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letsencrypt证书-管理工具certbot

1. 安装certbot

申请证书的工具:官方是certbot,可以根据你服务器的类型来选择安装教程。地址:certbot

你也可以直接使用certbot-auto(包含certbot,命令和certbot一样),

user@webserver:~$ wget https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto
user@webserver:~$ chmod a+x ./certbot-auto
user@webserver:~$ ./certbot-auto --help

官方建议:除非你有特别的需求,否则最好使用certbot来自动管理的你的证书。

2. certbot 介绍

Certbot 现在需要运行在安装了Python (2.7 or 3.4)的类unix系统上,内存大于512MB(如果小于的话,官方解决方案),默认是需要root权限的,比如写证书操作需要root权限。

Certbot客户机支持获取和安装证书的两种插件:authinstall,当使用certonly参数的时候,只会获取证书,并不会安装证,获取的证书位于/etc/letsencrypt目录下

主要插件的介绍:

Plugin| Auth| Install| Notes| Challenge types (and port)
---|---|---|---|---|---
apache | Y| Y| 自动化获取并安装证书| tls-sni-01 (443)
webroot | Y| N| 已经有运行的服务,通过验证webroot目录来获取证书 |http-01 (80)
nginx | Y| Y| 使用nginx自动获取和安装证书 | tls-sni-01 (443)
standalone | Y| N| 建立一个standalone WEB服务,需要80或者443端口可用,如果你没有类似nginx和apache等服务,这很有用 |http-01 (80) or tls-sni-01 (443)
DNS plugins| Y| N| 通过修改dns服务器的text记录,来获取证书,野卡证书只能通过此方式获取 |dns-01 (53)
manual | Y| N| 通过自己给指令获取证书,支持添加定制脚本来完成任务 |http-01 (80), dns-01 (53) or tls-sni-01 (443)

解析:

  • 如果你使用standalone插件,那么需要使用80和443端口,因为要建一个监听这些端口的服务,如果你有别的服务使用了该端口,那么就会出问题了。
  • webroot方式,如果你使用了nginx,那么你需要更改一些nginx配置,确保能验证你对该域名的所有权限

3. 插件的具体使用

这里讲解下部分插件的使用方法

3.1 webroot

一般需要使用的参数

certonly #只获取证书,不安装
--webroot #定义使用的插件方法是webroot
--webroot-path # 简写:-w 目录位置
-d # 域名

类似下面的命令

certbot certonly --webroot -w /var/www/example -d www.example.com -d example.com -w /var/www/other -d other.example.net -d another.other.example.net

-w-d配合使用,域名将使用最近的path,比如上面 /var/www/example 对应 前两个域名,/var/www/other对应后两个域名

验证的机制:
验证的时候会自动向${webroot-path}/.well-known/acme-challenge目录下写一个临时文件,然后会发送一个请求,去验证是否可以正常访问,访问的请求类似下面

66.133.109.36 - - [05/Jan/2016:20:11:24 -0500] "GET /.well-known/acme-challenge/HGr8U1IeTW4kY_Z6UIyaakzOkyQgPr_7ArlLgtZE8SX HTTP/1.1" 200 87 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Let's Encrypt validation server; +https://www.letsencrypt.org)"

所以我们本身有服务的情况下,比如使用的是nginx,那么我们需要添加如下配置

server {
    server_name www.yoursite.com yoursite.com;

    # 需要添加的配置
    location ^~ /.well-known/acme-challenge/ {
        alias /home/xxx/www/challenges/;
        try_files $uri =404;
    }

    # ... 其它配置
}

3.2 standalone

该插件会启动一个web服务器,使用--preferred-challenges http参数的话,对应使用80端口,使用--preferred-challenges tls-sni参数对应使用443端口,所以如果你有占用这两个端口的服务,请根据你的实际使用端口,停用占用端口的程序,同样配合certonly使用。

使用方法:

sudo certbot certonly --standalone -d example.com -d www.example.com

3.3 DNS plugins

如果你想去的一个野卡证书,那么只能使用dns验证的方式(即使你是使用manual参数,根本上还是使用dns验证方式)。

默认的certbot是不包含dns插件的,如果你要使用此方式的话,需要下载相应的插件:插件地址,具体的使用方法,请点击你对应的dns服务商链接,然后按照相应的方法获取证书,官方提供的基本上是国外的dns服务区上,国内的服务商暂时没有,不过可以使用manual方法。

3.4 manual

该方法允许你通过交互的方式获取证书,可以在其它服务器上运行,可以选择http,dns和tls-sni方式中的任意一种。

比如使用dns的方式,会要求你在验证过程中手动填写txt dns的记录,然后继续,验证成功后会获取证书。

举例:

使用manual方式,选择dns验证,申请野卡证书的方法(添加--server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory参数)

./certbot-auto certonly  -d *.archerwong.cn -d archerwong.cn --manual --preferred-challenges dns --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory 

上面是手动的方式申请,中间需要人工干预,去dns服务商填写text记录。

你还可以使用脚本帮助你完成一些验证,可以使用--manual-auth-hook--manual-cleanup-hook参数,关于钩子的使用:参考地址

正是因为这个钩子,可以编写一个 Shell 脚本,让脚本调用 DNS 服务商的 API 接口,动态添加 TXT 记录,这样就无需人工干预了。

推荐下 :申请dns证书的脚本

4. 证书管理

4.1 查看已经申请的证书

$ ./certbot-auto certificates
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

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Found the following certs:
  Certificate Name: archerwong.cn-0001
    Domains: *.archerwong.cn archerwong.cn
    Expiry Date: 2019-03-17 13:24:57+00:00 (VALID: 89 days)
    Certificate Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/archerwong.cn-0001/fullchain.pem
    Private Key Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/archerwong.cn-0001/privkey.pem
  Certificate Name: archerwong.cn
    Domains: *.archerwong.cn
    Expiry Date: 2019-03-17 12:34:52+00:00 (VALID: 89 days)
    Certificate Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/archerwong.cn/fullchain.pem
    Private Key Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/archerwong.cn/privkey.pem

Certificate Name是一个重要标识,可以具体指定哪一个证书,可以配合 run, certonly, certificates, renew,和 delete等命令一起使用,比如:

certbot certonly --cert-name archerwong.cn

4.2 重新创建和更新证书

可以使用certonlyrun命令来创建一个新证书,即使已经存在具有该域名的证书,也没有关系,那么certbot会更新该证书,否则会创建一个新证书,一句话存在就更新,不存在就创建

run 和 certonly的区别:

  • run 默认的方式,获取,并安装一个证书
  • certonly 是创建或者更新一个证书,但是不安装该证书

在recreate证书的时候,可以指定具体行为,可以使用--force-renewal, --duplicate, --expand来限定操作,如果你没有具体指定,certbot可能会问你具体意图。

  • --force-renewal 当请求一个已经存在并有相同域名的证书时,需要把每一个域名通过-d来指定,不管过期与否,强制更新证书。
  • --duplicate 告诉certbot不管有没有旧证书,都创建一个独立的新证书
  • --expand 告诉certbot更新一个已经存在的证书,需要使用-d参数包含所有旧的域名,并添加新的域名。

expand 举例

可以将域名使用逗号分隔

certbot --expand -d existing.com,example.com,newdomain.com

也可以单独写

certbot --expand -d existing.com -d example.com -d newdomain.com

当我们需要扩展一个证书的时候,上面是通过expand方式,并且是通过-d参数来判定是哪个证书的,但是官方鼓励使用--cert-name来指明是哪个证书,不建议使用expand。

4.3 改变证书的域名

同样可以通过指定--cert-name的方式来更改证书的域名,形式如下

certbot certonly --cert-name example.com -d example.com
certbot certonly --cert-name example.com -d example.org,www.example.org

4.4 撤销证书(revoking certificates)

如果你的证书秘钥已经被泄露,那么可以选择撤销证书,使用revoke命令,注意这里配合使用的参数是证书路径(以cert.pem结尾),不是证书名称或者域名

certbot revoke --cert-path /etc/letsencrypt/live/CERTNAME/cert.pem

同时可以指定原因,可以使用的原因包括 unspecified(默认), keycompromise, affiliationchanged, superseded, 和 cessationofoperation

certbot revoke --cert-path /etc/letsencrypt/live/CERTNAME/cert.pem --reason keycompromise

如果证书是使用 --staging 或 --test-cert 参数,那么当revoke证书的时候需要带着测试参数 --staging 或 --test-cert

因为证书申请是有数目限制的,所以后面我加上了测试用的参数,可以看下申请出的证书过期时间是和正式证书不同的

$ ./certbot-auto certificates                                                           
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Found the following certs:
  Certificate Name: archerwong.cn-0001
    Domains: *.archerwong.cn archerwong.cn
    Expiry Date: 2019-03-17 13:24:57+00:00 (VALID: 89 days)
    Certificate Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/archerwong.cn-0001/fullchain.pem
    Private Key Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/archerwong.cn-0001/privkey.pem
  Certificate Name: test.archerwong.cn-0001
    Domains: test.archerwong.cn
    Expiry Date: 2019-03-18 05:36:23+00:00 (INVALID: TEST_CERT)
    Certificate Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/test.archerwong.cn-0001/fullchain.pem
    Private Key Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/test.archerwong.cn-0001/privkey.pem
  Certificate Name: archerwong.cn
    Domains: *.archerwong.cn
    Expiry Date: 2019-03-17 12:34:52+00:00 (VALID: 89 days)
    Certificate Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/archerwong.cn/fullchain.pem
    Private Key Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/archerwong.cn/privkey.pem
  Certificate Name: test.archerwong.cn
    Domains: test.archerwong.cn blog.archerwong.cn
    Expiry Date: 2019-03-18 05:32:07+00:00 (INVALID: TEST_CERT)
    Certificate Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/test.archerwong.cn/fullchain.pem
    Private Key Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/test.archerwong.cn/privkey.pem

如果申请的时候有测试参数,但是revoke的时候不加,那么就会出现问题

$ ./certbot-auto revoke --cert-path /etc/letsencrypt/live/test.archerwong.cn/cert.pem
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
An unexpected error occurred:
The request message was malformed :: No such certificate
Please see the logfiles in /var/log/letsencrypt for more details.

一旦证书被revoke后,可以使用delete命令删除证书。

certbot delete --cert-name example.com

注意:如果你revoke一个证书,那么如果不delete的话,当renew的时候该证书仍然会被更新。

下面演示如何删除一个证书

$ ./certbot-auto revoke --cert-path /etc/letsencrypt/live/test.archerwong.cn-0001/cert.pem --staging --reason keycompromise
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

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Would you like to delete the cert(s) you just revoked?
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(Y)es (recommended)/(N)o: n

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Congratulations! You have successfully revoked the certificate that was located
at /etc/letsencrypt/live/test.archerwong.cn-0001/cert.pem

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Not deleting revoked certs.

中间会询问你是否删除revoke的证书,为了演示,这里我选择不删除证书。发现状态又变化了,有了revoked标志

$ ./certbot-auto certificates                                                                                           
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Found the following certs:
  ...
  Certificate Name: test.archerwong.cn-0001
    Domains: blog.archerwong.cn
    Expiry Date: 2019-03-18 05:45:31+00:00 (INVALID: TEST_CERT, REVOKED)
    Certificate Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/test.archerwong.cn-0001/fullchain.pem
    Private Key Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/test.archerwong.cn-0001/privkey.pem
  ...
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

继续删除证书

$ ./certbot-auto delete --cert-name test.archerwong.cn-0001
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Deleted all files relating to certificate test.archerwong.cn-0001.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

此时证书已经被删除了,查看发现文件夹(test.archerwong.cn-0001)已经被删除

$ tree /etc/letsencrypt/live
/etc/letsencrypt/live
├── archerwong.cn
│   ├── cert.pem -> ../../archive/archerwong.cn/cert1.pem
│   ├── chain.pem -> ../../archive/archerwong.cn/chain1.pem
│   ├── fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/archerwong.cn/fullchain1.pem
│   ├── privkey.pem -> ../../archive/archerwong.cn/privkey1.pem
│   └── README
├── archerwong.cn-0001
│   ├── cert.pem -> ../../archive/archerwong.cn-0001/cert1.pem
│   ├── chain.pem -> ../../archive/archerwong.cn-0001/chain1.pem
│   ├── fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/archerwong.cn-0001/fullchain1.pem
│   ├── privkey.pem -> ../../archive/archerwong.cn-0001/privkey1.pem
│   └── README
├── README
└── test.archerwong.cn
    ├── cert.pem -> ../../archive/test.archerwong.cn/cert2.pem
    ├── chain.pem -> ../../archive/test.archerwong.cn/chain2.pem
    ├── fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/test.archerwong.cn/fullchain2.pem
    ├── privkey.pem -> ../../archive/test.archerwong.cn/privkey2.pem
    └── README

3 directories, 16 files

4.5 更新证书

处于安全等因素的考虑,letsencrypt证书只支持90天的有效期,所以我们需要在临近过期的时间再次更新证书,certbot上可以方便的进行更新操作,使用renew命令

certbot renew

类似于下面的情形,因为我都是新申请的证书,所以没有更新

$ ./certbot-auto renew
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/archerwong.cn-0001.conf
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Cert not yet due for renewal

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Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/archerwong.cn.conf
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Cert not yet due for renewal

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Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/test.archerwong.cn.conf
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Cert not yet due for renewal

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The following certs are not due for renewal yet:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/archerwong.cn-0001/fullchain.pem expires on 2019-03-17 (skipped)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/archerwong.cn/fullchain.pem expires on 2019-03-17 (skipped)
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/test.archerwong.cn/fullchain.pem expires on 2019-03-18 (skipped)
No renewals were attempted.

该命令会尝试更新所有的证书,查找到期天数低于30天的证书,然后更新
,正式因为上面的特性,当没有需要更新的证书的时候,就不会采取任何操作,所以这特别适合自动部署,你可以频繁的进行renew操作,不用担心产生太多副作用。

这里还有个强大的功能就是可以使用钩子,比如你使用的是standalone方式验证证书,同时你又时刻运行着自己的nginx服务器,那么当验证的时候就需要关闭nginx服务,这时候就可以使用钩子来自动化完成这个操作,当有证书需要更新的时候才会触发钩子,不是每运行一次更新操作就运行一次钩子,所以不用太担心会频繁关闭启动nginx服务。

certbot renew --pre-hook "service nginx stop" --post-hook "service nginx start"

--pre-hook 和 --post-hook 钩子运行在尝试更新和更新证书之后,如果你想要只运行在一次成功更新证书之后,那么可以使用--deploy-hook

certbot renew --deploy-hook /path/to/deploy-hook-script

比如,你有一个守护进程需要读取证书内容但是不是使用root用户,下面的脚本可以复制一份证书,并更改证书的权限。

#!/bin/sh

set -e

for domain in $RENEWED_DOMAINS; do
        case $domain in
        example.com)
                daemon_cert_root=/etc/some-daemon/certs

                # Make sure the certificate and private key files are
                # never world readable, even just for an instant while
                # we're copying them into daemon_cert_root.
                umask 077

                cp "$RENEWED_LINEAGE/fullchain.pem" "$daemon_cert_root/$domain.cert"
                cp "$RENEWED_LINEAGE/privkey.pem" "$daemon_cert_root/$domain.key"

                # Apply the proper file ownership and permissions for
                # the daemon to read its certificate and key.
                chown some-daemon "$daemon_cert_root/$domain.cert" \
                        "$daemon_cert_root/$domain.key"
                chmod 400 "$daemon_cert_root/$domain.cert" \
                        "$daemon_cert_root/$domain.key"

                service some-daemon restart >/dev/null
                ;;
        esac
done

你可以直接将钩子文件放到指定目录 /etc/letsencrypt/renewal-hooks/pre, /etc/letsencrypt/renewal-hooks/deploy, /etc/letsencrypt/renewal-hooks/post,那么这三个文件夹里的文件会按照,pre,deply,post类型的钩子运行。同一个文件夹下有多个文件,那么这些文件的运行时按照文件名字母的排序先后运行的。你可以指定不使用这些文件夹下的钩子文件,需要在使用命令的时候添加 --no-directory-hooks 参数

如果在更新证书的过程中不需要人工干预,那么可以将命令添加到crontab,这样定期自动更新证书。

如果你在手动更新证书,并且向忽略过期时间的限制,那么可以使用 --force-renewal 参数,但是这样做要注意,你可能很快就超过官方申请频率的限制。

如果你不想在申请过程中有任何输入,那么可以使用--noninteractive (简写:-n)来表名不想输入,这时客户端会尝试帮你填写需要的选项。

如果快到期的时候你还没有更新证书,那么CA会给你发邮件提醒你,这很人性化啊。。。,所以邮箱还是要认真填写的。

5. 其它问题

野卡证书

默认的,certbot的CA是使用 https://acme-v01.api.letsencrypt.org/,但是如果你想申请通配符证书,那么你需要指定letsencrypt的新的ACMEV2服务,需要加下面的参数--server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory,这样certbot就可以选择正确的协议帮你申请野卡证书了。

野卡证书支持dns的验证方式,具体如何操作,我会单独写一篇文章。

命令 certbot --help all

可以通过help来查看命令怎么用,这里就贴一下官方的文档,有一篇文章翻译了部分,大家可以看下: Certbot命令行工具使用说明

usage: 
  certbot [SUBCOMMAND] [options] [-d DOMAIN] [-d DOMAIN] ...

Certbot can obtain and install HTTPS/TLS/SSL certificates.  By default,
it will attempt to use a webserver both for obtaining and installing the
certificate. The most common SUBCOMMANDS and flags are:

obtain, install, and renew certificates:
    (default) run   Obtain & install a certificate in your current webserver
    certonly        Obtain or renew a certificate, but do not install it
    renew           Renew all previously obtained certificates that are near expiry
    enhance         Add security enhancements to your existing configuration
   -d DOMAINS       Comma-separated list of domains to obtain a certificate for

  --apache          Use the Apache plugin for authentication & installation
  --standalone      Run a standalone webserver for authentication
  --nginx           Use the Nginx plugin for authentication & installation
  --webroot         Place files in a server's webroot folder for authentication
  --manual          Obtain certificates interactively, or using shell script hooks

   -n               Run non-interactively
  --test-cert       Obtain a test certificate from a staging server
  --dry-run         Test "renew" or "certonly" without saving any certificates to disk

manage certificates:
    certificates    Display information about certificates you have from Certbot
    revoke          Revoke a certificate (supply --cert-path or --cert-name)
    delete          Delete a certificate

manage your account with Let's Encrypt:
    register        Create a Let's Encrypt ACME account
  --agree-tos       Agree to the ACME server's Subscriber Agreement
   -m EMAIL         Email address for important account notifications

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -c CONFIG_FILE, --config CONFIG_FILE
                        path to config file (default: /etc/letsencrypt/cli.ini
                        and ~/.config/letsencrypt/cli.ini)
  -v, --verbose         This flag can be used multiple times to incrementally
                        increase the verbosity of output, e.g. -vvv. (default:
                        -2)
  --max-log-backups MAX_LOG_BACKUPS
                        Specifies the maximum number of backup logs that
                        should be kept by Certbot's built in log rotation.
                        Setting this flag to 0 disables log rotation entirely,
                        causing Certbot to always append to the same log file.
                        (default: 1000)
  -n, --non-interactive, --noninteractive
                        Run without ever asking for user input. This may
                        require additional command line flags; the client will
                        try to explain which ones are required if it finds one
                        missing (default: False)
  --force-interactive   Force Certbot to be interactive even if it detects
                        it's not being run in a terminal. This flag cannot be
                        used with the renew subcommand. (default: False)
  -d DOMAIN, --domains DOMAIN, --domain DOMAIN
                        Domain names to apply. For multiple domains you can
                        use multiple -d flags or enter a comma separated list
                        of domains as a parameter. The first domain provided
                        will be the subject CN of the certificate, and all
                        domains will be Subject Alternative Names on the
                        certificate. The first domain will also be used in
                        some software user interfaces and as the file paths
                        for the certificate and related material unless
                        otherwise specified or you already have a certificate
                        with the same name. In the case of a name collision it
                        will append a number like 0001 to the file path name.
                        (default: Ask)
  --cert-name CERTNAME  Certificate name to apply. This name is used by
                        Certbot for housekeeping and in file paths; it doesn't
                        affect the content of the certificate itself. To see
                        certificate names, run 'certbot certificates'. When
                        creating a new certificate, specifies the new
                        certificate's name. (default: the first provided
                        domain or the name of an existing certificate on your
                        system for the same domains)
  --dry-run             Perform a test run of the client, obtaining test
                        (invalid) certificates but not saving them to disk.
                        This can currently only be used with the 'certonly'
                        and 'renew' subcommands. Note: Although --dry-run
                        tries to avoid making any persistent changes on a
                        system, it is not completely side-effect free: if used
                        with webserver authenticator plugins like apache and
                        nginx, it makes and then reverts temporary config
                        changes in order to obtain test certificates, and
                        reloads webservers to deploy and then roll back those
                        changes. It also calls --pre-hook and --post-hook
                        commands if they are defined because they may be
                        necessary to accurately simulate renewal. --deploy-
                        hook commands are not called. (default: False)
  --debug-challenges    After setting up challenges, wait for user input
                        before submitting to CA (default: False)
  --preferred-challenges PREF_CHALLS
                        A sorted, comma delimited list of the preferred
                        challenge to use during authorization with the most
                        preferred challenge listed first (Eg, "dns" or "tls-
                        sni-01,http,dns"). Not all plugins support all
                        challenges. See
                        https://certbot.eff.org/docs/using.html#plugins for
                        details. ACME Challenges are versioned, but if you
                        pick "http" rather than "http-01", Certbot will select
                        the latest version automatically. (default: [])
  --user-agent USER_AGENT
                        Set a custom user agent string for the client. User
                        agent strings allow the CA to collect high level
                        statistics about success rates by OS, plugin and use
                        case, and to know when to deprecate support for past
                        Python versions and flags. If you wish to hide this
                        information from the Let's Encrypt server, set this to
                        "". (default: CertbotACMEClient/0.28.0
                        (certbot(-auto); OS_NAME OS_VERSION) Authenticator/XXX
                        Installer/YYY (SUBCOMMAND; flags: FLAGS)
                        Py/major.minor.patchlevel). The flags encoded in the
                        user agent are: --duplicate, --force-renew, --allow-
                        subset-of-names, -n, and whether any hooks are set.
  --user-agent-comment USER_AGENT_COMMENT
                        Add a comment to the default user agent string. May be
                        used when repackaging Certbot or calling it from
                        another tool to allow additional statistical data to
                        be collected. Ignored if --user-agent is set.
                        (Example: Foo-Wrapper/1.0) (default: None)

automation:
  Flags for automating execution & other tweaks

  --keep-until-expiring, --keep, --reinstall
                        If the requested certificate matches an existing
                        certificate, always keep the existing one until it is
                        due for renewal (for the 'run' subcommand this means
                        reinstall the existing certificate). (default: Ask)
  --expand              If an existing certificate is a strict subset of the
                        requested names, always expand and replace it with the
                        additional names. (default: Ask)
  --version             show program's version number and exit
  --force-renewal, --renew-by-default
                        If a certificate already exists for the requested
                        domains, renew it now, regardless of whether it is
                        near expiry. (Often --keep-until-expiring is more
                        appropriate). Also implies --expand. (default: False)
  --renew-with-new-domains
                        If a certificate already exists for the requested
                        certificate name but does not match the requested
                        domains, renew it now, regardless of whether it is
                        near expiry. (default: False)
  --reuse-key           When renewing, use the same private key as the
                        existing certificate. (default: False)
  --allow-subset-of-names
                        When performing domain validation, do not consider it
                        a failure if authorizations can not be obtained for a
                        strict subset of the requested domains. This may be
                        useful for allowing renewals for multiple domains to
                        succeed even if some domains no longer point at this
                        system. This option cannot be used with --csr.
                        (default: False)
  --agree-tos           Agree to the ACME Subscriber Agreement (default: Ask)
  --duplicate           Allow making a certificate lineage that duplicates an
                        existing one (both can be renewed in parallel)
                        (default: False)
  --os-packages-only    (certbot-auto only) install OS package dependencies
                        and then stop (default: False)
  --no-self-upgrade     (certbot-auto only) prevent the certbot-auto script
                        from upgrading itself to newer released versions
                        (default: Upgrade automatically)
  --no-bootstrap        (certbot-auto only) prevent the certbot-auto script
                        from installing OS-level dependencies (default: Prompt
                        to install OS-wide dependencies, but exit if the user
                        says 'No')
  -q, --quiet           Silence all output except errors. Useful for
                        automation via cron. Implies --non-interactive.
                        (default: False)

security:
  Security parameters & server settings

  --rsa-key-size N      Size of the RSA key. (default: 2048)
  --must-staple         Adds the OCSP Must Staple extension to the
                        certificate. Autoconfigures OCSP Stapling for
                        supported setups (Apache version >= 2.3.3 ). (default:
                        False)
  --redirect            Automatically redirect all HTTP traffic to HTTPS for
                        the newly authenticated vhost. (default: Ask)
  --no-redirect         Do not automatically redirect all HTTP traffic to
                        HTTPS for the newly authenticated vhost. (default:
                        Ask)
  --hsts                Add the Strict-Transport-Security header to every HTTP
                        response. Forcing browser to always use SSL for the
                        domain. Defends against SSL Stripping. (default: None)
  --uir                 Add the "Content-Security-Policy: upgrade-insecure-
                        requests" header to every HTTP response. Forcing the
                        browser to use https:// for every http:// resource.
                        (default: None)
  --staple-ocsp         Enables OCSP Stapling. A valid OCSP response is
                        stapled to the certificate that the server offers
                        during TLS. (default: None)
  --strict-permissions  Require that all configuration files are owned by the
                        current user; only needed if your config is somewhere
                        unsafe like /tmp/ (default: False)
  --auto-hsts           Gradually increasing max-age value for HTTP Strict
                        Transport Security security header (default: False)

testing:
  The following flags are meant for testing and integration purposes only.

  --test-cert, --staging
                        Use the staging server to obtain or revoke test
                        (invalid) certificates; equivalent to --server https
                        ://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory
                        (default: False)
  --debug               Show tracebacks in case of errors, and allow certbot-
                        auto execution on experimental platforms (default:
                        False)
  --no-verify-ssl       Disable verification of the ACME server's certificate.
                        (default: False)
  --tls-sni-01-port TLS_SNI_01_PORT
                        Port used during tls-sni-01 challenge. This only
                        affects the port Certbot listens on. A conforming ACME
                        server will still attempt to connect on port 443.
                        (default: 443)
  --tls-sni-01-address TLS_SNI_01_ADDRESS
                        The address the server listens to during tls-sni-01
                        challenge. (default: )
  --http-01-port HTTP01_PORT
                        Port used in the http-01 challenge. This only affects
                        the port Certbot listens on. A conforming ACME server
                        will still attempt to connect on port 80. (default:
                        80)
  --http-01-address HTTP01_ADDRESS
                        The address the server listens to during http-01
                        challenge. (default: )
  --break-my-certs      Be willing to replace or renew valid certificates with
                        invalid (testing/staging) certificates (default:
                        False)

paths:
  Flags for changing execution paths & servers

  --cert-path CERT_PATH
                        Path to where certificate is saved (with auth --csr),
                        installed from, or revoked. (default: None)
  --key-path KEY_PATH   Path to private key for certificate installation or
                        revocation (if account key is missing) (default: None)
  --fullchain-path FULLCHAIN_PATH
                        Accompanying path to a full certificate chain
                        (certificate plus chain). (default: None)
  --chain-path CHAIN_PATH
                        Accompanying path to a certificate chain. (default:
                        None)
  --config-dir CONFIG_DIR
                        Configuration directory. (default: /etc/letsencrypt)
  --work-dir WORK_DIR   Working directory. (default: /var/lib/letsencrypt)
  --logs-dir LOGS_DIR   Logs directory. (default: /var/log/letsencrypt)
  --server SERVER       ACME Directory Resource URI. (default:
                        https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory)

manage:
  Various subcommands and flags are available for managing your
  certificates:

  certificates          List certificates managed by Certbot
  delete                Clean up all files related to a certificate
  renew                 Renew all certificates (or one specified with --cert-
                        name)
  revoke                Revoke a certificate specified with --cert-path or
                        --cert-name
  update_symlinks       Recreate symlinks in your /etc/letsencrypt/live/
                        directory

run:
  Options for obtaining & installing certificates

certonly:
  Options for modifying how a certificate is obtained

  --csr CSR             Path to a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) in DER or
                        PEM format. Currently --csr only works with the
                        'certonly' subcommand. (default: None)

renew:
  The 'renew' subcommand will attempt to renew all certificates (or more
  precisely, certificate lineages) you have previously obtained if they are
  close to expiry, and print a summary of the results. By default, 'renew'
  will reuse the options used to create obtain or most recently successfully
  renew each certificate lineage. You can try it with `--dry-run` first. For
  more fine-grained control, you can renew individual lineages with the
  `certonly` subcommand. Hooks are available to run commands before and
  after renewal; see https://certbot.eff.org/docs/using.html#renewal for
  more information on these.

  --pre-hook PRE_HOOK   Command to be run in a shell before obtaining any
                        certificates. Intended primarily for renewal, where it
                        can be used to temporarily shut down a webserver that
                        might conflict with the standalone plugin. This will
                        only be called if a certificate is actually to be
                        obtained/renewed. When renewing several certificates
                        that have identical pre-hooks, only the first will be
                        executed. (default: None)
  --post-hook POST_HOOK
                        Command to be run in a shell after attempting to
                        obtain/renew certificates. Can be used to deploy
                        renewed certificates, or to restart any servers that
                        were stopped by --pre-hook. This is only run if an
                        attempt was made to obtain/renew a certificate. If
                        multiple renewed certificates have identical post-
                        hooks, only one will be run. (default: None)
  --deploy-hook DEPLOY_HOOK
                        Command to be run in a shell once for each
                        successfully issued certificate. For this command, the
                        shell variable $RENEWED_LINEAGE will point to the
                        config live subdirectory (for example,
                        "/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com") containing the
                        new certificates and keys; the shell variable
                        $RENEWED_DOMAINS will contain a space-delimited list
                        of renewed certificate domains (for example,
                        "example.com www.example.com" (default: None)
  --disable-hook-validation
                        Ordinarily the commands specified for --pre-hook
                        /--post-hook/--deploy-hook will be checked for
                        validity, to see if the programs being run are in the
                        $PATH, so that mistakes can be caught early, even when
                        the hooks aren't being run just yet. The validation is
                        rather simplistic and fails if you use more advanced
                        shell constructs, so you can use this switch to
                        disable it. (default: False)
  --no-directory-hooks  Disable running executables found in Certbot's hook
                        directories during renewal. (default: False)
  --disable-renew-updates
                        Disable automatic updates to your server configuration
                        that would otherwise be done by the selected installer
                        plugin, and triggered when the user executes "certbot
                        renew", regardless of if the certificate is renewed.
                        This setting does not apply to important TLS
                        configuration updates. (default: False)
  --no-autorenew        Disable auto renewal of certificates. (default: True)

certificates:
  List certificates managed by Certbot

delete:
  Options for deleting a certificate

revoke:
  Options for revocation of certificates

  --reason {unspecified,keycompromise,affiliationchanged,superseded,cessationofoperation}
                        Specify reason for revoking certificate. (default:
                        unspecified)
  --delete-after-revoke
                        Delete certificates after revoking them. (default:
                        None)
  --no-delete-after-revoke
                        Do not delete certificates after revoking them. This
                        option should be used with caution because the 'renew'
                        subcommand will attempt to renew undeleted revoked
                        certificates. (default: None)

register:
  Options for account registration & modification

  --register-unsafely-without-email
                        Specifying this flag enables registering an account
                        with no email address. This is strongly discouraged,
                        because in the event of key loss or account compromise
                        you will irrevocably lose access to your account. You
                        will also be unable to receive notice about impending
                        expiration or revocation of your certificates. Updates
                        to the Subscriber Agreement will still affect you, and
                        will be effective 14 days after posting an update to
                        the web site. (default: False)
  --update-registration
                        With the register verb, indicates that details
                        associated with an existing registration, such as the
                        e-mail address, should be updated, rather than
                        registering a new account. (default: False)
  -m EMAIL, --email EMAIL
                        Email used for registration and recovery contact. Use
                        comma to register multiple emails, ex:
                        u1@example.com,u2@example.com. (default: Ask).
  --eff-email           Share your e-mail address with EFF (default: None)
  --no-eff-email        Don't share your e-mail address with EFF (default:
                        None)

unregister:
  Options for account deactivation.

  --account ACCOUNT_ID  Account ID to use (default: None)

install:
  Options for modifying how a certificate is deployed

config_changes:
  Options for controlling which changes are displayed

  --num NUM             How many past revisions you want to be displayed
                        (default: None)

rollback:
  Options for rolling back server configuration changes

  --checkpoints N       Revert configuration N number of checkpoints.
                        (default: 1)

plugins:
  Options for for the "plugins" subcommand

  --init                Initialize plugins. (default: False)
  --prepare             Initialize and prepare plugins. (default: False)
  --authenticators      Limit to authenticator plugins only. (default: None)
  --installers          Limit to installer plugins only. (default: None)

update_symlinks:
  Recreates certificate and key symlinks in /etc/letsencrypt/live, if you
  changed them by hand or edited a renewal configuration file

enhance:
  Helps to harden the TLS configuration by adding security enhancements to
  already existing configuration.

plugins:
  Plugin Selection: Certbot client supports an extensible plugins
  architecture. See 'certbot plugins' for a list of all installed plugins
  and their names. You can force a particular plugin by setting options
  provided below. Running --help <plugin_name> will list flags specific to
  that plugin.

  --configurator CONFIGURATOR
                        Name of the plugin that is both an authenticator and
                        an installer. Should not be used together with
                        --authenticator or --installer. (default: Ask)
  -a AUTHENTICATOR, --authenticator AUTHENTICATOR
                        Authenticator plugin name. (default: None)
  -i INSTALLER, --installer INSTALLER
                        Installer plugin name (also used to find domains).
                        (default: None)
  --apache              Obtain and install certificates using Apache (default:
                        False)
  --nginx               Obtain and install certificates using Nginx (default:
                        False)
  --standalone          Obtain certificates using a "standalone" webserver.
                        (default: False)
  --manual              Provide laborious manual instructions for obtaining a
                        certificate (default: False)
  --webroot             Obtain certificates by placing files in a webroot
                        directory. (default: False)
  --dns-cloudflare      Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Cloudflare for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-cloudxns        Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using CloudXNS for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-digitalocean    Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using DigitalOcean for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-dnsimple        Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using DNSimple for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-dnsmadeeasy     Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you
                        areusing DNS Made Easy for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-gehirn          Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Gehirn Infrastracture Service for DNS).
                        (default: False)
  --dns-google          Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Google Cloud DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-linode          Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Linode for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-luadns          Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using LuaDNS for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-nsone           Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using NS1 for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-ovh             Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using OVH for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-rfc2136         Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using BIND for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-route53         Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Route53 for DNS). (default: False)
  --dns-sakuracloud     Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are
                        using Sakura Cloud for DNS). (default: False)

apache:
  Apache Web Server plugin - Beta

  --apache-enmod APACHE_ENMOD
                        Path to the Apache 'a2enmod' binary (default: None)
  --apache-dismod APACHE_DISMOD
                        Path to the Apache 'a2dismod' binary (default: None)
  --apache-le-vhost-ext APACHE_LE_VHOST_EXT
                        SSL vhost configuration extension (default: -le-
                        ssl.conf)
  --apache-server-root APACHE_SERVER_ROOT
                        Apache server root directory (default: /etc/apache2)
  --apache-vhost-root APACHE_VHOST_ROOT
                        Apache server VirtualHost configuration root (default:
                        None)
  --apache-logs-root APACHE_LOGS_ROOT
                        Apache server logs directory (default:
                        /var/log/apache2)
  --apache-challenge-location APACHE_CHALLENGE_LOCATION
                        Directory path for challenge configuration (default:
                        /etc/apache2/other)
  --apache-handle-modules APACHE_HANDLE_MODULES
                        Let installer handle enabling required modules for you
                        (Only Ubuntu/Debian currently) (default: False)
  --apache-handle-sites APACHE_HANDLE_SITES
                        Let installer handle enabling sites for you (Only
                        Ubuntu/Debian currently) (default: False)
  --apache-ctl APACHE_CTL
                        Full path to Apache control script (default:
                        apachectl)

certbot-route53:auth:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using AWS Route53
  for DNS).

  --certbot-route53:auth-propagation-seconds CERTBOT_ROUTE53:AUTH_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 10)

dns-cloudflare:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using Cloudflare
  for DNS).

  --dns-cloudflare-propagation-seconds DNS_CLOUDFLARE_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 10)
  --dns-cloudflare-credentials DNS_CLOUDFLARE_CREDENTIALS
                        Cloudflare credentials INI file. (default: None)

dns-cloudxns:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using CloudXNS for
  DNS).

  --dns-cloudxns-propagation-seconds DNS_CLOUDXNS_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 30)
  --dns-cloudxns-credentials DNS_CLOUDXNS_CREDENTIALS
                        CloudXNS credentials INI file. (default: None)

dns-digitalocean:
  Obtain certs using a DNS TXT record (if you are using DigitalOcean for
  DNS).

  --dns-digitalocean-propagation-seconds DNS_DIGITALOCEAN_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 10)
  --dns-digitalocean-credentials DNS_DIGITALOCEAN_CREDENTIALS
                        DigitalOcean credentials INI file. (default: None)

dns-dnsimple:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using DNSimple for
  DNS).

  --dns-dnsimple-propagation-seconds DNS_DNSIMPLE_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 30)
  --dns-dnsimple-credentials DNS_DNSIMPLE_CREDENTIALS
                        DNSimple credentials INI file. (default: None)

dns-dnsmadeeasy:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using DNS Made Easy
  for DNS).

  --dns-dnsmadeeasy-propagation-seconds DNS_DNSMADEEASY_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 60)
  --dns-dnsmadeeasy-credentials DNS_DNSMADEEASY_CREDENTIALS
                        DNS Made Easy credentials INI file. (default: None)

dns-gehirn:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using Gehirn
  Infrastracture Service for DNS).

  --dns-gehirn-propagation-seconds DNS_GEHIRN_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 30)
  --dns-gehirn-credentials DNS_GEHIRN_CREDENTIALS
                        Gehirn Infrastracture Service credentials file.
                        (default: None)

dns-google:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using Google Cloud
  DNS for DNS).

  --dns-google-propagation-seconds DNS_GOOGLE_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 60)
  --dns-google-credentials DNS_GOOGLE_CREDENTIALS
                        Path to Google Cloud DNS service account JSON file.
                        (See https://developers.google.com/identity/protocols/
                        OAuth2ServiceAccount#creatinganaccount forinformation
                        about creating a service account and
                        https://cloud.google.com/dns/access-
                        control#permissions_and_roles for information about
                        therequired permissions.) (default: None)

dns-linode:
  Obtain certs using a DNS TXT record (if you are using Linode for DNS).

  --dns-linode-propagation-seconds DNS_LINODE_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 1200)
  --dns-linode-credentials DNS_LINODE_CREDENTIALS
                        Linode credentials INI file. (default: None)

dns-luadns:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using LuaDNS for
  DNS).

  --dns-luadns-propagation-seconds DNS_LUADNS_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 30)
  --dns-luadns-credentials DNS_LUADNS_CREDENTIALS
                        LuaDNS credentials INI file. (default: None)

dns-nsone:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using NS1 for DNS).

  --dns-nsone-propagation-seconds DNS_NSONE_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 30)
  --dns-nsone-credentials DNS_NSONE_CREDENTIALS
                        NS1 credentials file. (default: None)

dns-ovh:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using OVH for DNS).

  --dns-ovh-propagation-seconds DNS_OVH_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 30)
  --dns-ovh-credentials DNS_OVH_CREDENTIALS
                        OVH credentials INI file. (default: None)

dns-rfc2136:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using BIND for
  DNS).

  --dns-rfc2136-propagation-seconds DNS_RFC2136_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 60)
  --dns-rfc2136-credentials DNS_RFC2136_CREDENTIALS
                        RFC 2136 credentials INI file. (default: None)

dns-route53:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using AWS Route53
  for DNS).

  --dns-route53-propagation-seconds DNS_ROUTE53_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 10)

dns-sakuracloud:
  Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using Sakura Cloud
  for DNS).

  --dns-sakuracloud-propagation-seconds DNS_SAKURACLOUD_PROPAGATION_SECONDS
                        The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate
                        before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS
                        record. (default: 90)
  --dns-sakuracloud-credentials DNS_SAKURACLOUD_CREDENTIALS
                        Sakura Cloud credentials file. (default: None)

manual:
  Authenticate through manual configuration or custom shell scripts. When
  using shell scripts, an authenticator script must be provided. The
  environment variables available to this script depend on the type of
  challenge. $CERTBOT_DOMAIN will always contain the domain being
  authenticated. For HTTP-01 and DNS-01, $CERTBOT_VALIDATION is the
  validation string, and $CERTBOT_TOKEN is the filename of the resource
  requested when performing an HTTP-01 challenge. When performing a TLS-
  SNI-01 challenge, $CERTBOT_SNI_DOMAIN will contain the SNI name for which
  the ACME server expects to be presented with the self-signed certificate
  located at $CERTBOT_CERT_PATH. The secret key needed to complete the TLS
  handshake is located at $CERTBOT_KEY_PATH. An additional cleanup script
  can also be provided and can use the additional variable
  $CERTBOT_AUTH_OUTPUT which contains the stdout output from the auth
  script.

  --manual-auth-hook MANUAL_AUTH_HOOK
                        Path or command to execute for the authentication
                        script (default: None)
  --manual-cleanup-hook MANUAL_CLEANUP_HOOK
                        Path or command to execute for the cleanup script
                        (default: None)
  --manual-public-ip-logging-ok
                        Automatically allows public IP logging (default: Ask)

nginx:
  Nginx Web Server plugin

  --nginx-server-root NGINX_SERVER_ROOT
                        Nginx server root directory. (default: /etc/nginx or
                        /usr/local/etc/nginx)
  --nginx-ctl NGINX_CTL
                        Path to the 'nginx' binary, used for 'configtest' and
                        retrieving nginx version number. (default: nginx)

null:
  Null Installer

standalone:
  Spin up a temporary webserver

webroot:
  Place files in webroot directory

  --webroot-path WEBROOT_PATH, -w WEBROOT_PATH
                        public_html / webroot path. This can be specified
                        multiple times to handle different domains; each
                        domain will have the webroot path that preceded it.
                        For instance: `-w /var/www/example -d example.com -d
                        www.example.com -w /var/www/thing -d thing.net -d
                        m.thing.net` (default: Ask)
  --webroot-map WEBROOT_MAP
                        JSON dictionary mapping domains to webroot paths; this
                        implies -d for each entry. You may need to escape this
                        from your shell. E.g.: --webroot-map
                        '{"eg1.is,m.eg1.is":"/www/eg1/", "eg2.is":"/www/eg2"}'
                        This option is merged with, but takes precedence over,
                        -w / -d entries. At present, if you put webroot-map in
                        a config file, it needs to be on a single line, like:
                        webroot-map = {"example.com":"/var/www"}. (default:
                        {})

6. 参考地址

https://certbot.eff.org/docs/intro.html

posted @ 2018-12-18 21:48  archer-wong  阅读(2594)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报