实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

一、实验目的

  1. 能够独立部署RYU控制器;
  2. 能够理解RYU控制器实现软件定义的集线器原理;
  3. 能够理解RYU控制器实现软件定义的交换机原理。

二、实验要求

(一)基本要求

  1. 搭建下图所示SDN拓扑,协议使用Open Flow 1.0,并连接Ryu控制器,通过Ryu的图形界面查看网络拓扑。

  • 建立拓扑
sudo mn --topo=single,3 --mac --controller=remote,ip=127.0.0.1,port=6633 --switch ovsk

  • 连接Ryu控制器
ryu-manager ryu/ryu/app/gui_topology/gui_topology.py --observe-links

  • 通过Ryu的图形界面查看网络拓扑

在浏览器中输入地址http://127.0.0.1:8080打开ryu的图形界面

  1. 阅读Ryu文档的The First Application一节,运行当中的L2Switch,h1 ping h2或h3,在目标主机使用 tcpdump 验证L2Switch,分析L2Switch和POX的Hub模块有何不同。
  • 创建L2Switch文件并添加代码
from ryu.base import app_manager
from ryu.controller import ofp_event
from ryu.controller.handler import MAIN_DISPATCHER
from ryu.controller.handler import set_ev_cls
from ryu.ofproto import ofproto_v1_0

class L2Switch(app_manager.RyuApp):
    OFP_VERSIONS = [ofproto_v1_0.OFP_VERSION]

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(L2Switch, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)

    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPPacketIn, MAIN_DISPATCHER)
    def packet_in_handler(self, ev):
        msg = ev.msg
        dp = msg.datapath
        ofp = dp.ofproto
        ofp_parser = dp.ofproto_parser

        actions = [ofp_parser.OFPActionOutput(ofp.OFPP_FLOOD)]

        data = None
        if msg.buffer_id == ofp.OFP_NO_BUFFER:
             data = msg.data

        out = ofp_parser.OFPPacketOut(
            datapath=dp, buffer_id=msg.buffer_id, in_port=msg.in_port,
            actions=actions, data = data)
        dp.send_msg(out)
  • 运行L2Switch ryu-manager L2Switch.py

  • pingall可以ping通

  • 开启主机终端 mininet>xterm h2 h3

  • 在h2主机终端中输入tcpdump -nn -i h2-eth0

  • 在h3主机终端中输入tcpdump -nn -i h3-eth0

  • h1 ping h3

  • h1 ping h2

  • 分析L2Switch和POX的Hub模块有何不同

Hub和L2Switch模块都是洪泛转发,但L2Switch模块下发的流表无法查看,而Hub模块下发的流表可以查看

  1. 编程修改L2Switch.py,另存为L2xxxxxxxxx.py,使之和POX的Hub模块的变得一致?(xxxxxxxxx为学号)
  • 代码
from ryu.base import app_manager
from ryu.ofproto import ofproto_v1_3
from ryu.controller import ofp_event
from ryu.controller.handler import MAIN_DISPATCHER, CONFIG_DISPATCHER
from ryu.controller.handler import set_ev_cls
 
 
class hub(app_manager.RyuApp):
    OFP_VERSIONS = [ofproto_v1_3.OFP_VERSION]
 
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(hub, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
 
    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPSwitchFeatures, CONFIG_DISPATCHER)
    def switch_feathers_handler(self, ev):
        datapath = ev.msg.datapath
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        ofp_parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
 
        # install flow table-miss flow entry
        match = ofp_parser.OFPMatch()
        actions = [ofp_parser.OFPActionOutput(ofproto.OFPP_CONTROLLER, ofproto.OFPCML_NO_BUFFER)]
        # 1\OUTPUT PORT, 2\BUFF IN SWITCH?
        self.add_flow(datapath, 0, match, actions)
 
    def add_flow(self, datapath, priority, match, actions):
        # 1\ datapath for the switch, 2\priority for flow entry, 3\match field, 4\action for packet
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        ofp_parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
        # install flow
        inst = [ofp_parser.OFPInstructionActions(ofproto.OFPIT_APPLY_ACTIONS, actions)]
        mod = ofp_parser.OFPFlowMod(datapath=datapath, priority=priority, match=match, instructions=inst)
        datapath.send_msg(mod)
 
    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPPacketIn, MAIN_DISPATCHER)
    def packet_in_handler(self, ev):
        msg = ev.msg
        datapath = msg.datapath
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        ofp_parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
        in_port = msg.match['in_port']  # get in port of the packet
 
        # add a flow entry for the packet
        match = ofp_parser.OFPMatch()
        actions = [ofp_parser.OFPActionOutput(ofproto.OFPP_FLOOD)]
        self.add_flow(datapath, 1, match, actions)
 
        # to output the current packet. for install rules only output later packets
        out = ofp_parser.OFPPacketOut(datapath=datapath, buffer_id=msg.buffer_id, in_port=in_port, actions=actions)
        # buffer id: locate the buffered packet
        datapath.send_msg(out)
  • 运行结果:
    • 运行ryu-manager L2xxxxxxxxx.py
    • mininet>dpctl dump-flows

(二)进阶要求

  1. 阅读Ryu关于simple_switch.py和simple_switch_1x.py的实现,以simple_switch_13.py为例,完成其代码的注释工作,并回答下列问题:
  • 代码注释
# Copyright (C) 2011 Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
# implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

# 引入数据包
from ryu.base import app_manager
from ryu.controller import ofp_event
from ryu.controller.handler import CONFIG_DISPATCHER, MAIN_DISPATCHER
from ryu.controller.handler import set_ev_cls
from ryu.ofproto import ofproto_v1_3
from ryu.lib.packet import packet
from ryu.lib.packet import ethernet
from ryu.lib.packet import ether_types


class SimpleSwitch13(app_manager.RyuApp):
    # 定义openflow版本
    OFP_VERSIONS = [ofproto_v1_3.OFP_VERSION]

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(SimpleSwitch13, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
        self.mac_to_port = {}  # 定义保存mac地址到端口的一个映射

    # 处理SwitchFeatures事件
    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPSwitchFeatures, CONFIG_DISPATCHER)
    def switch_features_handler(self, ev):
        datapath = ev.msg.datapath
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser

        # install table-miss flow entry
        #
        # We specify NO BUFFER to max_len of the output action due to
        # OVS bug. At this moment, if we specify a lesser number, e.g.,
        # 128, OVS will send Packet-In with invalid buffer_id and
        # truncated packet data. In that case, we cannot output packets
        # correctly.  The bug has been fixed in OVS v2.1.0.
        match = parser.OFPMatch()  # match指流表项匹配,OFPMatch()指不匹配任何信息
        actions = [parser.OFPActionOutput(ofproto.OFPP_CONTROLLER,
                                          ofproto.OFPCML_NO_BUFFER)]
        self.add_flow(datapath, 0, match, actions)

    # add_flow()增加流表项
    # datapath:指定的 Switch
    # priority:此规则的优先权
    # match:此规则的 Match 条件
    # actions:动作
    def add_flow(self, datapath, priority, match, actions, buffer_id=None):
        # 获取交换机信息
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
        # 对action进行包装
        inst = [parser.OFPInstructionActions(ofproto.OFPIT_APPLY_ACTIONS,
                                             actions)]
        # 判断是否存在buffer_id,并生成mod对象
        if buffer_id:
            mod = parser.OFPFlowMod(datapath=datapath, buffer_id=buffer_id,
                                    priority=priority, match=match,
                                    instructions=inst)
        else:
            mod = parser.OFPFlowMod(datapath=datapath, priority=priority,
                                    match=match, instructions=inst)
        # 发送出去
        datapath.send_msg(mod)

    # 处理PacketIn事件
    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPPacketIn, MAIN_DISPATCHER)
    def _packet_in_handler(self, ev):
        # If you hit this you might want to increase
        # the "miss_send_length" of your switch
        if ev.msg.msg_len < ev.msg.total_len:
            self.logger.debug("packet truncated: only %s of %s bytes",
                              ev.msg.msg_len, ev.msg.total_len)
        # 解析数据结构
        msg = ev.msg    # ev.msg 是代表packet_in data structure对象
        datapath = msg.datapath
        # dp. ofproto 和 dp.ofproto_parser 是代表 Ryu 和交换机谈判的 OpenFlow 协议的对象
        # dp.ofproto and dp.ofproto_parser are objects that represent the OpenFlow protocol that Ryu and the switch negotiated
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
        in_port = msg.match['in_port']  # 获取源端口

        pkt = packet.Packet(msg.data)
        eth = pkt.get_protocols(ethernet.ethernet)[0]

        if eth.ethertype == ether_types.ETH_TYPE_LLDP:
            # 忽略LLDP类型的数据包
            # ignore lldp packet
            return
        dst = eth.dst  # 获取目的端口
        src = eth.src  # 获取源端口

        dpid = format(datapath.id, "d").zfill(16)
        self.mac_to_port.setdefault(dpid, {})

        self.logger.info("packet in %s %s %s %s", dpid, src, dst, in_port)

        # 学习包的源地址,和交换机上的入端口绑定
        # learn a mac address to avoid FLOOD next time.
        self.mac_to_port[dpid][src] = in_port

        # 查看是否已经学习过该目的mac地址
        if dst in self.mac_to_port[dpid]:  # 如果目的地址存在于mac_to_port中
            out_port = self.mac_to_port[dpid][dst]
        # 否则,洪泛
        else:
            out_port = ofproto.OFPP_FLOOD  # OFPP_FLOOD标志表示应在所有端口发送数据包,即洪泛

        actions = [parser.OFPActionOutput(out_port)]

        # 下发流表避免下次触发 packet in 事件
        # install a flow to avoid packet_in next time
        if out_port != ofproto.OFPP_FLOOD:
            match = parser.OFPMatch(in_port=in_port, eth_dst=dst, eth_src=src)
            # verify if we have a valid buffer_id, if yes avoid to send both
            # flow_mod & packet_out
            if msg.buffer_id != ofproto.OFP_NO_BUFFER:
                self.add_flow(datapath, 1, match, actions, msg.buffer_id)
                return
            else:
                self.add_flow(datapath, 1, match, actions)
        data = None
        if msg.buffer_id == ofproto.OFP_NO_BUFFER:
            data = msg.data

        # 发送Packet_out数据包
        out = parser.OFPPacketOut(datapath=datapath, buffer_id=msg.buffer_id,
                                  in_port=in_port, actions=actions, data=data)
        # 发送流表
        datapath.send_msg(out)
  • a) 代码当中的mac_to_port的作用是什么?

mac_to_port的作用是保存mac地址到交换机端口的映射

  • b) simple_switch和simple_switch_13在dpid的输出上有何不同?

在simple_switch_13.py中为dpid = format(datapath.id, "d").zfill(16)
在simple_switch.py中为dpid = datapath.id
在simple_switch_13.py中使用了zfill() 方法返回指定长度为16的字符串,原字符串右对齐,前面填充0;而simple_switch.py直接输出dpid

  • c) 相比simple_switch,simple_switch_13增加的switch_feature_handler实现了什么功能?

增加了实现交换机以特性应答消息响应特性请求功能

  • d) simple_switch_13是如何实现流规则下发的?

在触发PacketIn事件后,首先解析相关数据结构,获取协议信息、获取源端口、包学习,交换机信息,以太网信息,等。如果以太网类型是LLDP类型,则忽略。如果不是LLDP类型,则获取目的端口和源端口还有交换机id,然后进行交换机自学习,先学习源地址对应的交换机的入端口,再查看是否已经学习目的mac地址,如果没有就洪泛转发。如果学习过,则查看是否有buffer_id,如果有则在添加流时加上buffer_id,向交换机发送数据包和流表。

  • e) switch_features_handler和_packet_in_handler两个事件在发送流规则的优先级上有何不同?

switch_features_handler下发流表的优先级比_packet_in_handler高

  1. 编程实现和ODL实验的一样的硬超时功能。
  • 代码
# Copyright (C) 2011 Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
# implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

from ryu.base import app_manager
from ryu.controller import ofp_event
from ryu.controller.handler import CONFIG_DISPATCHER, MAIN_DISPATCHER
from ryu.controller.handler import set_ev_cls
from ryu.ofproto import ofproto_v1_3
from ryu.lib.packet import packet
from ryu.lib.packet import ethernet
from ryu.lib.packet import ether_types


class SimpleSwitch13(app_manager.RyuApp):
    OFP_VERSIONS = [ofproto_v1_3.OFP_VERSION]

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(SimpleSwitch13, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
        self.mac_to_port = {}

    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPSwitchFeatures, CONFIG_DISPATCHER)
    def switch_features_handler(self, ev):
        datapath = ev.msg.datapath
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser

        # install table-miss flow entry
        #
        # We specify NO BUFFER to max_len of the output action due to
        # OVS bug. At this moment, if we specify a lesser number, e.g.,
        # 128, OVS will send Packet-In with invalid buffer_id and
        # truncated packet data. In that case, we cannot output packets
        # correctly.  The bug has been fixed in OVS v2.1.0.
        match = parser.OFPMatch()
        actions = [parser.OFPActionOutput(ofproto.OFPP_CONTROLLER,
                                          ofproto.OFPCML_NO_BUFFER)]
        self.add_flow(datapath, 0, match, actions)

    def add_flow(self, datapath, priority, match, actions, buffer_id=None, hard_timeout=0):
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser

        inst = [parser.OFPInstructionActions(ofproto.OFPIT_APPLY_ACTIONS,
                                             actions)]
        if buffer_id:
            mod = parser.OFPFlowMod(datapath=datapath, buffer_id=buffer_id,
                                    priority=priority, match=match,
                                    instructions=inst, hard_timeout=hard_timeout)
        else:
            mod = parser.OFPFlowMod(datapath=datapath, priority=priority,
                                    match=match, instructions=inst, hard_timeout=hard_timeout)
        datapath.send_msg(mod)

    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPPacketIn, MAIN_DISPATCHER)
    def _packet_in_handler(self, ev):
        # If you hit this you might want to increase
        # the "miss_send_length" of your switch
        if ev.msg.msg_len < ev.msg.total_len:
            self.logger.debug("packet truncated: only %s of %s bytes",
                              ev.msg.msg_len, ev.msg.total_len)
        msg = ev.msg
        datapath = msg.datapath
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
        in_port = msg.match['in_port']

        pkt = packet.Packet(msg.data)
        eth = pkt.get_protocols(ethernet.ethernet)[0]

        if eth.ethertype == ether_types.ETH_TYPE_LLDP:
            # ignore lldp packet
            return
        dst = eth.dst
        src = eth.src

        dpid = format(datapath.id, "d").zfill(16)
        self.mac_to_port.setdefault(dpid, {})

        self.logger.info("packet in %s %s %s %s", dpid, src, dst, in_port)

        # learn a mac address to avoid FLOOD next time.
        self.mac_to_port[dpid][src] = in_port

        if dst in self.mac_to_port[dpid]:
            out_port = self.mac_to_port[dpid][dst]
        else:
            out_port = ofproto.OFPP_FLOOD

        actions = [parser.OFPActionOutput(out_port)]\

        actions_timeout=[]

        # install a flow to avoid packet_in next time
        if out_port != ofproto.OFPP_FLOOD:
            match = parser.OFPMatch(in_port=in_port, eth_dst=dst, eth_src=src)
            # verify if we have a valid buffer_id, if yes avoid to send both
            # flow_mod & packet_out
            hard_timeout=10
            if msg.buffer_id != ofproto.OFP_NO_BUFFER:
                self.add_flow(datapath, 2, match,actions_timeout, msg.buffer_id,hard_timeout=10)
                self.add_flow(datapath, 1, match, actions, msg.buffer_id)
                return
            else:
                self.add_flow(datapath, 2, match, actions_timeout, hard_timeout=10)
                self.add_flow(datapath, 1, match, actions)
        data = None
        if msg.buffer_id == ofproto.OFP_NO_BUFFER:
            data = msg.data

        out = parser.OFPPacketOut(datapath=datapath, buffer_id=msg.buffer_id,
                                  in_port=in_port, actions=actions, data=data)
        datapath.send_msg(out)
  • 建立拓扑

sudo mn --topo=single,3 --mac --controller=remote,ip=127.0.0.1,port=6633 --switch ovsk

  • 代码运行

ryu-manager timeout.py

  • h1 ping h2

  • 查看流表 dpctl dump-flows

(三)个人总结

实验一开始就遇到了下面截图的问题,对于这个问题我刚开始是以为包错误,于是重新下载了一下包,

结果发现自己虚拟机的dns错误,网络根本不通,后来上网查找,找到了解决办法: sudo dhclient ens33

成功解决了自己的网络问题.后来重新下载了eventlet包之后还是报一样的错误,

最后发现自己之前使用的是python3.8,但是默认更新路径是指向Ubuntu自己自带的python2.7

导致我使用的python一直没有更新,后来是把python2.7 下的eventlet包复制到python3.8 的文件夹,

将原来的文件夹覆盖了之后,就能正常运行了。

这次的实验相对简单。通过本次实验学会了独立部署Ryu控制器;

能够理解Ryu控制器实现软件定义的集线器原理以及Ryu控制器实现软件定义的交换机原理。

posted @ 2022-10-18 14:41  对讲鸡  阅读(20)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报