OpenStack中的Multipath faulty device的成因及解决(part 1)

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简介:

Multipath:这个多路径软件在Linux平台广泛使用,它的功能就是可以把一个快设备对应的多条路径聚合成一个单一的multipath device。主要目的有如下两点:

多路径冗余(redundancy):当配置在Active/Passive模式下,只有一半的路径会用来做IO,如果IO路径上有任何失败(包括,交换机故障,线路故障,后端存储故障等),可以自动切换的备用路线上,对上层应用做到基本无感知。

提高性能(Performance): 当配置在Active/Active模式下,所以路径都可以用来跑IO(如以round-robin模式),可以提高IO速率或者延时。

multipath不是本文的重点,如有需要,请移步:https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/dm_multipath/setup_overview

 

安装及使用:

Multipath:这个多路径软件在Linux平台广泛使用,在Debian/Ubuntu平台可以通过 sudo apt-get install multipath-tools 安装, RedHat/CentOS 平台可以通过 sudo yum install device-mapper-multipath 安装。

multipath.conf: multipath对于主流的存储阵列都有默认的配置,可以支持存储阵列的很多自带特性,如ALUA。当然用户可以在安装好后,手动创建/etc/multipath.conf

以下是VNX/Unity的参考配置(vnx cinder driver):

blacklist {
    # Skip the files under /dev that are definitely not FC/iSCSI devices
    # Different system may need different customization
    devnode "^(ram|raw|loop|fd|md|dm-|sr|scd|st)[0-9]*"
    devnode "^hd[a-z][0-9]*"
    devnode "^cciss!c[0-9]d[0-9]*[p[0-9]*]"

    # Skip LUNZ device from VNX
    device {
        vendor "DGC"
        product "LUNZ"
        }
}

defaults {
    user_friendly_names no
    flush_on_last_del yes
}

devices {
    # Device attributed for EMC CLARiiON and VNX series ALUA
    device {
        vendor "DGC"
        product ".*"
        product_blacklist "LUNZ"
        path_grouping_policy group_by_prio
        path_selector "round-robin 0"
        path_checker emc_clariion
        features "1 queue_if_no_path"
        hardware_handler "1 alua"
        prio alua
        failback immediate
    }
}

Multipath在OpenStack中的应用及faulty device的产生:

OpenStack中,multipath可以使用在Nova和Cinder的节点上,提供对后端存储的高可用访问。在很早之前,这部分代码是分别在Nova和Cinder项目里面的,渐渐的为了维护方便,就单独拧出来一个项目:os-brick

os-brick里面很重要的两个interface是:connect_volume-负责链接一个存储上的LUN或者disk,disconnect_volume-辅助断开与存储上一个LUN的链接。

什么是faulty device

当host上multipath软件发现对应的host path不可访问时,就会显示为faulty状态。

关于所有状态的描述,可以参考:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_DM_Multipath

 

os-brick的代码我选择的是比较早期容易产生faulty device的版本:https://github.com/openstack/os-brick/blob/liberty-eol/os_brick/initiator/connector.py

 

1. connect_volume的主要逻辑如下:

  1     @synchronized('connect_volume')
  2     def connect_volume(self, connection_properties):
  3         """Attach the volume to instance_name.
  4         connection_properties for iSCSI must include:
  5         target_portal(s) - ip and optional port
  6         target_iqn(s) - iSCSI Qualified Name
  7         target_lun(s) - LUN id of the volume
  8         Note that plural keys may be used when use_multipath=True
  9         """
 10 
 11         device_info = {'type': 'block'}
 12 
 13         if self.use_multipath:
 14             # Multipath installed, discovering other targets if available
 15             try:
 16                 ips_iqns = self._discover_iscsi_portals(connection_properties)
 17             except Exception:
 18                 raise exception.TargetPortalNotFound(
 19                     target_portal=connection_properties['target_portal'])
 20 
 21             if not connection_properties.get('target_iqns'):
 22                 # There are two types of iSCSI multipath devices. One which
 23                 # shares the same iqn between multiple portals, and the other
 24                 # which use different iqns on different portals.
 25                 # Try to identify the type by checking the iscsiadm output
 26                 # if the iqn is used by multiple portals. If it is, it's
 27                 # the former, so use the supplied iqn. Otherwise, it's the
 28                 # latter, so try the ip,iqn combinations to find the targets
 29                 # which constitutes the multipath device.
 30                 main_iqn = connection_properties['target_iqn']
 31                 all_portals = set([ip for ip, iqn in ips_iqns])
 32                 match_portals = set([ip for ip, iqn in ips_iqns
 33                                      if iqn == main_iqn])
 34                 if len(all_portals) == len(match_portals):
 35                     ips_iqns = zip(all_portals, [main_iqn] * len(all_portals))
 36 
 37             for ip, iqn in ips_iqns:
 38                 props = copy.deepcopy(connection_properties)
 39                 props['target_portal'] = ip
 40                 props['target_iqn'] = iqn
 41                 self._connect_to_iscsi_portal(props)
 42 
 43             self._rescan_iscsi()
 44             host_devices = self._get_device_path(connection_properties)
 45         else:
 46             target_props = connection_properties
 47             for props in self._iterate_all_targets(connection_properties):
 48                 if self._connect_to_iscsi_portal(props):
 49                     target_props = props
 50                     break
 51                 else:
 52                     LOG.warning(_LW(
 53                         'Failed to connect to iSCSI portal %(portal)s.'),
 54                         {'portal': props['target_portal']})
 55 
 56             host_devices = self._get_device_path(target_props)
 57 
 58         # The /dev/disk/by-path/... node is not always present immediately
 59         # TODO(justinsb): This retry-with-delay is a pattern, move to utils?
 60         tries = 0
 61         # Loop until at least 1 path becomes available
 62         while all(map(lambda x: not os.path.exists(x), host_devices)):
 63             if tries >= self.device_scan_attempts:
 64                 raise exception.VolumeDeviceNotFound(device=host_devices)
 65 
 66             LOG.warning(_LW("ISCSI volume not yet found at: %(host_devices)s. "
 67                             "Will rescan & retry.  Try number: %(tries)s."),
 68                         {'host_devices': host_devices,
 69                          'tries': tries})
 70 
 71             # The rescan isn't documented as being necessary(?), but it helps
 72             if self.use_multipath:
 73                 self._rescan_iscsi()
 74             else:
 75                 if (tries):
 76                     host_devices = self._get_device_path(target_props)
 77                 self._run_iscsiadm(target_props, ("--rescan",))
 78 
 79             tries = tries + 1
 80             if all(map(lambda x: not os.path.exists(x), host_devices)):
 81                 time.sleep(tries ** 2)
 82             else:
 83                 break
 84 
 85         if tries != 0:
 86             LOG.debug("Found iSCSI node %(host_devices)s "
 87                       "(after %(tries)s rescans)",
 88                       {'host_devices': host_devices, 'tries': tries})
 89 
 90         # Choose an accessible host device
 91         host_device = next(dev for dev in host_devices if os.path.exists(dev))
 92 
 93         if self.use_multipath:
 94             # We use the multipath device instead of the single path device
 95             self._rescan_multipath()
 96             multipath_device = self._get_multipath_device_name(host_device)
 97             if multipath_device is not None:
 98                 host_device = multipath_device
 99                 LOG.debug("Unable to find multipath device name for "
100                           "volume. Only using path %(device)s "
101                           "for volume.", {'device': host_device})
102 
103         device_info['path'] = host_device
104         return device_info

其中重要的逻辑我都用红色标记了,用来发现host上的块设备device

2. disconnect_volume逻辑如下:

 1     @synchronized('connect_volume')
 2     def disconnect_volume(self, connection_properties, device_info):
 3         """Detach the volume from instance_name.
 4         connection_properties for iSCSI must include:
 5         target_portal(s) - IP and optional port
 6         target_iqn(s) - iSCSI Qualified Name
 7         target_lun(s) - LUN id of the volume
 8         """
 9         if self.use_multipath:
10             self._rescan_multipath()
11             host_device = multipath_device = None
12             host_devices = self._get_device_path(connection_properties)
13             # Choose an accessible host device
14             for dev in host_devices:
15                 if os.path.exists(dev):
16                     host_device = dev
17                     multipath_device = self._get_multipath_device_name(dev)
18                     if multipath_device:
19                         break
20             if not host_device:
21                 LOG.error(_LE("No accessible volume device: %(host_devices)s"),
22                           {'host_devices': host_devices})
23                 raise exception.VolumeDeviceNotFound(device=host_devices)
24 
25             if multipath_device:
26                 device_realpath = os.path.realpath(host_device)
27                 self._linuxscsi.remove_multipath_device(device_realpath)
28                 return self._disconnect_volume_multipath_iscsi(
29                     connection_properties, multipath_device)
30 
31         # When multiple portals/iqns/luns are specified, we need to remove
32         # unused devices created by logging into other LUNs' session.
33         for props in self._iterate_all_targets(connection_properties):
34             self._disconnect_volume_iscsi(props)

上面的红色代码块,会把LUN对应的host path从kernel中,和multipath mapper中删除。

 

3. 竞态Race Condition分析

注意到,以上两个接口都是用的同一个叫(connect_volume)的锁(其实就是用flock实现的Linux上的文件锁)

为了方便描述faulty device的产生,我画了如下的图,来表示两个接口的关系

如上的流程在非并发的情况下是表现正常的,host上的device都可以正常连接和清理。

 但是,以上逻辑有个实现上的问题,当高并发情况下,会产生faulty device, 考虑一下执行顺序:

  1. 右边的disconnect_volume执行完毕,存储上LUN对应的device path(在/dev/disk/by-path下可以看到)和multipath descriptor(multipath -l可以看到)。
  2. 这个时候,connect_volume锁被释放,左边的connect_volume开始执行,而右边的terminate_connection还没有执行,也就是说,存储上还没有移除host访问LUN的权限,任何host上的scsi rescan还是会发现这个LUN的device
  3. 接着,connect_volume按正常执行,iscsi rescan 和multipath rescan都相继执行,造成在步骤 1)中已经删除的device有重新被scan出来。
  4. 然后,右边的terminate_connection在存储上执行完成,移除了host对LUN的访问,最终就形成的所谓的faulty device,看到的multipath 输出如下(两个multipath descriptor都是faulty的):

 

$ sudo multipath -ll

3600601601290380036a00936cf13e711 dm-30 DGC,VRAID
size=2.0G features='1 retain_attached_hw_handler' hwhandler='1 alua' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=0 status=active
| `- 11:0:0:151 sdef 128:112 failed faulty running
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=0 status=enabled
  `- 12:0:0:151 sdeg 128:128 failed faulty running

3600601601bd032007c097518e96ae411 dm-2 DGC,VRAID
size=1.0G features='1 queue_if_no_path' hwhandler='1 alua' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=0 status=active
  `- #:#:#:# -   #:#   active faulty running

 

一般来说,有#:#:#:#输出的multipath是可以直接用 sudo multipath -f 3600601601bd032007c097518e96ae411  删除的。

作为第一部分,到这里faulty device的产生介绍完了,后面再找机会,介绍下在os-brick中如何尽量避免faulty device的出现。

 

参考资料:

RedHat官方multipath的介绍:https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/dm_multipath/mpio_description

EMC VNX driver doc:https://docs.openstack.org/cinder/queens/configuration/block-storage/drivers/dell-emc-vnx-driver.html

Go实现的块设备连接工具:https://github.com/peter-wangxu/goock

iSCSI Faulty Device Cleanup Script for VNX:https://github.com/emc-openstack/vnx-faulty-device-cleanup

 

posted @ 2018-04-15 21:54 孤独的居士 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏