -d "vod.tinywan.com" -d "livecdn.tinywan.com"
-d "nginx-vod.tinywan.com" -d "hls-auth.tinywan.com" -d "hls.tinywan.com" -d "auth.tinywan.com"

可能会出现错误1OSError: Command /opt/eff.org/certbot/venv/bin/python2.7 - setuptools pkg_resources pip wheel failed with error code 2

通过搜索,找到了certbot的issue #issuecomment-273014451 ,原因是说,系统安装了多个版本的python,那么怎么删除呢?

解决办法:

apt-get purge python-virtualenv python3-virtualenv virtualenv
pip install virtualenv

可能会出现错误2:

Cleaning up challenges
Problem binding to port 443: Could not bind to IPv4 or IPv6.

解决:说明你的Nginx服务还在运行啊!赶紧的kill掉啊

成功生成证书的输出结果:

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Plugins selected: Authenticator standalone, Installer None
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
tls-sni-01 challenge for www.tinywan.com
tls-sni-01 challenge for live.tinywan.com
tls-sni-01 challenge for vod.tinywan.com
tls-sni-01 challenge for livecdn.tinywan.com
tls-sni-01 challenge for nginx-vod.tinywan.com
tls-sni-01 challenge for hls-auth.tinywan.com
tls-sni-01 challenge for hls.tinywan.com
tls-sni-01 challenge for auth.tinywan.com
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.tinywan.com-0001/fullchain.pem
   Your key file has been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.tinywan.com-0001/privkey.pem
   Your cert will expire on 2018-02-22. To obtain a new or tweaked
   version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot-auto
   again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "certbot-auto renew"
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le

4、查看生产的证书

tree /etc/letsencrypt/live/
www@TinywanAliYun:~$ sudo tree /etc/letsencrypt/live/
/etc/letsencrypt/live/
└── www.tinywan.top
    ├── cert.pem -> ../../archive/www.tinywan.top/cert1.pem
    ├── chain.pem -> ../../archive/www.tinywan.top/chain1.pem
    ├── fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/www.tinywan.top/fullchain1.pem
    ├── privkey.pem -> ../../archive/www.tinywan.top/privkey1.pem
    └── README

1 directory, 5 files

5、编辑Nginx配置文件和开启SSL服务

sudo vim /usr/local/openresty/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

配置虚拟主机

...
  # 配置HTTP请求重定向 server { listen
80; server_name www.tinywan.top; rewrite ^ https://$http_host$request_uri? permanent; # force redirect http to https }
# 配置SSL证书 server { listen
443 ssl;
     server_name www.tinywan.top;
        ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.tinywan.top/fullchain.pem; 
ssl_certificate_key
/etc/letsencrypt/live/www.tinywan.top//privkey.pem;
     #禁止在header中出现服务器版本,防止黑客利用版本漏洞攻击    
     server_tokens off;
set $root_path /home/www/web/golang; root $root_path; location / { if (!-e $request_filename) { rewrite ^(.*)$ /index.php?s=/$1 last; break; } } } ...

6、重启Nginx服务

sudo systemctl restart nginx.service

 7、Let’s Encrypt 生成的免费证书为3个月时间,使用Crontab可以无限次续签证书

# 每星期1的2点30分执行更新操作
 30 2 * * 1 /home/www/bin/certbot-auto renew  >>/home/www/bin/logs/encrypt_auto_update.log  2>&1

 遇到的坑,查边所有的地方都不能够解决,最后是内存不够用的问题?

OSError: Command /opt/eff.org/certbot/venv/bin/python2.7 - setuptools pkg_resources pip wheel failed with error code 2

File "/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 945, in create_environment

如何解决:

user@webserver:~$ sudo fallocate -l 1G /tmp/swapfile
user@webserver:~$ sudo chmod 600 /tmp/swapfile
user@webserver:~$ sudo mkswap /tmp/swapfile
user@webserver:~$ sudo swapon /tmp/swapfile

 最后记得释放掉分配的交换分区

user@webserver:~$ sudo swapoff /tmp/swapfile
user@webserver:~$ sudo rm /tmp/swapfile

 Ubuntu 16.04更新遇到的错误:

Reading package lists... Done                     
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
augeas-lenses is already the newest version (1.4.0-0ubuntu1).
ca-certificates is already the newest version (20160104ubuntu1).
gcc is already the newest version (4:5.3.1-1ubuntu1).
libaugeas0 is already the newest version (1.4.0-0ubuntu1).
libffi-dev is already the newest version (3.2.1-4).
python is already the newest version (2.7.11-1).
python-dev is already the newest version (2.7.11-1).
libssl-dev is already the newest version (1.0.2g-1ubuntu4.5).
openssl is already the newest version (1.0.2g-1ubuntu4.5).
python-virtualenv is already the newest version (15.0.1+ds-3ubuntu1).
virtualenv is already the newest version (15.0.1+ds-3ubuntu1).
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 3 not upgraded.
Creating virtual environment...
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 2363, in <module>
    main()
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 719, in main
    symlink=options.symlink)
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 988, in create_environment
    download=download,
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 918, in install_wheel
    call_subprocess(cmd, show_stdout=False, extra_env=env, stdin=SCRIPT)
  File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/virtualenv.py", line 812, in call_subprocess
    % (cmd_desc, proc.returncode))
OSError: Command /root/.local/share/letsencrypt/bin/python2.7 - setuptools pkg_resources pip wheel failed with error code 2

解决办法:sudo apt install letsencrypt

 

国外教程:https://www.vultr.com/docs/setup-let-s-encrypt-with-lighttpd-on-ubuntu-16-04

posted @ 2017-09-18 13:23 Tinywan 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏