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如何在ASP.NET Core中实现一个基础的身份认证

2016-10-31 13:08  微软一站式示例代码库  阅读(7116)  评论(2编辑  收藏  举报

注:本文提到的代码示例下载地址> How to achieve a basic authorization in ASP.NET Core

如何在ASP.NET Core中实现一个基础的身份认证

ASP.NET终于可以跨平台了,但是不是我们常用的ASP.NET, 而是叫一个ASP.NET Core的新平台,他可以跨Windows, Linux, OS X等平台来部署你的web应用程序,你可以理解为,这个框架就是ASP.NET的下一个版本,相对于传统ASP.NET程序,它还是有一些不同的地方的,比如很多类库在这两个平台之间是不通用的。

 

今天首先我们在ASP.NET Core中来实现一个基础的身份认证,既登陆功能。

 

前期准备:

1.推荐使用 VS 2015 Update3 作为你的IDE,下载地址:www.visualstudio.com

2.你需要安装.NET Core的运行环境以及开发工具,这里提供VS版:www.microsoft.com/net/core

 

创建项目:

在VS中新建项目,项目类型选择ASP.NET Core Web Application (.NET Core), 输入项目名称为TestBasicAuthor。

接下来选择 Web Application, 右侧身份认证选择:No Authentication

 

打开Startup.cs

在ConfigureServices方法中加入如下代码:

services.AddAuthorization(); 

在Configure方法中加入如下代码:

app.UseCookieAuthentication(new CookieAuthenticationOptions 
{ 
    AuthenticationScheme = "Cookie", 
    LoginPath = new PathString("/Account/Login"), 
    AccessDeniedPath = new PathString("/Account/Forbidden"), 
    AutomaticAuthenticate = true, 
    AutomaticChallenge = true 
}); 

完整的代码应该是这样:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services) 
{ 
    services.AddMvc(); 
 
    services.AddAuthorization(); 
} 
 
public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory) 
{ 
    app.UseCookieAuthentication(new CookieAuthenticationOptions 
    { 
        AuthenticationScheme = "Cookie", 
        LoginPath = new PathString("/Account/Login"), 
        AccessDeniedPath = new PathString("/Account/Forbidden"), 
        AutomaticAuthenticate = true, 
        AutomaticChallenge = true 
    }); 
 
    app.UseMvc(routes => 
    { 
        routes.MapRoute( 
             name: "default", 
             template: "{controller=Home}/{action=Index}/{id?}"); 
    }); 
}

你或许会发现贴进去的代码是报错的,这是因为还没有引入对应的包,进入报错的这一行,点击灯泡,加载对应的包就可以了。

在项目下创建一个文件夹命名为Model,并向里面添加一个类User.cs

代码应该是这样

public class User
{
    public string UserName { get; set; }
    public string Password { get; set; }
}

 

创建一个控制器,取名为:AccountController.cs

在类中贴入如下代码:

[HttpGet] 
public IActionResult Login() 
{ 
    return View(); 
} 
 
[HttpPost] 
public async Task<IActionResult> Login(User userFromFore) 
{ 
    var userFromStorage = TestUserStorage.UserList 
        .FirstOrDefault(m => m.UserName == userFromFore.UserName && m.Password == userFromFore.Password); 
 
    if (userFromStorage != null) 
    { 
        //you can add all of ClaimTypes in this collection 
        var claims = new List<Claim>() 
        { 
            new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name,userFromStorage.UserName) 
            //,new Claim(ClaimTypes.Email,"emailaccount@microsoft.com")  
        }; 
 
        //init the identity instances 
        var userPrincipal = new ClaimsPrincipal(new ClaimsIdentity(claims, "SuperSecureLogin")); 
 
        //signin 
        await HttpContext.Authentication.SignInAsync("Cookie", userPrincipal, new AuthenticationProperties 
        { 
            ExpiresUtc = DateTime.UtcNow.AddMinutes(20), 
            IsPersistent = false, 
            AllowRefresh = false 
        }); 
 
        return RedirectToAction("Index", "Home"); 
    } 
    else 
    { 
        ViewBag.ErrMsg = "UserName or Password is invalid"; 
 
        return View(); 
    } 
} 
 
public async Task<IActionResult> Logout() 
{ 
    await HttpContext.Authentication.SignOutAsync("Cookie"); 
 
    return RedirectToAction("Index", "Home"); 
} 

相同的文件里让我们来添加一个模拟用户存储的类

//for simple, I'm not using the database to store the user data, just using a static class to replace it.
public static class TestUserStorage
{
    public static List<User> UserList { get; set; } = new List<User>() {
        new User { UserName = "User1",Password = "112233"}
    };
}

接下来修复好各种引用错误。

完整的代码应该是这样

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using TestBasicAuthor.Model;
using System.Security.Claims;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http.Authentication;

// For more information on enabling MVC for empty projects, visit http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=397860

namespace TestBasicAuthor.Controllers
{
    public class AccountController : Controller
    {
        [HttpGet]
        public IActionResult Login()
        {
            return View();
        }

        [HttpPost]
        public async Task<IActionResult> Login(User userFromFore)
        {
            var userFromStorage = TestUserStorage.UserList
                .FirstOrDefault(m => m.UserName == userFromFore.UserName && m.Password == userFromFore.Password);

            if (userFromStorage != null)
            {
                //you can add all of ClaimTypes in this collection 
                var claims = new List<Claim>()
                {
                    new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name,userFromStorage.UserName) 
                    //,new Claim(ClaimTypes.Email,"emailaccount@microsoft.com")  
                };

                //init the identity instances 
                var userPrincipal = new ClaimsPrincipal(new ClaimsIdentity(claims, "SuperSecureLogin"));

                //signin 
                await HttpContext.Authentication.SignInAsync("Cookie", userPrincipal, new AuthenticationProperties
                {
                    ExpiresUtc = DateTime.UtcNow.AddMinutes(20),
                    IsPersistent = false,
                    AllowRefresh = false
                });

                return RedirectToAction("Index", "Home");
            }
            else
            {
                ViewBag.ErrMsg = "UserName or Password is invalid";

                return View();
            }
        }

        public async Task<IActionResult> Logout()
        {
            await HttpContext.Authentication.SignOutAsync("Cookie");

            return RedirectToAction("Index", "Home");
        }
    }

    //for simple, I'm not using the database to store the user data, just using a static class to replace it.
    public static class TestUserStorage
    {
        public static List<User> UserList { get; set; } = new List<User>() {
        new User { UserName = "User1",Password = "112233"}
    };
    }
}

在Views文件夹中创建一个Account文件夹,在Account文件夹中创建一个名位index.cshtml的View文件。

贴入如下代码:

@model TestBasicAuthor.Model.User


<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
    <title></title>
</head>
<body>
    @using (Html.BeginForm())
    {
        <table>
            <tr>
                <td></td>
                <td>@ViewBag.ErrMsg</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>UserName</td>
                <td>@Html.TextBoxFor(m => m.UserName)</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td>Password</td>
                <td>@Html.PasswordFor(m => m.Password)</td>
            </tr>
            <tr>
                <td></td>
                <td><button>Login</button></td>
            </tr>
        </table>
    }
</body>
</html>

打开HomeController.cs

添加一个Action, AuthPage.

[Authorize]
[HttpGet]
public IActionResult AuthPage()
{
    return View();
}

在Views/Home下添加一个视图,名为AuthPage.cshtml

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
    <title></title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>Auth page</h1>

    <p>if you are not authorized, you can't visit this page.</p>
</body>
</html>

到此,一个基础的身份认证就完成了,核心登陆方法如下:

await HttpContext.Authentication.SignInAsync("Cookie", userPrincipal, new AuthenticationProperties
{
    ExpiresUtc = DateTime.UtcNow.AddMinutes(20),
    IsPersistent = false,
    AllowRefresh = false
});

启用验证如下:

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env, ILoggerFactory loggerFactory)
{
    app.UseCookieAuthentication(new CookieAuthenticationOptions
    {
        AuthenticationScheme = "Cookie",
        LoginPath = new PathString("/Account/Login"),
        AccessDeniedPath = new PathString("/Account/Forbidden"),
        AutomaticAuthenticate = true,
        AutomaticChallenge = true
    });
}

在某个Controller或Action添加[Author],即可配置位需要登陆验证的页面。

 

最后:如何运行这个Sample以及下载完整的代码请访问:How to achieve a basic authorization in ASP.NET Core

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