(原创)一步一步学ZedBoard & Zynq(六):在ZedBoard上运行linux并编写linux下的应用程序HelloWorld

从本小节开始,讲着重介绍Zedboard上的嵌入式linux应用,包括使用SDK设计最简单的linux应用程序、linux交叉编译环境搭建、设备驱动编写等内容。

本小节使用的linux系统是Digilent官方提供的OOB设计,它是Digilent官网给出的一个完整的、Zedboard可运行的linux系统,包含了Zedboard上的几个重要的设备驱动如串口、USB、以太网、OLED、HDMI等。当linux在Zedboard上运行起来后,Zedboard就是一个小型的嵌入式系统,使用SDK及Xilinx ARM Linux工具链(arm-xilinx-linux-gnueabi)编译生成的可执行文件可以在这个系统执行。

本小节介绍的是使用SDK开发应用程序,并非在linux系统下使用arm-xilinx-linux-gnueabi。如果需要在linux系统下开发Zedboard上可执行程序,需要安装用arm-xilinx-linux-gnueabi编译环境。

更多更新请关注我的博客:@超群天晴 http://www.cnblogs.com/surpassal/

 

硬件平台:Digilent ZedBoard

开发环境:Windows XP 32 bit

软件: SDK 14.2

 

一、获取Zedboard可运行的linux

Digilent官网给出Zedboard的可运行linux设计ZedBoard_OOB_Design包,可从http://www.digilentinc.com/Data/Documents/Other/ZedBoard_OOB_Design.zip获取,下载后解压,可以看到包的结构和内容:

boot_image目录:
-- system.bit – 配置FPGA的bit文件
-- u-boot.elf – 引导linux需要的Second-Stage boot loader
-- zynq_fsbl.elf – 配置ARM PS系统的First-Stage boot loader(FSBL)

doc目录:
-- README.txt – 说明文件

hw目录:
-- EDK 14.1版本的XPS工程,用来生成硬件文件和bit文件

linux目录:
-- devicetree_ramdisk.dts – 设备树源代码
-- .config – Linux内核配置文件,用来生成zImage

sd_image目录:
-- BOOT.BIN – 使用boot_images中的三个文件生成的Zynq配置文件
-- devicetree_ramdisk.dtb – 编译后的设备树文件
-- ramdisk8M.image.gz – 编译后的文件系统
-- README – 介绍如何运行OOB设计的说明文档
-- zImage – 编译后的内核

sw目录:
--硬件配置
--FSBL源代码

其中sd_image目录中包含了ZedBoard上能够运行linux的所有文件。将SD卡格式化为Fat32,把sd_image目录文件拷贝到SD卡根目录下;然后将JP7~JP11设置为SD卡启动模式,将JP2短路,JP3断开,这样可以下一步我们可以把U盘作为USB 从设备挂载到Zedboard上。

Zedboard的连接和短路块设置

上电后,等待ARM PS的配置、FPGA的配置(蓝色LED DONE 亮起),之后开始引导Linux系统了。可以从超级终端上看到一系列的引导信息:

  1 U-Boot 2012.04.01-00297-gc319bf9-dirty (Sep 13 2012 - 09:30:49)
  2 
  3 DRAM:  512 MiB
  4 WARNING: Caches not enabled
  5 MMC:   SDHCI: 0
  6 Using default environment
  7 
  8 In:    serial
  9 Out:   serial
 10 Err:   serial
 11 Net:   zynq_gemHit any key to stop autoboot:  0
 12 Copying Linux from SD to RAM...
 13 Device: SDHCI
 14 Manufacturer ID: 1b
 15 OEM: 534d
 16 Name: 00000
 17 Tran Speed: 25000000
 18 Rd Block Len: 512
 19 SD version 1.0
 20 High Capacity: Yes
 21 Capacity: 3.7 GiB
 22 Bus Width: 1-bit
 23 reading zImage
 24 
 25 2479640 bytes read
 26 reading devicetree_ramdisk.dtb
 27 
 28 5817 bytes read
 29 reading ramdisk8M.image.gz
 30 
 31 3694108 bytes read
 32 ## Starting application at 0x00008000 ...
 33 Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel.
 34 [    0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0
 35 [    0.000000] Linux version 3.3.0-digilent-12.07-zed-beta (tinghui.wang@DIGILENT_LINUX) (gcc version 4.6.1 (Sourcery CodeBench Lite 2011.09-50) ) #2 SMP PREEMPT Thu Jul 12 21:01:42 PDT 2012
 36 [    0.000000] CPU: ARMv7 Processor [413fc090] revision 0 (ARMv7), cr=18c5387d
 37 [    0.000000] CPU: PIPT / VIPT nonaliasing data cache, VIPT aliasing instruction cache
 38 [    0.000000] Machine: Xilinx Zynq Platform, model: Xilinx Zynq ZED
 39 [    0.000000] bootconsole [earlycon0] enabled
 40 [    0.000000] Memory policy: ECC disabled, Data cache writealloc
 41 [    0.000000] BUG: mapping for 0xf8f00000 at 0xfe00c000 out of vmalloc space
 42 [    0.000000] BUG: mapping for 0xe0000000 at 0xfe000000 out of vmalloc space
 43 [    0.000000] BUG: mapping for 0xffff1000 at 0xfe200000 out of vmalloc space
 44 [    0.000000] PERCPU: Embedded 7 pages/cpu @c1489000 s5696 r8192 d14784 u32768
 45 [    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 125824
 46 [    0.000000] Kernel command line: console=ttyPS0,115200 root=/dev/ram rw initrd=0x800000,8M earlyprintk rootfstype=ext4 rootwait devtmpfs.mount=0
 47 [    0.000000] PID hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
 48 [    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 65536 (order: 6, 262144 bytes)
 49 [    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 32768 (order: 5, 131072 bytes)
 50 [    0.000000] Memory: 240MB 256MB = 496MB total
 51 [    0.000000] Memory: 489856k/489856k available, 34432k reserved, 0K highmem
 52 [    0.000000] Virtual kernel memory layout:
 53 [    0.000000]     vector  : 0xffff0000 - 0xffff1000   (   4 kB)
 54 [    0.000000]     fixmap  : 0xfff00000 - 0xfffe0000   ( 896 kB)
 55 [    0.000000]     vmalloc : 0xe0800000 - 0xfd000000   ( 456 MB)
 56 [    0.000000]     lowmem  : 0xc0000000 - 0xe0000000   ( 512 MB)
 57 [    0.000000]     pkmap   : 0xbfe00000 - 0xc0000000   (   2 MB)
 58 [    0.000000]     modules : 0xbf000000 - 0xbfe00000   (  14 MB)
 59 [    0.000000]       .text : 0xc0008000 - 0xc042f040   (4253 kB)
 60 [    0.000000]       .init : 0xc0430000 - 0xc0456640   ( 154 kB)
 61 [    0.000000]       .data : 0xc0458000 - 0xc0485dc0   ( 184 kB)
 62 [    0.000000]        .bss : 0xc0485de4 - 0xc049d734   (  95 kB)
 63 [    0.000000] Preemptible hierarchical RCU implementation.
 64 [    0.000000]  Verbose stalled-CPUs detection is disabled.
 65 [    0.000000] NR_IRQS:128
 66 [    0.000000] xlnx,ps7-ttc-1.00.a #0 at 0xe0800000, irq=43
 67 [    0.000000] Console: colour dummy device 80x30
 68 [    0.000000] Calibrating delay loop... 1594.16 BogoMIPS (lpj=7970816)
 69 [    0.090000] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
 70 [    0.090000] Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
 71 [    0.090000] CPU: Testing write buffer coherency: ok
 72 [    0.090000] CPU0: thread -1, cpu 0, socket 0, mpidr 80000000
 73 [    0.100000] smp_twd: clock not found: -2
 74 [    0.100000] Calibrating local timer... 399.36MHz.
 75 [    0.170000] hw perfevents: enabled with ARMv7 Cortex-A9 PMU driver, 7 counters available
 76 [    0.170000] Setting up static identity map for 0x2f8d48 - 0x2f8d7c
 77 [    0.270000] CPU1: Booted secondary processor
 78 [    0.310000] CPU1: thread -1, cpu 1, socket 0, mpidr 80000001
 79 [    0.310000] Brought up 2 CPUs
 80 [    0.310000] SMP: Total of 2 processors activated (3188.32 BogoMIPS).
 81 [    0.320000] devtmpfs: initialized
 82 [    0.320000] ------------[ cut here ]------------
 83 [    0.320000] WARNING: at arch/arm/mm/dma-mapping.c:198 consistent_init+0x70/0x104()
 84 [    0.330000] Modules linked in:
 85 [    0.330000] [<c0012920>] (unwind_backtrace+0x0/0xe0) from [<c001e924>] (warn_slowpath_common+0x4c/0x64)
 86 [    0.340000] [<c001e924>] (warn_slowpath_common+0x4c/0x64) from [<c001e954>] (warn_slowpath_null+0x18/0x1c)
 87 [    0.350000] [<c001e954>] (warn_slowpath_null+0x18/0x1c) from [<c04345a8>] (consistent_init+0x70/0x104)
 88 [    0.360000] [<c04345a8>] (consistent_init+0x70/0x104) from [<c000858c>] (do_one_initcall+0x90/0x160)
 89 [    0.360000] [<c000858c>] (do_one_initcall+0x90/0x160) from [<c043085c>] (kernel_init+0x84/0x128)
 90 [    0.370000] [<c043085c>] (kernel_init+0x84/0x128) from [<c000dfcc>] (kernel_thread_exit+0x0/0x8)
 91 [    0.380000] ---[ end trace 1b75b31a2719ed1c ]---
 92 [    0.380000] ------------[ cut here ]------------
 93 [    0.390000] WARNING: at arch/arm/mm/dma-mapping.c:198 consistent_init+0x70/0x104()
 94 [    0.390000] Modules linked in:
 95 [    0.390000] [<c0012920>] (unwind_backtrace+0x0/0xe0) from [<c001e924>] (warn_slowpath_common+0x4c/0x64)
 96 [    0.400000] [<c001e924>] (warn_slowpath_common+0x4c/0x64) from [<c001e954>] (warn_slowpath_null+0x18/0x1c)
 97 [    0.410000] [<c001e954>] (warn_slowpath_null+0x18/0x1c) from [<c04345a8>] (consistent_init+0x70/0x104)
 98 [    0.420000] [<c04345a8>] (consistent_init+0x70/0x104) from [<c000858c>] (do_one_initcall+0x90/0x160)
 99 [    0.430000] [<c000858c>] (do_one_initcall+0x90/0x160) from [<c043085c>] (kernel_init+0x84/0x128)
100 [    0.430000] [<c043085c>] (kernel_init+0x84/0x128) from [<c000dfcc>] (kernel_thread_exit+0x0/0x8)
101 [    0.440000] ---[ end trace 1b75b31a2719ed1d ]---
102 [    0.440000] NET: Registered protocol family 16
103 [    0.460000] L310 cache controller enabled
104 [    0.460000] l2x0: 8 ways, CACHE_ID 0x410000c8, AUX_CTRL 0x72060000, Cache size: 524288 B
105 [    0.460000] registering platform device 'pl330' id 0
106 [    0.470000] registering platform device 'arm-pmu' id 0
107 [    0.470000]
108 [    0.470000] ###############################################
109 [    0.480000] #                                             #
110 [    0.480000] #                Board ZED Init               #
111 [    0.480000] #                                             #
112 [    0.490000] ###############################################
113 [    0.490000]
114 [    0.500000] hw-breakpoint: found 5 (+1 reserved) breakpoint and 1 watchpointregisters.
115 [    0.500000] hw-breakpoint: maximum watchpoint size is 4 bytes.
116 [    0.530000] xslcr xslcr.0: at 0xF8000000 mapped to 0xE0808000
117 [    0.540000] bio: create slab <bio-0> at 0
118 [    0.540000] gpiochip_add: registered GPIOs 0 to 245 on device: xgpiops
119 [    0.540000] xgpiops e000a000.gpio: gpio at 0xe000a000 mapped to 0xe080a000
120 [    0.550000] SCSI subsystem initialized
121 [    0.550000] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
122 [    0.560000] usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
123 [    0.560000] usbcore: registered new device driver usb
124 [    0.570000] Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Driver Version 1.0.24.
125 [    0.570000] Switching to clocksource xttcpss_timer1
126 [    0.590000] NET: Registered protocol family 2
127 [    0.590000] IP route cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
128 [    0.590000] TCP established hash table entries: 16384 (order: 5, 131072 bytes)
129 [    0.600000] TCP bind hash table entries: 16384 (order: 5, 196608 bytes)
130 [    0.600000] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 16384 bind 16384)
131 [    0.610000] TCP reno registered
132 [    0.610000] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
133 [    0.620000] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
134 [    0.620000] NET: Registered protocol family 1
135 [    0.630000] Trying to unpack rootfs image as initramfs...
136 [    0.630000] rootfs image is not initramfs (no cpio magic); looks like an initrd
137 [    0.670000] Freeing initrd memory: 8192K
138 [    0.670000] xscugtimer xscugtimer.0: ioremap fe00c200 to e0810200 with size 400
139 [    0.670000] pl330 dev 0 probe success
140 [    0.680000] msgmni has been set to 972
141 [    0.680000] io scheduler noop registered
142 [    0.680000] io scheduler deadline registered
143 [    0.680000] io scheduler cfq registered (default)
144 [    0.690000] e00   0.690000] console [ttyPS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
145 [    0.690000] console [ttyPS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
146 [    0.700000] xdevcfg f8007000.devcfg: ioremap f8007000 to e0814000 with size 1000
147 [    0.710000] [drm] Initialized drm 1.1.0 20060810
148 [    0.720000] brd: module loaded
149 [    0.730000] loop: module loaded
150 [    0.730000] xqspips e000d000.qspi: at 0xE000D000 mapped to 0xE0816000, irq=51
151 [    0.740000] GEM: BASEADDRESS hw: e000b000 virt: e0818000
152 [    0.740000] XEMACPS mii bus: probed
153 [    0.750000] eth0, pdev->id -1, baseaddr 0xe000b000, irq 54
154 [    0.750000] ehci_hcd: USB 2.0 'Enhanced' Host Controller (EHCI) Driver
155 [    0.760000] usb_hcd_xusbps_probe: No OTG assigned!
156 [    0.760000] usb_hcd_xusbps_probe: OTG now assigned!
157 [    0.770000] xusbps-ehci xusbps-ehci.0: Xilinx PS USB EHCI Host Controller
158 [    0.770000] xusbps-ehci xusbps-ehci.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 1
159 [    0.810000] xusbps-ehci xusbps-ehci.0: irq 53, io mem 0x00000000
160 [    0.830000] xusbps-ehci xusbps-ehci.0: USB 2.0 started, EHCI 1.00
161 [    0.830000] hub 1-0:1.0: USB hub found
162 [    0.830000] hub 1-0:1.0: 1 port detected
163 [    0.840000] Initializing USB Mass Storage driver...
164 [    0.840000] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
165 [    0.850000] USB Mass Storage support registered.
166 [    0.850000] Xilinx PS USB Device Controller driver (Apr 01, 2011)
167 [    0.860000] mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
168 [    0.860000] Linux video capture interface: v2.00
169 [    0.870000] gspca_main: v2.14.0 registered
170 [    0.870000] usbcore: registered new interface driver uvcvideo
171 [    0.870000] USB Video Class driver (1.1.1)
172 [    0.880000] WDT OF probe
173 [    0.880000] xwdtps f8005000.swdt: Xilinx Watchdog Timer at 0xe081c000 with timeout 10 seconds
174 [    0.890000] sdhci: Secure Digital Host Controller Interface driver
175 [    0.890000] sdhci: Copyright(c) Pierre Ossman
176 [    0.900000] sdhci-pltfm: SDHCI platform and OF driver helper
177 [    0.900000] mmc0: Invalid maximum block size, assuming 512 bytes
178 [    0.910000] mmc0: SDHCI controller on e0100000.sdhci [e0100000.sdhci] using ADMA
179 [    0.910000] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbhid
180 [    0.920000] usbhid: USB HID core driver
181 [    0.920000] No connectors reported connected with modes
182 [    0.930000] adv7511 0-0039: Failed to add route DAI IN->TMDS
183 [    0.940000] [drm] Cannot find any crtc or sizes - going 1024x768
184 [    0.940000] drivers/gpu/drm/analog/analog_drm_fbdev.c:analog_drm_fbdev_probe[241]
185 [    0.960000] asoc: adv7511 <-> 75c00000.axi-spdif-tx mapping ok
186 [    0.960000] axi-spdif 75c00000.axi-spdif-tx: Failed to set DAI format: -22
187 [    0.980000] ALSA device list:
188 [    0.980000]   #0: HDMI monitor
189 [    0.980000] TCP cubic registered
190 [    0.980000] NET: Registered protocol family 17
191 [    0.980000] VFP support v0.3: implementor 41 architecture 3 part 30 variant 9 rev 4
192 [    0.980000] Registering SWP/SWPB emulation handler
193 [    0.980000] registered taskstats version 1
194 [    0.980000] drivers/rtc/hctosys.c: unable to open rtc device (rtc0)
195 [    0.980000] Console: switching to colour frame buffer device 128x48
196 [    1.000000] mmc0: new high speed SDHC card at address 0002
197 [    1.030000] fb0:  frame buffer device
198 [    1.030000] mmcblk0: mmc0:0002 00000 3.70 GiB
199 [    1.040000] drm: registered panic notifier
200 [    1.040000] [drm] Initialized analog_drm 1.0.0 20110530 on minor 0
201 [    1.050000]  mmcblk0: p1
202 [    1.050000] RAMDISK: gzip image found at block 0
203 [    1.310000] EXT4-fs (ram0): warning: mounting unchecked fs, running e2fsck is recommended
204  [    1.320000] EXT4-fs (ram0): mounted filesystem without journal. Opts: (null)
205 [    1.320000] VFS: Mounted root (ext4 filesystem) on device 1:0.
206 [    1.330000] Freeing init memory: 152K
207 Starting rcS...
208 ++ Mounting filesystem
209 ++ Setting up mdev
210 ++ Configure static IP 192.168.1.10
211 [    1.510000] GEM: lp->tx_bd ffdfb000 lp->tx_bd_dma 181a9000 lp->tx_skb d816b0c0
212 [    1.520000] GEM: lp->rx_bd ffdfc000 lp->rx_bd_dma 181a8000 lp->rx_skb d816b1c0
213 [    1.520000] GEM: MAC 0x00350a00, 0x00002201, 00:0a:35:00:01:22
214 [    1.530000] GEM: phydev d8b81400, phydev->phy_id 0x1410dd1, phydev->addr 0x0
215 [    1.540000] eth0, phy_addr 0x0, phy_id 0x01410dd1
216 [    1.540000] eth0, attach [Marvell 88E1510] phy driver
217 ++ Starting telnet daemon
218 ++ Starting http daemon
219 ++ Starting ftp daemon
220 ++ Starting dropbear (ssh) daemon
221 ++ Starting OLED Display
222 [    1.580000] pmodoled-gpio-spi [zed_oled] SPI Probing
223 [    1.730000] usb 1-1: new high-speed USB device number 2 using xusbps-ehci
224 ++ Exporting LEDs & SWs
225 rcS Complete
226 zynq> 

至此,linux已经在Zedboard上启动起来。从超级终端输出的信息我们打开可以知道,“这个”linux系统的一些基本情况,如8~10行

In:    serial
Out:   serial
Err:   serial

输入输出调试信息使用的都是serial,即串口,这里是超级终端,因而超级终端就如同linux系统下的控制台,我们可以键入linux的命令对系统进行操作,例如输入ls命令,可以显示当前目录内容:

其他命令如cd、mkdir、cp、rm等基本命令均可以执行。

77~79行提示信息

[    0.270000] CPU1: Booted secondary processor
[    0.310000] CPU1: thread -1, cpu 1, socket 0, mpidr 80000001
[    0.310000] Brought up 2 CPUs

可以知道ARM PS的两个CPU均被启动

再如163~171行

[    0.840000] Initializing USB Mass Storage driver...
[    0.840000] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
[    0.850000] USB Mass Storage support registered.
[    0.850000] Xilinx PS USB Device Controller driver (Apr 01, 2011)
[    0.860000] mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
[    0.860000] Linux video capture interface: v2.00
[    0.870000] gspca_main: v2.14.0 registered
[    0.870000] usbcore: registered new interface driver uvcvideo
[    0.870000] USB Video Class driver (1.1.1)

可以知道大容量USB设备驱动已经安装,包括PS USB设备等驱动均安装了,因此可以使用U盘、USB键盘、鼠标、摄像头等设备。

二、使用SDK设计linux应用程序

 接下来我们就可以像其他的嵌入式linux开发一样来使用Zedboard了。SDK提供了标准可视化的linux-arm交叉编译链,不需要再进行交叉编译环境的搭建。

启动SDK,new->C project,选择工程类型为“Xilinx ARM Linux Executable”,工具链为“Xilinx ARM GNU/Linux Toolchain”

在工程配置选项中,去掉Debug(因为我们不需要进行调试),只保留Release

 

工程建立后好,新建main.c文件,修改内容如下:

 1 /*
 2  * hello.c
 3  *
 4  *  Created on: 2012-11-8
 5  *  @超群天晴 http://www.cnblogs.com/surpassal/
 6  */
 7 
 8 #include <stdio.h>
 9 
10 int main()
11 {
12     printf("HelloWorld!\n");
13     printf("This is from Zedboard Linux!\n");
14     printf("2012年11月8日16:43:22 by 超群天晴\n");
15     return 0;
16 }

就是一个简单的从控制台输出helloworld信息。编译后生成了lab_6.elf可执行文件,将其拷贝到了U盘上。

三、运行linux可执行程序

将U盘连接到Zedboard,控制台会提示有USB device连接上,分配给这个设备的名称是sda1

 1 zynq> [ 2263.970000] usb 1-1: new high-speed USB device number 2 using xusbps-ehci
 2 [ 2264.120000] scsi0 : usb-storage 1-1:1.0
 3 [ 2265.130000] scsi 0:0:0:0: Direct-Access     Generic  Flash Disk       8.07 PQ: 0 ANSI: 4
 4 [ 2265.140000] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 3932160 512-byte logical blocks: (2.01 GB/1.87GiB)
 5 [ 2265.140000] sd 0:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg0 type 0
 6 [ 2265.150000] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off
 7 [ 2265.150000] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write cache: disabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
 8 [ 2265.170000]  sda: sda1
 9 [ 2265.180000] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Attached SCSI removable disk
10 
11 zynq>

使用mount命令 

mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/

将设备挂载到mnt目录下,

输入命令 

cd /mnt

切换到mnt目录

输入命令 

ls

可以看到目录下有我们刚刚生成的lab_6.elf可执行文件

输入命令 

./lab_6.elf

运行,可以看到执行结果,控制台输出了我们需要的信息

 

===============================

Digilent官方OOB设计参考:http://www.digilentinc.com/Data/Documents/Other/ZedBoard_OOB_Design.zip

完整工程下载:lab_6.rar

 

posted on 2012-11-08 17:13 超群天晴 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

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