免费开源的DotNet任务调度组件Quartz.NET(.NET组件介绍之五)

    很多的软件项目中都会使用到定时任务、定时轮询数据库同步,定时邮件通知等功能。.NET Framework具有“内置”定时器功能,通过System.Timers.Timer类。在使用Timer类需要面对的问题:计时器没有持久化机制;计时器具有不灵活的计划(仅能设置开始时间和重复间隔,没有基于日期,时间等);计时器不使用线程池(每个定时器一个线程);计时器没有真正的管理方案 - 你必须编写自己的机制,以便能够记住,组织和检索任务的名称等。

    如果需要在.NET实现定时器的功能,可以尝试使用以下这款开源免费的组件Quartz.Net组件。目前Quartz.NET版本为3.0,修改了原来的一些问题:修复由于线程本地存储而不能与AdoJobStore协同工作的调度器信令;线程局部状态完全删除;quartz.serializer.type是必需的,即使非序列化RAMJobStore正在使用;JSON序列化错误地称为序列化回调。

一.Quart.NET概述:  

     Quartz是一个作业调度系统,可以与任何其他软件系统集成或一起使用。作业调度程序是一个系统,负责在执行预处理程序时执行(或通知)其他软件组件 - 确定(调度)时间到达。Quartz是非常灵活的,并且包含多个使用范例,可以单独使用或一起使用,以实现您所需的行为,并使您能够以您的项目看起来最“自然”的方式编写代码。组件的使用非常轻便,并且需要非常少的设置/配置 - 如果您的需求相对基础,它实际上可以使用“开箱即用”。Quartz是容错的,并且可以在系统重新启动之间保留(记住)您的预定作业。尽管Quartz对于在给定的时间表上简单地运行某些系统进程非常有用,但当您学习如何使用Quartz来驱动应用程序的业务流程时,Quartz的全部潜能可以实现。

      Quartz是作为一个小的动态链接库(.dll文件)分发的,它包含所有的核心Quartz功能。 此功能的主要接口(API)是调度程序接口。 它提供简单的操作,如调度/非调度作业,启动/停止/暂停调度程序。如果你想安排你自己的软件组件执行,他们必须实现简单的Job接口,它包含方法execute()。 如果希望在计划的触发时间到达时通知组件,则组件应实现TriggerListener或JobListener接口。主要的Quartz'进程'可以在您自己的应用程序或独立应用程序(使用远程接口)中启动和运行。

二.Quartz.NET主体类和方法解析:

    1.StdSchedulerFactory类:创建QuartzScheduler实例。

        /// <summary>
        /// 返回此工厂生成的调度程序的句柄。
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        ///如果<see cref =“Initialize()”/>方法之一没有先前调用,然后是默认(no-arg)<see cref =“Initialize()”/>方法将被这个方法调用。
        /// </remarks>
        public virtual IScheduler GetScheduler()
        {
            if (cfg == null)
            {
                Initialize();
            }

            SchedulerRepository schedRep = SchedulerRepository.Instance;

            IScheduler sched = schedRep.Lookup(SchedulerName);

            if (sched != null)
            {
                if (sched.IsShutdown)
                {
                    schedRep.Remove(SchedulerName);
                }
                else
                {
                    return sched;
                }
            }

            sched = Instantiate();

            return sched;
        }
public interface ISchedulerFactory
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// Returns handles to all known Schedulers (made by any SchedulerFactory
        /// within this app domain.).
        /// </summary>
        ICollection<IScheduler> AllSchedulers { get; }

        /// <summary>
        /// Returns a client-usable handle to a <see cref="IScheduler" />.
        /// </summary>
        IScheduler GetScheduler();

        /// <summary>
        /// Returns a handle to the Scheduler with the given name, if it exists.
        /// </summary>
        IScheduler GetScheduler(string schedName);
    }

   2.JobDetailImpl:传递给定作业实例的详细信息属性。

 /// <summary>
        /// 获取或设置与<see cref =“IJob”/>相关联的<see cref =“JobDataMap”/>/// </summary>
        public virtual JobDataMap JobDataMap
        {
            get
            {
                if (jobDataMap == null)
                {
                    jobDataMap = new JobDataMap();
                }
                return jobDataMap;
            }

            set { jobDataMap = value; }
        }

   3.JobKey:键由名称和组组成,名称必须是唯一的,在组内。 如果只指定一个组,则默认组将使用名称。

 [Serializable]
    public sealed class JobKey : Key<JobKey>
    {
        public JobKey(string name) : base(name, null)
        {
        }

        public JobKey(string name, string group) : base(name, group)
        {
        }

        public static JobKey Create(string name)
        {
            return new JobKey(name, null);
        }

        public static JobKey Create(string name, string group)
        {
            return new JobKey(name, group);
        }
    }

   4.StdSchedulerFactory.Initialize():

        /// <summary> 
        /// 使用初始化<see cref =“ISchedulerFactory”/>
         ///给定键值集合对象的内容。
        /// </summary>
        public virtual void Initialize(NameValueCollection props)
        {
            cfg = new PropertiesParser(props);
            ValidateConfiguration();
        }

        protected virtual void ValidateConfiguration()
        {
            if (!cfg.GetBooleanProperty(PropertyCheckConfiguration, true))
            {
                // should not validate
                return;
            }

            // determine currently supported configuration keys via reflection
            List<string> supportedKeys = new List<string>();
            List<FieldInfo> fields = new List<FieldInfo>(GetType().GetFields(BindingFlags.Static | BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy));
            // choose constant string fields
            fields = fields.FindAll(field => field.FieldType == typeof (string));

            // read value from each field
            foreach (FieldInfo field in fields)
            {
                string value = (string) field.GetValue(null);
                if (value != null && value.StartsWith(ConfigurationKeyPrefix) && value != ConfigurationKeyPrefix)
                {
                    supportedKeys.Add(value);
                }
            }

            // now check against allowed
            foreach (string configurationKey in cfg.UnderlyingProperties.AllKeys)
            {
                if (!configurationKey.StartsWith(ConfigurationKeyPrefix) || configurationKey.StartsWith(ConfigurationKeyPrefixServer))
                {
                    // don't bother if truly unknown property
                    continue;
                }

                bool isMatch = false;
                foreach (string supportedKey in supportedKeys)
                {
                    if (configurationKey.StartsWith(supportedKey, StringComparison.InvariantCulture))
                    {
                        isMatch = true;
                        break;
                    }
                }
                if (!isMatch)
                {
                    throw new SchedulerConfigException("Unknown configuration property '" + configurationKey + "'");
                }
            }

        }

 

三.Quartz.NET的基本应用:

    下面提供一些较为通用的任务处理代码:

  1.任务处理帮助类:

    /// <summary>
    /// 任务处理帮助类
    /// </summary>
    public class QuartzHelper
    {
        public QuartzHelper() { }

        public QuartzHelper(string quartzServer, string quartzPort)
        {
            Server = quartzServer;
            Port = quartzPort;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 锁对象
        /// </summary>
        private static readonly object Obj = new object();

        /// <summary>
        /// 方案
        /// </summary>
        private const string Scheme = "tcp";

        /// <summary>
        /// 服务器的地址
        /// </summary>
        public static  string Server { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 服务器的端口
        /// </summary>
        public static  string Port { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 缓存任务所在程序集信息
        /// </summary>
        private static readonly Dictionary<string, Assembly> AssemblyDict = new Dictionary<string, Assembly>();

        /// <summary>
        /// 程序调度
        /// </summary>
        private static IScheduler _scheduler;

        /// <summary>
        /// 初始化任务调度对象
        /// </summary>
        public static void InitScheduler()
        {
            try
            {
                lock (Obj)
                {
                    if (_scheduler != null) return;
                    //配置文件的方式,配置quartz实例
                    ISchedulerFactory schedulerFactory = new StdSchedulerFactory();
                    _scheduler = schedulerFactory.GetScheduler();
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                throw new Exception(ex.Message);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 启用任务调度
        /// 启动调度时会把任务表中状态为“执行中”的任务加入到任务调度队列中
        /// </summary>
        public static void StartScheduler()
        {
            try
            {
                if (_scheduler.IsStarted) return;
                //添加全局监听
                _scheduler.ListenerManager.AddTriggerListener(new CustomTriggerListener(), GroupMatcher<TriggerKey>.AnyGroup());
                _scheduler.Start();

                //获取所有执行中的任务
                List<TaskModel> listTask = TaskHelper.GetAllTaskList().ToList();

                if (listTask.Count > 0)
                {
                    foreach (TaskModel taskUtil in listTask)
                    {
                        try
                        {
                            ScheduleJob(taskUtil);
                        }
                        catch (Exception e)
                        {
                          throw new Exception(taskUtil.TaskName,e);
                        }
                    }
                }              
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
               throw new Exception(ex.Message);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 启用任务
        /// <param name="task">任务信息</param>
        /// <param name="isDeleteOldTask">是否删除原有任务</param>
        /// <returns>返回任务trigger</returns>
        /// </summary>
        public static void ScheduleJob(TaskModel task, bool isDeleteOldTask = false)
        {
            if (isDeleteOldTask)
            {
                //先删除现有已存在任务
                DeleteJob(task.TaskID.ToString());
            }
            //验证是否正确的Cron表达式
            if (ValidExpression(task.CronExpressionString))
            {
                IJobDetail job = new JobDetailImpl(task.TaskID.ToString(), GetClassInfo(task.AssemblyName, task.ClassName));
                //添加任务执行参数
                job.JobDataMap.Add("TaskParam", task.TaskParam);

                CronTriggerImpl trigger = new CronTriggerImpl
                {
                    CronExpressionString = task.CronExpressionString,
                    Name = task.TaskID.ToString(),
                    Description = task.TaskName
                };
                _scheduler.ScheduleJob(job, trigger);
                if (task.Status == TaskStatus.STOP)
                {
                    JobKey jk = new JobKey(task.TaskID.ToString());
                    _scheduler.PauseJob(jk);
                }
                else
                {
                    List<DateTime> list = GetNextFireTime(task.CronExpressionString, 5);
                    foreach (var time in list)
                    {
                        LogHelper.WriteLog(time.ToString(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture));
                    }
                }
            }
            else
            {
                throw new Exception(task.CronExpressionString + "不是正确的Cron表达式,无法启动该任务!");
            }
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// 初始化 远程Quartz服务器中的,各个Scheduler实例。
        /// 提供给远程管理端的后台,用户获取Scheduler实例的信息。
        /// </summary>
        public static void InitRemoteScheduler()
        {
            try
            {
                NameValueCollection properties = new NameValueCollection
                {
                    ["quartz.scheduler.instanceName"] = "ExampleQuartzScheduler",
                    ["quartz.scheduler.proxy"] = "true",
                    ["quartz.scheduler.proxy.address"] =string.Format("{0}://{1}:{2}/QuartzScheduler", Scheme, Server, Port)
                };

                ISchedulerFactory sf = new StdSchedulerFactory(properties);

                _scheduler = sf.GetScheduler();
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
               throw new Exception(ex.StackTrace);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 删除现有任务
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="jobKey"></param>
        public static void DeleteJob(string jobKey)
        {
            try
            {
                JobKey jk = new JobKey(jobKey);
                if (_scheduler.CheckExists(jk))
                {
                    //任务已经存在则删除
                    _scheduler.DeleteJob(jk);
                   
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                throw new Exception(ex.Message);
            }
        }

      

        /// <summary>
        /// 暂停任务
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="jobKey"></param>
        public static void PauseJob(string jobKey)
        {
            try
            {
                JobKey jk = new JobKey(jobKey);
                if (_scheduler.CheckExists(jk))
                {
                    //任务已经存在则暂停任务
                    _scheduler.PauseJob(jk);
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                throw new Exception(ex.Message);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 恢复运行暂停的任务
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="jobKey">任务key</param>
        public static void ResumeJob(string jobKey)
        {
            try
            {
                JobKey jk = new JobKey(jobKey);
                if (_scheduler.CheckExists(jk))
                {
                    //任务已经存在则暂停任务
                    _scheduler.ResumeJob(jk);
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
              throw new Exception(ex.Message);
            }
        }

        /// <summary> 
        /// 获取类的属性、方法  
        /// </summary>  
        /// <param name="assemblyName">程序集</param>  
        /// <param name="className">类名</param>  
        private static Type GetClassInfo(string assemblyName, string className)
        {
            try
            {
                assemblyName = FileHelper.GetAbsolutePath(assemblyName + ".dll");
                Assembly assembly = null;
                if (!AssemblyDict.TryGetValue(assemblyName, out assembly))
                {
                    assembly = Assembly.LoadFrom(assemblyName);
                    AssemblyDict[assemblyName] = assembly;
                }
                Type type = assembly.GetType(className, true, true);
                return type;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                throw new Exception(ex.Message);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 停止任务调度
        /// </summary>
        public static void StopSchedule()
        {
            try
            {
                //判断调度是否已经关闭
                if (!_scheduler.IsShutdown)
                {
                    //等待任务运行完成
                    _scheduler.Shutdown(true);
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
               throw new Exception(ex.Message);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 校验字符串是否为正确的Cron表达式
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="cronExpression">带校验表达式</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static bool ValidExpression(string cronExpression)
        {
            return CronExpression.IsValidExpression(cronExpression);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 获取任务在未来周期内哪些时间会运行
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="CronExpressionString">Cron表达式</param>
        /// <param name="numTimes">运行次数</param>
        /// <returns>运行时间段</returns>
        public static List<DateTime> GetNextFireTime(string CronExpressionString, int numTimes)
        {
            if (numTimes < 0)
            {
                throw new Exception("参数numTimes值大于等于0");
            }
            //时间表达式
            ITrigger trigger = TriggerBuilder.Create().WithCronSchedule(CronExpressionString).Build();
            IList<DateTimeOffset> dates = TriggerUtils.ComputeFireTimes(trigger as IOperableTrigger, null, numTimes);
            List<DateTime> list = new List<DateTime>();
            foreach (DateTimeOffset dtf in dates)
            {
                list.Add(TimeZoneInfo.ConvertTimeFromUtc(dtf.DateTime, TimeZoneInfo.Local));
            }
            return list;
        }


        public static object CurrentTaskList()
        {
            throw new NotImplementedException();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 获取当前执行的Task 对象
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="context"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static TaskModel GetTaskDetail(IJobExecutionContext context)
        {
            TaskModel task = new TaskModel();

            if (context != null)
            {

                task.TaskID = Guid.Parse(context.Trigger.Key.Name);
                task.TaskName = context.Trigger.Description;
                task.RecentRunTime = DateTime.Now;
                task.TaskParam = context.JobDetail.JobDataMap.Get("TaskParam") != null ? context.JobDetail.JobDataMap.Get("TaskParam").ToString() : "";
            }
            return task;
        }
    }

    2.设置执行中的任务:

public class TaskBll
    {
        private readonly TaskDAL _dal = new TaskDAL();

        /// <summary>
        /// 获取任务列表
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="pageIndex"></param>
        /// <param name="pageSize"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public PageOf<TaskModel> GetTaskList(int pageIndex, int pageSize)
        {
            return _dal.GetTaskList(pageIndex, pageSize);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 读取数据库中全部的任务
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public List<TaskModel> GetAllTaskList()
        {
            return _dal.GetAllTaskList();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="taskId"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public TaskModel GetById(string taskId)
        {
            throw new NotImplementedException();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 删除任务
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="taskId"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public bool DeleteById(string taskId)
        {
            return _dal.UpdateTaskStatus(taskId, -1);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 修改任务
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="taskId"></param>
        /// <param name="status"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public bool UpdateTaskStatus(string taskId, int status)
        {
            return _dal.UpdateTaskStatus(taskId, status);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 修改任务的下次启动时间
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="taskId"></param>
        /// <param name="nextFireTime"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public bool UpdateNextFireTime(string taskId, DateTime nextFireTime)
        {
            return _dal.UpdateNextFireTime(taskId, nextFireTime);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 根据任务Id 修改 上次运行时间
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="taskId"></param>
        /// <param name="recentRunTime"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public bool UpdateRecentRunTime(string taskId, DateTime recentRunTime)
        {
            return _dal.UpdateRecentRunTime(taskId, recentRunTime);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 根据任务Id 获取任务
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="taskId"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public TaskModel GetTaskById(string taskId)
        {
            return _dal.GetTaskById(taskId);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 添加任务
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="task"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public bool Add(TaskModel task)
        {
            return _dal.Add(task);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 修改任务
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="task"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public bool Edit(TaskModel task)
        {
            return _dal.Edit(task);
        }
    }

   3.任务实体:

    /// <summary>
    /// 任务实体
    /// </summary>
    public class TaskModel
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 任务ID
        /// </summary>
        public Guid TaskID { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 任务名称
        /// </summary>
        public string TaskName { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 任务执行参数
        /// </summary>
        public string TaskParam { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 运行频率设置
        /// </summary>
        public string CronExpressionString { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 任务运频率中文说明
        /// </summary>
        public string CronRemark { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 任务所在DLL对应的程序集名称
        /// </summary>
        public string AssemblyName { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 任务所在类
        /// </summary>
        public string ClassName { get; set; }

        public TaskStatus Status { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 任务创建时间
        /// </summary>
        public DateTime? CreatedTime { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 任务修改时间
        /// </summary>
        public DateTime? ModifyTime { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 任务最近运行时间
        /// </summary>
        public DateTime? RecentRunTime { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 任务下次运行时间
        /// </summary>
        public DateTime? NextFireTime { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 任务备注
        /// </summary>
        public string Remark { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 是否删除
        /// </summary>
        public int IsDelete { get; set; }
    } 

  4.配置文件:

# You can configure your scheduler in either <quartz> configuration section
# or in quartz properties file
# Configuration section has precedence

quartz.scheduler.instanceName = ExampleQuartzScheduler

# configure thread pool info
quartz.threadPool.type = Quartz.Simpl.SimpleThreadPool, Quartz
quartz.threadPool.threadCount = 10
quartz.threadPool.threadPriority = Normal

# job initialization plugin handles our xml reading, without it defaults are used
# quartz.plugin.xml.type = Quartz.Plugin.Xml.XMLSchedulingDataProcessorPlugin, Quartz
# quartz.plugin.xml.fileNames = ~/quartz_jobs.xml

# export this server to remoting context
quartz.scheduler.exporter.type = Quartz.Simpl.RemotingSchedulerExporter, Quartz
quartz.scheduler.exporter.port = 555
quartz.scheduler.exporter.bindName = QuartzScheduler
quartz.scheduler.exporter.channelType = tcp
quartz.scheduler.exporter.channelName = httpQuartz

四.总结:

     在项目中比较多的使用到定时任务的功能,今天的介绍的组件可以很好的完成一些定时任务的要求。这篇文章主要是作为引子,简单的介绍了组件的背景和组件的使用方式,如果项目中需要使用,可以进行更加深入的了解。

 

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posted @ 2016-12-08 13:34 彭泽0902 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏