Quick Retrieve on Google     Quick Retrieve on Bing

Combine Art and Sciences

Blogs transfered from: blog.csdn.net/sonictl

  博客园  :: 首页  :: 新随笔  :: 联系 :: 订阅 订阅  :: 管理

split your cpp code into multiple files

reference: http://cse230.artifice.cc/lecture/splitting-code.html

understande the #include

The compiler will substitute #include with the actual contents of the file xyz.

the header files

the .h file is called the header files. People often use the header file as the one included.
Header files usually have the ending .h and source files usually have the ending .cpp

A header file contains only class and function declarations.

the declaration is a statement that a class exists and has certain properties and methods, or that a function exists;
neither the class methods nor the functions will be defined;
their implementations will not be provided in the header file.

We also need to prevent repeated-includes because the compiler is not happy when a class or function or variable of the same name is declared twice.

The frequent #ifndef XXX_H, #define XXX_H and #endif

Because the compiler is not happy when a class or function or variable of the same name is declared twice. Thus, in every header file (named blah.h in this example), we write the following at the top and bottom:

#ifndef BLAH_H
#define BLAH_H



This means “if the name BLAH_H is not already defined, then define it.” If a file is included twice, then BLAH_H will be defined (by the first inclusion) so the entire “if—endif” will be skipped (which is the whole file, because the whole file is between the “if” and “endif”). Of course, BLAH_H can be anything; it could be FOO; we usually write FILE_H in the file named file.h so that we don’t reuse names.


files in structure:

  • main.cpp

    • eclipse.h (eclipse.cpp)

      • shape.h
    • rectangle.h (eclipse.cpp)

      • shape.h

  • main.cpp:
#include <iostream>
#include "rectangle.h"
#include "eclipse.h"
using namespace std;

int main()
    Rectangle r;
    r.width = 10;
    r.height = 15;
    r.x = 3;
    r.y = 2;

    cout << r.area() << endl;

    Ellipse e;
    e.major_axis = 3;
    e.minor_axis = 5;
    e.x = 14;
    e.y = 68;

    cout << e.area() << endl;

    return 0;
  • rectangle.h

#include "shape.h"

class Rectangle : public Shape
    double width;
    double height;

    double area();


  • rectangle.cpp:

    #include "rectangle.h"
    double Rectangle::area()
        return width * height;
  • eclipse.h

#ifndef ELLIPSE_H
#define ELLIPSE_H

#include "shape.h"

class Ellipse : public Shape
    double major_axis;
    double minor_axis;
    double area();


  • ellipse.cpp:

    #include "ellipse.h"
    double Ellipse::area()
        return 3.1415926 * major_axis * minor_axis;
  • shape.h:

    #ifndef SHAPE_H
    #define SHAPE_H
    class Shape
        double x;
        double y;
        virtual double area() = 0;
posted on 2021-03-05 22:59  sonictl  阅读(74)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报