用Qemu搭建aarch32学习环境

作者信息

作者: 彭东林

邮箱: pengdonglin137@163.com

QQ: 405728433

软件平台

主机: Ubuntu14.04 64位版本

模拟器:Qemu-2.8.0

Linux内核版本: Linux-4.10

Busybox版本:busybox-1.24.2

工具链: arm-none-linux-gnueabi-gcc  (gcc version 4.8.3 20140320)

具备的功能

模拟一个vexpress 双核或者单核的环境,采用NFS跟Host共享一些文件,为了简单起见,根文件系统使用的是ramdisk格式。

正文

1、编译Qemu模拟器

请参考博文用qemu搭建aarch64学习环境

2、下载工具链

登录这个网址:http://www.veryarm.com/arm-none-linux-gnueabi-gcc

我们这里使用的是最新的Linux解压版:

3、下载编译最新的Linux内核

登录https://www.kernel.org/,   下载最新的Linux版本,目前最新的是Linux-4.10。 

下面是编译下面要用的kernel的命令:

1     #!/bin/bash
2     cross_compile=/home/pengdonglin/qemu/aarch32/arm-2014.05/bin/arm-none-linux-gnueabi-
3     #make CROSS_COMPILE=$cross_compile ARCH=arm O=./out_aarch32 vexpress_defconfig
4     make CROSS_COMPILE=$cross_compile ARCH=arm O=./out_aarch32 menuconfig
5     make CROSS_COMPILE=$cross_compile ARCH=arm O=./out_aarch32 zImage -j4
6     make CROSS_COMPILE=$cross_compile ARCH=arm O=./out_aarch32 dtbs -j4

编译之前可以对kernel进行一下配置

1     Kernel Features  --->
2        Memory split (3G/1G user/kernel split)  --->
3        [*] High Memory Support
4     Device Drivers  --->
5        [*] Block devices  --->
6            <*>   RAM block device support
7            (8192)  Default RAM disk size (kbytes)

这里我们给ramdisk设置的默认大小是8MB,不能比后面我们实际生成的ramdisk.img的size小。

这样就有了我们下面要用到的内核镜像zImage。

4、制作根文件系统

登录https://busybox.net/downloads/下载要用的busybox版本,这里我下的是busybox-1.24.2

要设置的不多:

执行make menuconfig,配置下面几项:

1 Build Options  ---> 
2      [*] Build BusyBox as a static binary (no shared libs)
3     (/home/pengdonglin/qemu/aarch32/arm-2014.05/bin/arm-none-linux-gnueabi-) Cross Compiler prefix 

然后执行make && make install命令

下面制作启动用的ramdisk,我把这个过程写成了脚本,如下:

 1 #!/bin/bash
 2 sudo rm -rf rootfs
 3 sudo rm -rf tmpfs
 4 sudo rm -rf ramdisk*
 5 sudo mkdir rootfs
 6 sudo cp ../busybox-1.24.2/_install/*  rootfs/ -raf
 7 sudo mkdir -p rootfs/proc/
 8 sudo mkdir -p rootfs/sys/
 9 sudo mkdir -p rootfs/tmp/
10 sudo mkdir -p rootfs/root/
11 sudo mkdir -p rootfs/var/
12 sudo mkdir -p rootfs/mnt/
13 sudo cp etc rootfs/ -arf
14 sudo cp -arf ../arm-2014.05/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/libc/lib rootfs/
15 sudo rm -rf rootfs/lib/*.a
16 sudo ../arm-2014.05/bin/arm-none-linux-gnueabi-strip rootfs/lib/*
17 sudo mkdir -p rootfs/dev/
18 sudo mknod rootfs/dev/tty1 c 4 1
19 sudo mknod rootfs/dev/tty2 c 4 2
20 sudo mknod rootfs/dev/tty3 c 4 3
21 sudo mknod rootfs/dev/tty4 c 4 4
22 sudo mknod rootfs/dev/console c 5 1
23 sudo mknod rootfs/dev/null c 1 3
24 sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=ramdisk bs=1M count=8
25 sudo mkfs.ext4 -F ramdisk
26 sudo mkdir -p tmpfs
27 sudo mount -t ext4 ramdisk ./tmpfs/  -o loop
28 sudo cp -raf rootfs/*  tmpfs/
29 sudo umount tmpfs
30 sudo gzip --best -c ramdisk > ramdisk.gz
31 sudo mkimage -n "ramdisk" -A arm -O linux -T ramdisk -C gzip -d ramdisk.gz ramdisk.img

制作ramdisk用到的文件到这里下载。

5、Qemu支持网络

请参考博客:

用Qemu模拟vexpress-a9 --- 配置 qemu 的网络功能

用Qemu模拟vexpress-a9 (三)--- 实现用u-boot引导Linux内核

6、测试

支持网络的启方法:

 1     sudo qemu-system-arm \
 2        -M vexpress-a9 \
 3        -m 1024M \
 4        -smp 2 \
 5        -kernel ./linux-4.10/out_aarch32/arch/arm/boot/zImage \
 6        -nographic \
 7        -append "root=/dev/ram0 rw rootfstype=ext4 console=ttyAMA0 init=/linuxrc ignore_loglevel" \
 8        -initrd ./rootfs/ramdisk.img \
 9        -dtb ./linux-4.10/out_aarch32/arch/arm/boot/dts/vexpress-v2p-ca9.dtb \
10        -net nic,vlan=0 -net tap,vlan=0,ifname=tap0
nfs挂载:
mount -t nfs -o nolock 192.168.1.6:/nfsroot /mnt

下面是启动信息:

    $./run.sh
    sudo tunctl -u root -t tap0
    TUNSETIFF: Device or resource busy
    sudo ifconfig tap0 0.0.0.0 promisc up
    sudo brctl addif br0 tap0
    brctl show
    bridge name bridge id STP enabled interfaces
    br0 8000.eada212d369f no eth0
    tap0
    Booting Linux on physical CPU 0x0
    Linux version 4.10.0 (pengdonglin@pengdonglin-dell) (gcc version 4.8.3 20140320 (prerelease) (Sourcery CodeBench Lite 2014.05-29) ) #9 SMP Sat Feb 25 18:51:59 CST 2017
    CPU: ARMv7 Processor [410fc090] revision 0 (ARMv7), cr=10c5387d
    CPU: PIPT / VIPT nonaliasing data cache, VIPT nonaliasing instruction cache
    OF: fdt:Machine model: V2P-CA9
    debug: ignoring loglevel setting.
    Memory policy: Data cache writealloc
    On node 0 totalpages: 262144
    free_area_init_node: node 0, pgdat c092af80, node_mem_map ef7fa000
     Normal zone: 1536 pages used for memmap
     Normal zone: 0 pages reserved
     Normal zone: 196608 pages, LIFO batch:31
     HighMem zone: 65536 pages, LIFO batch:15
    percpu: Embedded 13 pages/cpu @ef7b9000 s23424 r8192 d21632 u53248
    pcpu-alloc: s23424 r8192 d21632 u53248 alloc=13*4096
    pcpu-alloc: [0] 0 [0] 1 [0] 2 [0] 3
    Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 260608
    Kernel command line: root=/dev/ram0 rw rootfstype=ext4 console=ttyAMA0 init=/linuxrc ignore_loglevel
    log_buf_len individual max cpu contribution: 4096 bytes
    log_buf_len total cpu_extra contributions: 12288 bytes
    log_buf_len min size: 16384 bytes
    log_buf_len: 32768 bytes
    early log buf free: 14860(90%)
    PID hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
    Dentry cache hash table entries: 131072 (order: 7, 524288 bytes)
    Inode-cache hash table entries: 65536 (order: 6, 262144 bytes)
    Memory: 1028136K/1048576K available (5120K kernel code, 174K rwdata, 1224K rodata, 1024K init, 177K bss, 20440K reserved, 0K cma-reserved, 262144K highmem)
    Virtual kernel memory layout:
       vector  : 0xffff0000 - 0xffff1000   (   4 kB)
       fixmap  : 0xffc00000 - 0xfff00000   (3072 kB)
       vmalloc : 0xf0800000 - 0xff800000   ( 240 MB)
       lowmem  : 0xc0000000 - 0xf0000000   ( 768 MB)
       pkmap   : 0xbfe00000 - 0xc0000000   (   2 MB)
       modules : 0xbf000000 - 0xbfe00000   (  14 MB)
         .text : 0xc0008000 - 0xc0600000   (6112 kB)
         .init : 0xc0800000 - 0xc0900000   (1024 kB)
         .data : 0xc0900000 - 0xc092bb80   ( 175 kB)
          .bss : 0xc092d000 - 0xc0959448   ( 178 kB)
    SLUB: HWalign=64, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=4, Nodes=1
    Hierarchical RCU implementation.
    Build-time adjustment of leaf fanout to 32.
    RCU restricting CPUs from NR_CPUS=8 to nr_cpu_ids=4.
    RCU: Adjusting geometry for rcu_fanout_leaf=32, nr_cpu_ids=4
    NR_IRQS:16 nr_irqs:16 16
    L2C: platform modifies aux control register: 0x02020000 -> 0x02420000
    L2C: DT/platform modifies aux control register: 0x02020000 -> 0x02420000
    L2C-310 enabling early BRESP for Cortex-A9
    L2C-310 full line of zeros enabled for Cortex-A9
    L2C-310 dynamic clock gating disabled, standby mode disabled
    L2C-310 cache controller enabled, 8 ways, 128 kB
    L2C-310: CACHE_ID 0x410000c8, AUX_CTRL 0x46420001
    smp_twd: clock not found -2
    sched_clock: 32 bits at 24MHz, resolution 41ns, wraps every 89478484971ns
    clocksource: arm,sp804: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 1911260446275 ns
    Failed to initialize '/smb@04000000/motherboard/iofpga@7,00000000/timer@12000': -22
    Console: colour dummy device 80x30
    Calibrating local timer... 95.23MHz.
    Calibrating delay loop... 746.70 BogoMIPS (lpj=3733504)
    pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
    Mount-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
    Mountpoint-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
    CPU: Testing write buffer coherency: ok
    CPU0: thread -1, cpu 0, socket 0, mpidr 80000000
    Setting up static identity map for 0x60100000 - 0x60100058
    smp: Bringing up secondary CPUs ...
    CPU1: thread -1, cpu 1, socket 0, mpidr 80000001
    CPU2: failed to boot: -38
    CPU3: failed to boot: -38
    smp: Brought up 1 node, 2 CPUs
    SMP: Total of 2 processors activated (1487.66 BogoMIPS).
    CPU: All CPU(s) started in SVC mode.
    devtmpfs: initialized
    VFP support v0.3: implementor 41 architecture 3 part 30 variant 9 rev 0
    clocksource: jiffies: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 19112604462750000 ns
    futex hash table entries: 1024 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
    NET: Registered protocol family 16
    DMA: preallocated 256 KiB pool for atomic coherent allocations
    cpuidle: using governor ladder
    hw-breakpoint: debug architecture 0x4 unsupported.
    Serial: AMBA PL011 UART driver
    OF: amba_device_add() failed (-19) for /memory-controller@100e0000
    OF: amba_device_add() failed (-19) for /memory-controller@100e1000
    OF: amba_device_add() failed (-19) for /watchdog@100e5000
    irq: type mismatch, failed to map hwirq-75 for /interrupt-controller@1e001000!
    10009000.uart: ttyAMA0 at MMIO 0x10009000 (irq = 38, base_baud = 0) is a PL011 rev1
    console [ttyAMA0] enabled
    1000a000.uart: ttyAMA1 at MMIO 0x1000a000 (irq = 39, base_baud = 0) is a PL011 rev1
    1000b000.uart: ttyAMA2 at MMIO 0x1000b000 (irq = 40, base_baud = 0) is a PL011 rev1
    1000c000.uart: ttyAMA3 at MMIO 0x1000c000 (irq = 41, base_baud = 0) is a PL011 rev1
    OF: amba_device_add() failed (-19) for /smb@04000000/motherboard/iofpga@7,00000000/wdt@0f000
    SCSI subsystem initialized
    libata version 3.00 loaded.
    usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
    usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
    usbcore: registered new device driver usb
    Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Driver Initialized.
    clocksource: Switched to clocksource arm,sp804
    NET: Registered protocol family 2
    TCP established hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
    TCP bind hash table entries: 8192 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
    TCP: Hash tables configured (established 8192 bind 8192)
    UDP hash table entries: 512 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
    UDP-Lite hash table entries: 512 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
    NET: Registered protocol family 1
    RPC: Registered named UNIX socket transport module.
    RPC: Registered udp transport module.
    RPC: Registered tcp transport module.
    RPC: Registered tcp NFSv4.1 backchannel transport module.
    Trying to unpack rootfs image as initramfs...
    rootfs image is not initramfs (no cpio magic); looks like an initrd
    Freeing initrd memory: 2528K
    hw perfevents: enabled with armv7_cortex_a9 PMU driver, 1 counters available
    workingset: timestamp_bits=30 max_order=18 bucket_order=0
    squashfs: version 4.0 (2009/01/31) Phillip Lougher
    jffs2: version 2.2. (NAND) © 2001-2006 Red Hat, Inc.
    9p: Installing v9fs 9p2000 file system support
    bounce: pool size: 64 pages
    io scheduler noop registered (default)
    clcd-pl11x 10020000.clcd: PL111 designer 41 rev2 at 0x10020000
    clcd-pl11x 10020000.clcd: /clcd@10020000 hardware, 1024x768@59 display
    Console: switching to colour frame buffer device 128x48
    clcd-pl11x 1001f000.clcd: PL111 designer 41 rev2 at 0x1001f000
    clcd-pl11x 1001f000.clcd: /smb@04000000/motherboard/iofpga@7,00000000/clcd@1f000 hardware, 640x480@59 display
    brd: module loaded
    40000000.flash: Found 2 x16 devices at 0x0 in 32-bit bank. Manufacturer ID 0x000000 Chip ID 0x000000
    Intel/Sharp Extended Query Table at 0x0031
    Using buffer write method
    erase region 0: offset=0x0,size=0x80000,blocks=128
    40000000.flash: Found 2 x16 devices at 0x0 in 32-bit bank. Manufacturer ID 0x000000 Chip ID 0x000000
    Intel/Sharp Extended Query Table at 0x0031
    Using buffer write method
    erase region 0: offset=0x0,size=0x80000,blocks=128
    Concatenating MTD devices:
    (0): "40000000.flash"
    (1): "40000000.flash"
    into device "40000000.flash"
    libphy: Fixed MDIO Bus: probed
    libphy: smsc911x-mdio: probed
    smsc911x 4e000000.ethernet eth0: MAC Address: 52:54:00:12:34:56
    isp1760 4f000000.usb: bus width: 32, oc: digital
    isp1760 4f000000.usb: NXP ISP1760 USB Host Controller
    isp1760 4f000000.usb: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 1
    isp1760 4f000000.usb: Scratch test failed.
    isp1760 4f000000.usb: can't setup: -19
    isp1760 4f000000.usb: USB bus 1 deregistered
    usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
    mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
    rtc-pl031 10017000.rtc: rtc core: registered pl031 as rtc0
    mmci-pl18x 10005000.mmci: Got CD GPIO
    mmci-pl18x 10005000.mmci: Got WP GPIO
    mmci-pl18x 10005000.mmci: mmc0: PL181 manf 41 rev0 at 0x10005000 irq 34,35 (pio)
    ledtrig-cpu: registered to indicate activity on CPUs
    usbcore: registered new interface driver usbhid
    usbhid: USB HID core driver
    input: AT Raw Set 2 keyboard as /devices/platform/smb@04000000/smb@04000000:motherboard/smb@04000000:motherboard:iofpga@7,00000000/10006000.kmi/serio0/input/input0
    aaci-pl041 10004000.aaci: ARM AC'97 Interface PL041 rev0 at 0x10004000, irq 33
    aaci-pl041 10004000.aaci: FIFO 512 entries
    oprofile: using arm/armv7-ca9
    NET: Registered protocol family 17
    9pnet: Installing 9P2000 support
    Registering SWP/SWPB emulation handler
    rtc-pl031 10017000.rtc: setting system clock to 2017-02-25 10:57:49 UTC (1488020269)
    ALSA device list:
     #0: ARM AC'97 Interface PL041 rev0 at 0x10004000, irq 33
    input: ImExPS/2 Generic Explorer Mouse as /devices/platform/smb@04000000/smb@04000000:motherboard/smb@04000000:motherboard:iofpga@7,00000000/10007000.kmi/serio1/input/input2
    RAMDISK: gzip image found at block 0
    EXT4-fs (ram0): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)
    VFS: Mounted root (ext4 filesystem) on device 1:0.
    Freeing unused kernel memory: 1024K
    Generic PHY 4e000000.etherne:01: attached PHY driver [Generic PHY] (mii_bus:phy_addr=4e000000.etherne:01, irq=-1)
    smsc911x 4e000000.ethernet eth0: SMSC911x/921x identified at 0xf1420000, IRQ: 31
    Please press Enter to activate this console.
    [root@vexpress ]#
    [root@vexpress ]#
    [root@vexpress ]# mount -t nfs -o nolock 192.168.1.6:/nfsroot /mnt
    [root@vexpress ]# cd /mnt
    [root@vexpress mnt]# ls
    a.out                    interrupt_gpm4_0.ko      passwd
    dmesg.log                interrupt_xeint14_15.ko  shadow3
    fdt                      interrupt_xeint26_29.ko  trace

完。

posted @ 2017-02-25 19:51  摩斯电码  阅读(1839)  评论(0编辑  收藏