20212207 《Python程序设计》实验四 Python综合实践实验报告

课程:《Python程序设计》
班级: 2122
姓名:唐思怡
学号:20212207
实验教师:王志强
实验日期:2022年5月19日
必修/选修: 公选课

1.实验内容

Python综合应用:爬虫、数据处理、可视化、机器学习、神经网络、游戏、网络安全等。

注:在华为ECS服务器(OpenOuler系统)和物理机(Windows/Linux系统)上使用VIM、PDB、IDLE、Pycharm等工具编程实现。

2. 实验过程及结果

(一)实验内容

编写外星人入侵小游戏,实现武装飞船,射击移动的外星人并计分的功能

(二)选题思路

作为刚刚接触编程技术的大一新生,知识欠缺,不宜好高骛远,因此选题采用了书本上的教学案例,一则可以巩固前面所学,二则可以跟着书本推进,知道自己的不足并加以改正

(三)实验代码

alien_invasion.py

 

import sys
from time import sleep

import pygame

from settings import Settings
from game_stats import GameStats
from scoreboard import Scoreboard
from button import Button
from ship import Ship
from bullet import Bullet
from alien import Alien


class AlienInvasion:

    def __init__(self):
        pygame.init()
        self.settings = Settings()

        self.screen = pygame.display.set_mode((0, 0), pygame.FULLSCREEN)
        self.settings.screen_width = self.screen.get_rect().width
        self.settings.screen_height = self.screen.get_rect().height
        pygame.display.set_caption("Alien Invasion")

        self.stats = GameStats(self)
        self.sb = Scoreboard(self)

        self.ship = Ship(self)
        self.bullets = pygame.sprite.Group()
        self.aliens = pygame.sprite.Group()

        self._create_fleet()

        self.play_button = Button(self, "Play")

    def run_game(self):
        while True:
            self._check_events()

            if self.stats.game_active:
                self.ship.update()
                self._update_bullets()
                self._update_aliens()

            self._update_screen()

    def _check_events(self):
        for event in pygame.event.get():
            if event.type == pygame.QUIT:
                sys.exit()
            elif event.type == pygame.KEYDOWN:
                self._check_keydown_events(event)
            elif event.type == pygame.KEYUP:
                self._check_keyup_events(event)
            elif event.type == pygame.MOUSEBUTTONDOWN:
                mouse_pos = pygame.mouse.get_pos()
                self._check_play_button(mouse_pos)

    def _check_play_button(self, mouse_pos):
        button_clicked = self.play_button.rect.collidepoint(mouse_pos)
        if button_clicked and not self.stats.game_active:

            self.settings.initialize_dynamic_settings()

            self.stats.reset_stats()
            self.stats.game_active = True
            self.sb.prep_score()
            self.sb.prep_level()
            self.sb.prep_ships()

            self.aliens.empty()
            self.bullets.empty()

            self._create_fleet()
            self.ship.center_ship()

            pygame.mouse.set_visible(False)

    def _check_keydown_events(self, event):
        if event.key == pygame.K_RIGHT:
            self.ship.moving_right = True
        elif event.key == pygame.K_LEFT:
            self.ship.moving_left = True
        elif event.key == pygame.K_q:
            sys.exit()
        elif event.key == pygame.K_SPACE:
            self._fire_bullet()

    def _check_keyup_events(self, event):
        if event.key == pygame.K_RIGHT:
            self.ship.moving_right = False
        elif event.key == pygame.K_LEFT:
            self.ship.moving_left = False

    def _fire_bullet(self):
        if len(self.bullets) < self.settings.bullets_allowed:
            new_bullet = Bullet(self)
            self.bullets.add(new_bullet)

    def _update_bullets(self):
        self.bullets.update()

        for bullet in self.bullets.copy():
            if bullet.rect.bottom <= 0:
                self.bullets.remove(bullet)

        self._check_bullet_alien_collisions()

    def _check_bullet_alien_collisions(self):

        collisions = pygame.sprite.groupcollide(
            self.bullets, self.aliens, True, True)

        if collisions:
            for aliens in collisions.values():
                self.stats.score += self.settings.alien_points * len(aliens)
            self.sb.prep_score()
            self.sb.check_high_score()

        if not self.aliens:

            self.bullets.empty()
            self._create_fleet()
            self.settings.increase_speed()

            self.stats.level += 1
            self.sb.prep_level()

    def _update_aliens(self):

        self._check_fleet_edges()
        self.aliens.update()

        if pygame.sprite.spritecollideany(self.ship, self.aliens):
            self._ship_hit()

        self._check_aliens_bottom()

    def _check_aliens_bottom(self):
        screen_rect = self.screen.get_rect()
        for alien in self.aliens.sprites():
            if alien.rect.bottom >= screen_rect.bottom:
                self._ship_hit()
                break

    def _ship_hit(self):
        if self.stats.ships_left > 0:
            self.stats.ships_left -= 1
            self.sb.prep_ships()

            self.aliens.empty()
            self.bullets.empty()

            self._create_fleet()
            self.ship.center_ship()

            sleep(0.5)
        else:
            self.stats.game_active = False
            pygame.mouse.set_visible(True)

    def _create_fleet(self):

        alien = Alien(self)
        alien_width, alien_height = alien.rect.size
        available_space_x = self.settings.screen_width - (2 * alien_width)
        number_aliens_x = available_space_x // (2 * alien_width)

        ship_height = self.ship.rect.height
        available_space_y = (self.settings.screen_height -
                             (3 * alien_height) - ship_height)
        number_rows = available_space_y // (2 * alien_height)

        for row_number in range(number_rows):
            for alien_number in range(number_aliens_x):
                self._create_alien(alien_number, row_number)

    def _create_alien(self, alien_number, row_number):

        alien = Alien(self)
        alien_width, alien_height = alien.rect.size
        alien.x = alien_width + 2 * alien_width * alien_number
        alien.rect.x = alien.x
        alien.rect.y = alien.rect.height + 2 * alien.rect.height * row_number
        self.aliens.add(alien)

    def _check_fleet_edges(self):

        for alien in self.aliens.sprites():
            if alien.check_edges():
                self._change_fleet_direction()
                break

    def _change_fleet_direction(self):

        for alien in self.aliens.sprites():
            alien.rect.y += self.settings.fleet_drop_speed
        self.settings.fleet_direction *= -1

    def _update_screen(self):

        self.screen.fill(self.settings.bg_color)
        self.ship.blitme()
        for bullet in self.bullets.sprites():
            bullet.draw_bullet()
        self.aliens.draw(self.screen)

        self.sb.show_score()

        if not self.stats.game_active:
            self.play_button.draw_button()

        pygame.display.flip()


if __name__ == '__main__':

    ai = AlienInvasion()
    ai.run_game()

 

 

alien.py 

import pygame
from pygame.sprite import Sprite


class Alien(Sprite):

    def __init__(self, ai_game):

        super().__init__()
        self.screen = ai_game.screen
        self.settings = ai_game.settings


        self.image = pygame.image.load('images/alien.bmp')
        self.rect = self.image.get_rect()

        self.rect.x = self.rect.width
        self.rect.y = self.rect.height

        self.x = float(self.rect.x)

    def check_edges(self):
        screen_rect = self.screen.get_rect()
        if self.rect.right >= screen_rect.right or self.rect.left <= 0:
            return True

    def update(self):
        self.x += (self.settings.alien_speed *
                   self.settings.fleet_direction)
        self.rect.x = self.x

 

 

bullet.py

import pygame
from pygame.sprite import Sprite


class Bullet(Sprite):

    def __init__(self, ai_game):
        super().__init__()
        self.screen = ai_game.screen
        self.settings = ai_game.settings
        self.color = self.settings.bullet_color

        self.rect = pygame.Rect(0, 0, self.settings.bullet_width,
                                self.settings.bullet_height)
        self.rect.midtop = ai_game.ship.rect.midtop

        self.y = float(self.rect.y)

    def update(self):

        self.y -= self.settings.bullet_speed

        self.rect.y = self.y

    def draw_bullet(self):

        pygame.draw.rect(self.screen, self.color, self.rect)

button.py

import pygame.font


class Button:

    def __init__(self, ai_game, msg):

        self.screen = ai_game.screen
        self.screen_rect = self.screen.get_rect()

        self.width, self.height = 200, 50
        self.button_color = (0, 255, 0)
        self.text_color = (255, 255, 255)
        self.font = pygame.font.SysFont(None, 48)

        self.rect = pygame.Rect(0, 0, self.width, self.height)
        self.rect.center = self.screen_rect.center

        self._prep_msg(msg)

    def _prep_msg(self, msg):

        self.msg_image = self.font.render(msg, True, self.text_color,
                                          self.button_color)
        self.msg_image_rect = self.msg_image.get_rect()
        self.msg_image_rect.center = self.rect.center

    def draw_button(self):

        self.screen.fill(self.button_color, self.rect)
        self.screen.blit(self.msg_image, self.msg_image_rect)

game_stats.py

class GameStats:

    def __init__(self, ai_game):
        self.settings = ai_game.settings
        self.reset_stats()

        self.game_active = False

        self.high_score = 0

    def reset_stats(self):
        self.ships_left = self.settings.ship_limit
        self.score = 0
        self.level = 1

 

 

scoreboard.py

 

import pygame.font
from pygame.sprite import Group

from ship import Ship


class Scoreboard:

    def __init__(self, ai_game):
        self.ai_game = ai_game
        self.screen = ai_game.screen
        self.screen_rect = self.screen.get_rect()
        self.settings = ai_game.settings
        self.stats = ai_game.stats

        self.text_color = (30, 30, 30)
        self.font = pygame.font.SysFont(None, 48)

        self.prep_score()
        self.prep_high_score()
        self.prep_level()
        self.prep_ships()

    def prep_score(self):
        rounded_score = round(self.stats.score, -1)
        score_str = "{:,}".format(rounded_score)
        self.score_image = self.font.render(score_str, True,
                                            self.text_color, self.settings.bg_color)

        self.score_rect = self.score_image.get_rect()
        self.score_rect.right = self.screen_rect.right - 20
        self.score_rect.top = 20

    def prep_high_score(self):
        high_score = round(self.stats.high_score, -1)
        high_score_str = "{:,}".format(high_score)
        self.high_score_image = self.font.render(high_score_str, True,
                                                 self.text_color, self.settings.bg_color)

        self.high_score_rect = self.high_score_image.get_rect()
        self.high_score_rect.centerx = self.screen_rect.centerx
        self.high_score_rect.top = self.score_rect.top

    def prep_level(self):
        level_str = str(self.stats.level)
        self.level_image = self.font.render(level_str, True,
                                            self.text_color, self.settings.bg_color)

        self.level_rect = self.level_image.get_rect()
        self.level_rect.right = self.score_rect.right
        self.level_rect.top = self.score_rect.bottom + 10

    def prep_ships(self):
        self.ships = Group()
        for ship_number in range(self.stats.ships_left):
            ship = Ship(self.ai_game)
            ship.rect.x = 10 + ship_number * ship.rect.width
            ship.rect.y = 10
            self.ships.add(ship)

    def check_high_score(self):
        if self.stats.score > self.stats.high_score:
            self.stats.high_score = self.stats.score
            self.prep_high_score()

    def show_score(self):
        self.screen.blit(self.score_image, self.score_rect)
        self.screen.blit(self.high_score_image, self.high_score_rect)
        self.screen.blit(self.level_image, self.level_rect)
        self.ships.draw(self.screen)

 

 

 

 

settings.py

 

class Settings:

    def __init__(self):
        self.screen_width = 1200
        self.screen_height = 800
        self.bg_color = (230, 230, 230)

        self.ship_limit = 3

        self.bullet_width = 3
        self.bullet_height = 15
        self.bullet_color = (60, 60, 60)
        self.bullets_allowed = 3

        self.fleet_drop_speed = 10

        self.speedup_scale = 1.1

        self.score_scale = 1.5

        self.initialize_dynamic_settings()

    def initialize_dynamic_settings(self):

        self.ship_speed = 1.5
        self.bullet_speed = 3.0
        self.alien_speed = 1.0

        self.fleet_direction = 1

        self.alien_points = 50

    def increase_speed(self):

        self.ship_speed *= self.speedup_scale
        self.bullet_speed *= self.speedup_scale
        self.alien_speed *= self.speedup_scale

        self.alien_points = int(self.alien_points * self.score_scale)

 

 

ship.py

import pygame

from pygame.sprite import Sprite


class Ship(Sprite):

    def __init__(self, ai_game):
        super().__init__()
        self.screen = ai_game.screen
        self.settings = ai_game.settings
        self.screen_rect = ai_game.screen.get_rect()

        self.image = pygame.image.load('images/ship.bmp')
        self.rect = self.image.get_rect()

        self.rect.midbottom = self.screen_rect.midbottom

        self.x = float(self.rect.x)

        self.moving_right = False
        self.moving_left = False

    def update(self):

        if self.moving_right and self.rect.right < self.screen_rect.right:
            self.x += self.settings.ship_speed
        if self.moving_left and self.rect.left > 0:
            self.x -= self.settings.ship_speed


        self.rect.x = self.x

    def blitme(self):

        self.screen.blit(self.image, self.rect)

    def center_ship(self):

        self.rect.midbottom = self.screen_rect.midbottom
        self.x = float(self.rect.x)

 

图片

 

 

 

(四)运行结果

在本机上运行

 

 

 

 

 在云服务器上运行

上传代码

 

 在终端运行

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(五 )实现过程

跟着书本的步骤,从短短几十行代码逐渐扩充到两百多行,其中对一些代码进行改进,一些代码进行删减,其中也有因为书上写的较简略而卡壳的时候。在整个过程中,第一次这么直观的感受到一个程序功能的完善是不断改进的过程,在旧的基础上加以修改和完善才会使功能更加强大。

 一些代码的说明:

pygame.display.set_mode() 创建显示窗口

run_game()控制游戏

Settings模块:将所有的设置都存储到一个地方,每次访问设置时,只需要使用一个设置对象

blitme()绘制图像

moving_right持续移动  update()检查moving_right的状态

_check_keydown_events()中添加代码块实现快捷键结束游戏

_update_screen()每次主循环中重绘屏幕

_check_events()检测相关的事件

Sprite.groupcollide()将一个编组中每个元素的rect同另外一个编组中每个元素的rect进行比较

Button类用于创建带标签的实心矩形按钮

 

 

3. 实验过程中遇到的问题和解决过程

  • 问题1:pip不能安装pycharm
  • 解决方案:参考视频后发现没有添加路径,添加后就可以正常安装了
  • 问题2:不会使用云服务器
  • 解决方案:请教会的同学,上b站查找教学视频,在csdn查阅相关资料等
  • 问题3云服务器上的pythonpython2,不能正常运行
  • 解决方案:查询相关资料,下载python3
  • 问题4:写代码时运行出错
  • 解决方法:反复对照书本上的代码,看看是否有拼写或其他错误,找出并改正,实在不行就询问基础较好的同学
  • 问题5pygame找不到屏幕
  • 解决方法:安装xming

 4. 对全课的总结和思考

一开始选python的时候,觉得和c语言课一起上可以相互学习,但是随着学习的深入,发现pythonc语言的差距还是挺大的,而且python也不像之前所了解到的那么容易。

回顾上课的这段时光,上第一节课的时候,我对如何正确安装能够运行pythonpycharmidle都还迷迷糊糊。从第一节课学习写猜数字小游戏,到后来的计算机,测评python技能树,用socket进行通讯,最后还跟着书上的步骤写出了一整个可以运行的游戏,还是特别有成就感的。在13周的学习中,我学到了数列的应用,字符串,正则表达式,函数文件及目录操作,数据库,网络爬虫等知识,收获颇丰,但是,也是因为学的东西太多了,我觉得不能及时巩固,也不能掌握如何深入的运用,只能略知皮毛。

所以我建议可以把课程的内容放慢一点,一步一步来,把每个知识点讲的更透一点,因为虽然网上可以查阅相关知识,但是筛选和查找所花费的时间还是很多的,而且效率较低,不如老师直接讲更加有用。

总的来说,很高兴选到python这门课,也学到了很多,对编程技术的理解又更深了一点。

posted @ 2022-05-27 11:39  橙味绿豆沙  阅读(135)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报