用gdb调试python多线程代码-记一次死锁的发现

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前言

相信很多人都有使用过sqlite3的经验,一年前因为项目上的需要,写了一个基于sqlite3的持久化队列库(persist-queue),已经发布在pypi上有段时间了。 前段时间,一下子来了两个issues,一个是关于in-memory database的support,一个是sqlite3 队列性能的问题。在数据量不大的情况下,sqlite的队列会在某些情况下出现:

sqlite3.OperationalError: database is locked

在修复上面的问题的时候,注意到,在多线程的情况下更容易触发上面的exception,并且比较怪的是,有时测试还有两个问题: 1. 出现死锁,并且CPU占用会一直保持在100%

在程序里面下断点(import pdb;pdb.set_trace())和log都不好使,关键是无法精确定位到所有线程在当时的运行状态。

找了不少方法,最后还是发现了管用的方法,使用大名鼎鼎的:   gdb

相比pdb,gdb有以下几个优点:

  • 不需要显示的下断点,如"import pdb;pdb.set_trace()"
  • 可以方便的调试多线程程序,允许你调试过程中切换调试线程。很多python debug是不支持的如 winpdb, pydevd
  • 如果python解释器core dump了,生成的core dump文件可以直接用gdb 来分析,而gdb只能望“dump”兴叹了。

 

Python给gdb准备了以extension,方便用户不仅可以查看Python解释器的运行情况,还可以查看用户程序的运行情况。

python gdb extension在gdb的环境下提供了如下几个py-*命令

  • py-list        查看当前python应用程序上下文
  • py-bt          查看当前python应用程序调用堆栈
  • py-bt-full   查看当前python应用程序调用堆栈,并且显示每个frame的详细情况
  • py-print     查看python变量
  • py-locals   查看当前的scope的变量
  • py-up         查看上一个frame
  • py-down    查看下一个frame

 

环境准备

首先按照需要的各种调试用到的包

 

1. 安装gdb, 调试的主要工具

sudo apt-get install gdb

2. 安装python-dbg, 用来在调试的时候看到python源代码的call stack

sudo apt-get install python-dbg

这里面我都是用的python2.7,如果用的是python3.5,需要对应的安装python3.5-dbg

重现问题(死锁,Hung process)

$ tox -e py27
py27 develop-inst-nodeps: /home/peter/Documents/persist-queue
py27 installed: configparser==3.5.0,cov-core==1.15.0,coverage==4.4.1,enum-compat==0.0.2,enum34==1.1.6,eventlet==0.21.0,flake8==3.5.0,funcsigs==1.0.2,greenlet==0.4.12,mccabe==0.6.1,mock==2.0.0,nose2==0.6.5,pbr==3.1.1,-e git+https://github.com/peter-wangxu/persist-queue@d26561e3c7c9a35fd75ddedf0a023a7dcbd563a9#egg=persist_queue,pkg-resources==0.0.0,pycodestyle==2.3.1,pyflakes==1.6.0,six==1.11.0,virtualenv==15.1.0
py27 runtests: PYTHONHASHSEED='564480154'
py27 runtests: commands[0] | nose2 --with-coverage --coverage-report xml --coverage-report term
WARNING:persistqueue.sqlbase:auto_commit=False is still experimental,only use it with care.
....

上面的测试永远不会返回,悲伤啊。。

 

使用gdb加载symbols

1. 首先找到进程号

$ ps -ef | grep tox
peter     9376  1777  0 15:10 pts/17   00:00:00 /usr/bin/python3 /usr/bin/tox
peter     9409  9376 67 15:10 pts/17   01:04:14 /home/peter/Documents/persist-queue/.tox/py27/bin/python2.7 .tox/py27/bin/nose2 --with-coverage --coverage-report xml --coverage-report term
peter     9913  9639  0 16:45 pts/18   00:00:00 grep --color=auto tox

 

上面的 9409 就是我卡住的进程了。

接下来就是使用gdb调试: sudo gdb python -p 9409

记得用用sudo,否则symbols有可能无法加载成功

sudo gdb python -p 9409
GNU gdb (Ubuntu 7.11.1-0ubuntu1~16.5) 7.11.1
Copyright (C) 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  Type "show copying"
and "show warranty" for details.
This GDB was configured as "x86_64-linux-gnu".
Type "show configuration" for configuration details.
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/bugs/>.
Find the GDB manual and other documentation resources online at:
<http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/documentation/>.
For help, type "help".
Type "apropos word" to search for commands related to "word"...
Reading symbols from python...Reading symbols from /usr/lib/debug/.build-id/cd/e2c487269892a2815c715667ae336984b82b0c.debug...done.
done.
Attaching to program: /usr/bin/python, process 9409
[New LWP 9427]
[Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled]
Using host libthread_db library "/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libthread_db.so.1".
0x00007fb923247827 in futex_abstimed_wait_cancelable (private=0, abstime=0x0, expected=0, futex_word=0x152af60) at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/futex-internal.h:205
205    ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/futex-internal.h: No such file or directory.

 

注意到这句 “Reading symbols from python...Reading symbols from /usr/lib/debug/.build-id/cd/e2c487269892a2815c715667ae336984b82b0c.debug...done.

 表示加载成功,否则会看到“no debugging symbols found”的log,可能是使用的python2.7跟dbg包的版本不一致。

2. 安装用到的包的dbg信息

注意到我上面有一句 “Reading symbols from /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libsqlite3.so.0...(no debugging symbols found)...done.”,表示我的sqlite3的symbols没有加载,直接安装就好

sudo apt-get install libsqlite3-0-dbg

 重现进入gdb

看到这句

Reading symbols from /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libsqlite3.so.0...Reading symbols from /usr/lib/debug/.build-id/78/5ce90f42d13a60a36853327823ef5f90f2e8f1.debug...done.

 所有我关心的symbols就加载完了。

 

使用gdb debug 程序

debug 主线程

首先,可以是用 info threads,查看当前的线程

(gdb) info threads
  Id   Target Id         Frame 
* 1    Thread 0x7fb92365b700 (LWP 9409) "nose2" 0x00007fb923247827 in futex_abstimed_wait_cancelable (private=0, abstime=0x0, expected=0, futex_word=0x152af60)
    at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/futex-internal.h:205
  2    Thread 0x7fb91d4f1700 (LWP 9427) "nose2" _PyObject_GenericGetAttrWithDict () at ../Objects/object.c:1392

 带 的这个就是当前正在debug的thread。

查看主线程为何一直卡住

(gdb) thread 1
[Switching to thread 1 (Thread 0x7fb92365b700 (LWP 9409))]
#0  0x00007fb923247827 in futex_abstimed_wait_cancelable (private=0, abstime=0x0, expected=0, futex_word=0x152af60) at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/futex-internal.h:205
205     ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/futex-internal.h: No such file or directory.
(gdb) py-list
 335            waiter.acquire()
 336            self.__waiters.append(waiter)
 337            saved_state = self._release_save()
 338            try:    # restore state no matter what (e.g., KeyboardInterrupt)
 339                if timeout is None:
>340                    waiter.acquire()
 341                    if __debug__:
 342                        self._note("%s.wait(): got it", self)
 343                else:
 344                    # Balancing act:  We can't afford a pure busy loop, so we
 345                    # have to sleep; but if we sleep the whole timeout time,
(gdb) py-up
#7 Frame 0x7fb9180068e0, for file /usr/lib/python2.7/threading.py, line 340, in wait (self=<_Condition(_Condition__lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7fb9235efd50>, acquire=<built-in method acquire of thread.lock object at remote 0x7fb9235efd50>, _Verbose__verbose=False, _Condition__waiters=[<thread.lock at remote 0x7fb9235effd0>], release=<built-in method release of thread.lock object at remote 0x7fb9235efd50>) at remote 0x7fb91fdb1c10>, timeout=None, waiter=<thread.lock at remote 0x7fb9235effd0>, saved_state=None)
    waiter.acquire()
(gdb) py-up
#11 Frame 0x7fb91fdb69b0, for file /usr/lib/python2.7/threading.py, line 940, in join (self=<Thread(_Thread__block=<_Condition(_Condition__lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7fb9235efd50>, acquire=<built-in method acquire of thread.lock object at remote 0x7fb9235efd50>, _Verbose__verbose=False, _Condition__waiters=[<thread.lock at remote 0x7fb9235effd0>], release=<built-in method release of thread.lock object at remote 0x7fb9235efd50>) at remote 0x7fb91fdb1c10>, _Thread__args=(3,), _Thread__ident=140433037399808, _Thread__target=<function at remote 0x7fb91fdae1b8>, _Thread__daemonic=False, _Thread__initialized=True, _Thread__started=<_Event(_Event__flag=True, _Verbose__verbose=False, _Event__cond=<_Condition(_Condition__lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7fb9235eff90>, acquire=<built-in method acquire of thread.lock object at remote 0x7fb9235eff90>, _Verbose__verbose=False, _Condition__waiters=[], release=<built-in method release of thread.lock object at remote 0x7fb9235eff90>) at remote 0x7fb91fdb1bd0>) at remote 0x7fb91f...(truncated)
    self.__block.wait()
(gdb) py-up
#15 Frame 0x13d7ba0, for file /home/peter/Documents/persist-queue/tests/test_sqlqueue.py, line 179, in test_multiple_consumers (self=<SQLite3QueueInMemory(path=':memory:', auto_commit=True, _testMethodName='test_multiple_consumers', _cleanups=[], _testMethodDoc='Test sqlqueue can be used by multiple consumers.', _type_equality_funcs={<type at remote 0x905840>: 'assertSetEqual', <type at remote 0x9056a0>: 'assertMultiLineEqual', <type at remote 0x906f00>: 'assertDictEqual', <type at remote 0x906d60>: 'assertTupleEqual', <type at remote 0x9049a0>: 'assertSetEqual', <type at remote 0x9073e0>: 'assertListEqual'}, _resultForDoCleanups=<PluggableTestResult(session=<Session(testResult=<...>, logLevel=30, hooks=<PluginInterface(hooks={'wasSuccessful': <Hook(method='wasSuccessful', plugins=[<ResultReporter(descriptions=True, reportCategories={'failures': [], 'expectedFailures': [], 'skipped': [], 'unexpectedSuccesses': [], 'errors': []}, registered=True, dontReport=set(['failures', 'skipped', 'errors', 'passed', 'expected...(truncated)
    t.join()
(gdb) py-list
 174                t.start()
 175                consumers.append(t)
 176
 177            p.join()
 178            for t in consumers:
>179                t.join()
 180
 181            self.assertEqual(0, queue.qsize())
 182            for x in range(1000):
 183                self.assertNotEqual(0, counter[x],
 184                                    "not 0 for counter's index %s" % x)

 

可以看到我使用了py-list和几次的py-up来到了我写的测试test_sqlqueue.py里面。

发现主线程是在t.join在等待子线程完成,但是奇怪的是,子线程一直没有完成任务。

debug工作线程

接下来,使用 thread 2 切换到上面的 2 线程。

(gdb) thread 2
[Switching to thread 2 (Thread 0x7f02f51f9700 (LWP 18749))]
#0 PyType_IsSubtype () at ../Objects/typeobject.c:1184
1184 ../Objects/typeobject.c: No such file or directory.

 

使用py-list查看当前运行位置

(gdb) py-list
64 raise Empty
65 elif timeout is None:
66 # block until a put event.
67 pickled = self._pop()
68 while not pickled:
>69 self.put_event.wait()
70 pickled = self._pop()
71 elif timeout < 0:
72 raise ValueError("'timeout' must be a non-negative number")
73 else:
74 # block until the timeout reached
(gdb)

 

可以看到,工作线程是在 "self.put_event.wait()“,一种可能是self.put_event一直是false,没有被set位True,所以线程就这么一直等着。继续分析

使用py-locals 查看put-event当前值

(gdb) py-up
#26 Frame 0x7f02f82b3608, for file /home/peter/Documents/persist-queue/persistqueue/sqlqueue.py, line 49, in _pop (self=<SQLiteQueue(name='default', _putter=<sqlite3.Connection at remote 0x7f02f82c2030>, path=':memory:', action_lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7f02fbaf8e30>, memory_sql=True, put_event=<_Event(_Event__cond=<_Condition(acquire=<built-in method acquire of thread.lock object at remote 0x7f02fbaf8eb0>, release=<built-in method release of thread.lock object at remote 0x7f02fbaf8eb0>, _Condition__lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7f02fbaf8eb0>, _Condition__waiters=[], _Verbose__verbose=False) at remote 0x7f02f835cf90>, _Event__flag=True, _Verbose__verbose=False) at remote 0x7f02f835ce90>, multithreading=True, tran_lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7f02fbaf8f30>, timeout=<float at remote 0x1bb8660>, auto_commit=True, _getter=<sqlite3.Connection at remote 0x7f02f82c2030>, _conn=<sqlite3.Connection at remote 0x7f02f82c2030>) at remote 0x7f02f8491a10>)
    row = self._select()
(gdb) py-list
  44            # Action lock to assure multiple action to be *atomic*
  45            self.action_lock = threading.Lock()
  46
  47        def _pop(self):
  48            with self.action_lock:
 >49                row = self._select()
  50                # Perhaps a sqlite3 bug, sometimes (None, None) is returned
  51                # by select, below can avoid these invalid records.
  52                if row and row[0] is not None:
  53                    self._delete(row[0])
  54                    if not self.auto_commit:
(gdb) py-print self
local 'self' = <SQLiteQueue(name='default', _putter=<sqlite3.Connection at remote 0x7f02f82c2030>, path=':memory:', action_lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7f02fbaf8e30>, memory_sql=True, put_event=<_Event(_Event__cond=<_Condition(acquire=<built-in method acquire of thread.lock object at remote 0x7f02fbaf8eb0>, release=<built-in method release of thread.lock object at remote 0x7f02fbaf8eb0>, _Condition__lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7f02fbaf8eb0>, _Condition__waiters=[], _Verbose__verbose=False) at remote 0x7f02f835cf90>, _Event__flag=True, _Verbose__verbose=False) at remote 0x7f02f835ce90>, multithreading=True, tran_lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7f02fbaf8f30>, timeout=<float at remote 0x1bb8660>, auto_commit=True, _getter=<sqlite3.Connection at remote 0x7f02f82c2030>, _conn=<sqlite3.Connection at remote 0x7f02f82c2030>) at remote 0x7f02f8491a10>(gdb) py-locals
self = <SQLiteQueue(name='default', _putter=<sqlite3.Connection at remote 0x7f02f82c2030>, path=':memory:', action_lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7f02fbaf8e30>, memory_sql=True, put_event=<_Event(_Event__cond=<_Condition(acquire=<built-in method acquire of thread.lock object at remote 0x7f02fbaf8eb0>, release=<built-in method release of thread.lock object at remote 0x7f02fbaf8eb0>, _Condition__lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7f02fbaf8eb0>, _Condition__waiters=[], _Verbose__verbose=False) at remote 0x7f02f835cf90>, _Event__flag=True, _Verbose__verbose=False) at remote 0x7f02f835ce90>, multithreading=True, tran_lock=<thread.lock at remote 0x7f02fbaf8f30>, timeout=<float at remote 0x1bb8660>, auto_commit=True, _getter=<sqlite3.Connection at remote 0x7f02f82c2030>, _conn=<sqlite3.Connection at remote 0x7f02f82c2030>) at remote 0x7f02f8491a10>

 

可以看到这个put_event是一直为True(_Event__flag=True),仔细想想,我好像没设置为False过。。。

结合代码:

 1     def get(self, block=True, timeout=None):
 2         if not block:
 3             pickled = self._pop()
 4             if not pickled:
 5                 raise Empty
 6         elif timeout is None:
 7             # block until a put event.
 8             pickled = self._pop()
 9             while not pickled:
10                 self.put_event.wait(TICK_FOR_WAIT)
11                 pickled = self._pop()
12         elif timeout < 0:
13             raise ValueError("'timeout' must be a non-negative number")
14         else:
15             # block until the timeout reached
16             endtime = _time.time() + timeout
17             pickled = self._pop()
18             while not pickled:
19                 remaining = endtime - _time.time()
20                 if remaining <= 0.0:
21                     raise Empty
22                 self.put_event.wait(
23                     TICK_FOR_WAIT if TICK_FOR_WAIT < remaining else remaining)
24                 pickled = self._pop()
25         item = pickle.loads(pickled)
26         return item

 

如果因为某种情况,queue为空,那么上面的9-11行就是一个无限循环,并且cpu会被占用到100%,

好了,到这里就大概搞清楚为什么有时候多线程测试是,程序一直为hung住,并且CPU的占用一直是100%,还会报出 ”sqlite3.OperationalError: database is locked“ 的error(因为程序的线程一直在尝试读数据库,如果其他线程有update,或者inster拿到了sqlite的文件锁,读线程会读超时)

 

 

参考文献

http://podoliaka.org/2016/04/10/debugging-cpython-gdb

https://wiki.python.org/moin/DebuggingWithGdb

 

posted @ 2017-10-28 19:25 孤独的居士 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏