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引言:

 

接上一篇文章讲述处理@RequestMapping的方法参数绑定之后,详细介绍下@RequestBody、@ResponseBody的具体用法和使用时机;同时对曾经看的一篇文章中讲述的某些部分进行澄清 (文章地址:http://www.byywee.com/page/M0/S702/702424.html)。

 

简介:

@RequestBody

作用: 

      i) 该注解用于读取Request请求的body部分数据,使用系统默认配置的HttpMessageConverter进行解析,然后把相应的数据绑定到要返回的对象上;

      ii) 再把HttpMessageConverter返回的对象数据绑定到 controller中方法的参数上。

使用时机:

A) GET、POST方式提时, 根据request header Content-Type的值来判断:

  •     application/x-www-form-urlencoded, 可选(即非必须,因为这种情况的数据@RequestParam, @ModelAttribute也可以处理,当然@RequestBody也能处理);
  •     multipart/form-data, 不能处理(即使用@RequestBody不能处理这种格式的数据);
  •     其他格式, 必须(其他格式包括application/json, application/xml等。这些格式的数据,必须使用@RequestBody来处理);

 

B) PUT方式提交时, 根据request header Content-Type的值来判断:

 

  •     application/x-www-form-urlencoded, 必须;
  •     multipart/form-data, 不能处理;
  •     其他格式, 必须;

说明:request的body部分的数据编码格式由header部分的Content-Type指定;

 


@ResponseBody

 

作用: 

      该注解用于将Controller的方法返回的对象,通过适当的HttpMessageConverter转换为指定格式后,写入到Response对象的body数据区。

使用时机:

      返回的数据不是html标签的页面,而是其他某种格式的数据时(如json、xml等)使用;

 

 

 

HttpMessageConverter

<span style="font-family:Microsoft YaHei;">/**
 * Strategy interface that specifies a converter that can convert from and to HTTP requests and responses.
 *
 * @author Arjen Poutsma
 * @author Juergen Hoeller
 * @since 3.0
 */
public interface HttpMessageConverter<T> {

    /**
     * Indicates whether the given class can be read by this converter.
     * @param clazz the class to test for readability
     * @param mediaType the media type to read, can be {@code null} if not specified.
     * Typically the value of a {@code Content-Type} header.
     * @return {@code true} if readable; {@code false} otherwise
     */
    boolean canRead(Class<?> clazz, MediaType mediaType);

    /**
     * Indicates whether the given class can be written by this converter.
     * @param clazz the class to test for writability
     * @param mediaType the media type to write, can be {@code null} if not specified.
     * Typically the value of an {@code Accept} header.
     * @return {@code true} if writable; {@code false} otherwise
     */
    boolean canWrite(Class<?> clazz, MediaType mediaType);

    /**
     * Return the list of {@link MediaType} objects supported by this converter.
     * @return the list of supported media types
     */
    List<MediaType> getSupportedMediaTypes();

    /**
     * Read an object of the given type form the given input message, and returns it.
     * @param clazz the type of object to return. This type must have previously been passed to the
     * {@link #canRead canRead} method of this interface, which must have returned {@code true}.
     * @param inputMessage the HTTP input message to read from
     * @return the converted object
     * @throws IOException in case of I/O errors
     * @throws HttpMessageNotReadableException in case of conversion errors
     */
    T read(Class<? extends T> clazz, HttpInputMessage inputMessage)
            throws IOException, HttpMessageNotReadableException;

    /**
     * Write an given object to the given output message.
     * @param t the object to write to the output message. The type of this object must have previously been
     * passed to the {@link #canWrite canWrite} method of this interface, which must have returned {@code true}.
     * @param contentType the content type to use when writing. May be {@code null} to indicate that the
     * default content type of the converter must be used. If not {@code null}, this media type must have
     * previously been passed to the {@link #canWrite canWrite} method of this interface, which must have
     * returned {@code true}.
     * @param outputMessage the message to write to
     * @throws IOException in case of I/O errors
     * @throws HttpMessageNotWritableException in case of conversion errors
     */
    void write(T t, MediaType contentType, HttpOutputMessage outputMessage)
            throws IOException, HttpMessageNotWritableException;

}
</span>

该接口定义了四个方法,分别是读取数据时的 canRead(), read() 和 写入数据时的canWrite(), write()方法。

 

在使用 <mvc:annotation-driven />标签配置时,默认配置了RequestMappingHandlerAdapter(注意是RequestMappingHandlerAdapter不是AnnotationMethodHandlerAdapter,详情查看Spring 3.1 document “16.14 Configuring Spring MVC”章节),并为他配置了一下默认的HttpMessageConverter:

    ByteArrayHttpMessageConverter converts byte arrays.

    StringHttpMessageConverter converts strings.

    ResourceHttpMessageConverter converts to/from org.springframework.core.io.Resource for all media types.

    SourceHttpMessageConverter converts to/from a javax.xml.transform.Source.

    FormHttpMessageConverter converts form data to/from a MultiValueMap<String, String>.

    Jaxb2RootElementHttpMessageConverter converts Java objects to/from XML — added if JAXB2 is present on the classpath.

    MappingJacksonHttpMessageConverter converts to/from JSON — added if Jackson is present on the classpath.

    AtomFeedHttpMessageConverter converts Atom feeds — added if Rome is present on the classpath.

    RssChannelHttpMessageConverter converts RSS feeds — added if Rome is present on the classpath.

ByteArrayHttpMessageConverter: 负责读取二进制格式的数据和写出二进制格式的数据;

StringHttpMessageConverter:   负责读取字符串格式的数据和写出二进制格式的数据;

 

ResourceHttpMessageConverter:负责读取资源文件和写出资源文件数据; 

FormHttpMessageConverter:       负责读取form提交的数据(能读取的数据格式为 application/x-www-form-urlencoded,不能读取multipart/form-data格式数据);负责写入application/x-www-from-urlencoded和multipart/form-data格式的数据;

 

MappingJacksonHttpMessageConverter:  负责读取和写入json格式的数据;

 

SouceHttpMessageConverter:                   负责读取和写入 xml 中javax.xml.transform.Source定义的数据;

Jaxb2RootElementHttpMessageConverter:  负责读取和写入xml 标签格式的数据;

 

AtomFeedHttpMessageConverter:              负责读取和写入Atom格式的数据;

RssChannelHttpMessageConverter:           负责读取和写入RSS格式的数据;

 

当使用@RequestBody和@ResponseBody注解时,RequestMappingHandlerAdapter就使用它们来进行读取或者写入相应格式的数据。

 

HttpMessageConverter匹配过程:

@RequestBody注解时: 根据Request对象header部分的Content-Type类型,逐一匹配合适的HttpMessageConverter来读取数据;

spring 3.1源代码如下:

private Object readWithMessageConverters(MethodParameter methodParam, HttpInputMessage inputMessage, Class paramType)
            throws Exception {

        MediaType contentType = inputMessage.getHeaders().getContentType();
        if (contentType == null) {
            StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder(ClassUtils.getShortName(methodParam.getParameterType()));
            String paramName = methodParam.getParameterName();
            if (paramName != null) {
                builder.append(' ');
                builder.append(paramName);
            }
            throw new HttpMediaTypeNotSupportedException(
                    "Cannot extract parameter (" + builder.toString() + "): no Content-Type found");
        }

        List<MediaType> allSupportedMediaTypes = new ArrayList<MediaType>();
        if (this.messageConverters != null) {
            for (HttpMessageConverter<?> messageConverter : this.messageConverters) {
                allSupportedMediaTypes.addAll(messageConverter.getSupportedMediaTypes());
                if (messageConverter.canRead(paramType, contentType)) {
                    if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                        logger.debug("Reading [" + paramType.getName() + "] as \"" + contentType
                                +"\" using [" + messageConverter + "]");
                    }
                    return messageConverter.read(paramType, inputMessage);
                }
            }
        }
        throw new HttpMediaTypeNotSupportedException(contentType, allSupportedMediaTypes);
    }

@ResponseBody注解时: 根据Request对象header部分的Accept属性(逗号分隔),逐一按accept中的类型,去遍历找到能处理的HttpMessageConverter;

源代码如下:

private void writeWithMessageConverters(Object returnValue,
                HttpInputMessage inputMessage, HttpOutputMessage outputMessage)
                throws IOException, HttpMediaTypeNotAcceptableException {
            List<MediaType> acceptedMediaTypes = inputMessage.getHeaders().getAccept();
            if (acceptedMediaTypes.isEmpty()) {
                acceptedMediaTypes = Collections.singletonList(MediaType.ALL);
            }
            MediaType.sortByQualityValue(acceptedMediaTypes);
            Class<?> returnValueType = returnValue.getClass();
            List<MediaType> allSupportedMediaTypes = new ArrayList<MediaType>();
            if (getMessageConverters() != null) {
                for (MediaType acceptedMediaType : acceptedMediaTypes) {
                    for (HttpMessageConverter messageConverter : getMessageConverters()) {
                        if (messageConverter.canWrite(returnValueType, acceptedMediaType)) {
                            messageConverter.write(returnValue, acceptedMediaType, outputMessage);
                            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                                MediaType contentType = outputMessage.getHeaders().getContentType();
                                if (contentType == null) {
                                    contentType = acceptedMediaType;
                                }
                                logger.debug("Written [" + returnValue + "] as \"" + contentType +
                                        "\" using [" + messageConverter + "]");
                            }
                            this.responseArgumentUsed = true;
                            return;
                        }
                    }
                }
                for (HttpMessageConverter messageConverter : messageConverters) {
                    allSupportedMediaTypes.addAll(messageConverter.getSupportedMediaTypes());
                }
            }
            throw new HttpMediaTypeNotAcceptableException(allSupportedMediaTypes);
        }

补充:

MappingJacksonHttpMessageConverter 调用了 objectMapper.writeValue(OutputStream stream, Object)方法,使用@ResponseBody注解返回的对象就传入Object参数内。若返回的对象为已经格式化好的json串时,不使用@RequestBody注解,而应该这样处理:
1、response.setContentType("application/json; charset=UTF-8");
2、response.getWriter().print(jsonStr);
直接输出到body区,然后的视图为void。

 

参考资料:

 

1、 Spring 3.1 Doc: 

spring-3.1.0/docs/spring-framework-reference/html/mvc.html

2、Spring 3.x MVC 入门4 -- @ResponseBody & @RequestBody

http://www.byywee.com/page/M0/S702/702424.html
posted on 2014-05-30 10:48  一个人的天空@  阅读(154949)  评论(2编辑  收藏