Linux分区命令parted的用法

linux分区命令parted的用法

parted的适用场景

  • 创建操作大于2T的分区
    一般情况下,我们都是选择使用fdisk工具来进行分区,但是目前在实际生产环境中使用的磁盘空间越来越大,呈TiB级别增长;而常用的fdisk这个工具对分区是有大小限制的,它只能划分小于2T的磁盘,所以在划大于2T磁盘分区的时候fdisk就无法满足要求了;这个时候有2个方法,其一是通过卷管理来实现,其二就是通过parted工具来实现对GPT磁盘进行分区操作;这里我们采用parted的方法来实现管理。

parted的2种使用方式

  • 交互式
    手动按序交互式的创建;

  • 非交互式
    可将命令行写在脚本中,运行脚本实现一键创建;适用于远程批量管理多台主机的场景。

  • 两种方式比较
    两种方法的使用和原理其实是一样的;要想实现非交互式创建,无非是在每一个具体的交互式命令前加上parted DEVICES_NAME即可。

  • Parted命令相关参数

    root@simon:~# > parted --help
    Usage: parted [OPTION]... [DEVICE [COMMAND [PARAMETERS]...]...]
    Apply COMMANDs with PARAMETERS to DEVICE.  If no COMMAND(s) are given, run in
    interactive mode.
    
    OPTIONs:
      -h, --help                      displays this help message
      -l, --list                      lists partition layout on all block devices
      -m, --machine                   displays machine parseable output
      -s, --script                    never prompts for user intervention
      -v, --version                   displays the version
      -a, --align=[none|cyl|min|opt]  alignment for new partitions
    
    COMMANDs:
      align-check TYPE N                        check partition N for TYPE(min|opt)
            alignment
      help [COMMAND]                           print general help, or help on
            COMMAND
      mklabel,mktable LABEL-TYPE               create a new disklabel (partition
            table)
      mkpart PART-TYPE [FS-TYPE] START END     make a partition
      name NUMBER NAME                         name partition NUMBER as NAME
      print [devices|free|list,all|NUMBER]     display the partition table,
            available devices, free space, all found partitions, or a particular
            partition
      quit                                     exit program
      rescue START END                         rescue a lost partition near START
            and END
      
      resizepart NUMBER END                    resize partition NUMBER
      rm NUMBER                                delete partition NUMBER
      select DEVICE                            choose the device to edit
      disk_set FLAG STATE                      change the FLAG on selected device
      disk_toggle [FLAG]                       toggle the state of FLAG on selected
            device
      set NUMBER FLAG STATE                    change the FLAG on partition NUMBER
      toggle [NUMBER [FLAG]]                   toggle the state of FLAG on partition
            NUMBER
      unit UNIT                                set the default unit to UNIT
      version                                  display the version number and
            copyright information of GNU Parted
    
    Report bugs to bug-parted@gnu.org
    

parted实现分区管理实践

实验环境

操作系统

CentOS 7.5

磁盘信息

  • 待管理磁盘
    /dev/sdb
  • 磁盘总大小
    18T
  • 分区需求
    将整个/dev/sdb划分到同一个分区里,并挂载到**/gfsdata01目录下。

交互式方式实现分区步骤

选择操作磁盘

parted命令后跟上欲操作磁盘的名字即可选择此设备进行操作。

[root@kvm ~]# parted /dev/sdb
GNU Parted 3.1
Using /dev/sdb
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.

新建磁盘标签类型为GPT

因为parted命令只能针对gpt格式的磁盘进行操作,所以这里必须将新建的磁盘标签格式设为gpt。

(parted) mklabel gpt

分区

命令格式

mkpart PART-TYPE [FS-TYPE] START END
  • PART-TYPE(分区类型)

    • primary
      主分区
    • logical
      逻辑分区
    • extended
      扩展分区
  • FS-TYPE(文件系统类型)

    • ext4
    • ext3
    • ext2
    • xfs
    • 其他......
  • START

    设定磁盘分区起始点;可以为0,numberMiB/GiB/TiB;

    • 0
      设定当前分区的起始点为磁盘的第一个扇区;
    • 1G
      设定当前分区的起始点为磁盘的1G处开始;
  • END

    设定磁盘分区结束点;

    • -1
      设定当前分区的结束点为磁盘的最后一个扇区;
    • 10G
      设定当前分区的结束点为磁盘的10G处;

将/dev/sdb整个空间分给同一个分区

(parted) mkpart primary 0 -1                                              
Warning: The resulting partition is not properly aligned for best performance.
Ignore/Cancel? I
(parted) p                                                                
Model: AVAGO AVAGO (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 18.0TB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name     Flags
 1      17.4kB  18.0TB  18.0TB               primary
(parted) q                                                                
Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.

格式化分区

因为整个/dev/sdb只分了一个区,则这个分区名默认会分配为/dev/sdb1;使用mkfs命令将/dev/sdb1分区格式化为ext4

[root@kvm ~]# mkfs -t ext4 /dev/sdb1                 
mke2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)
/dev/sdb1 alignment is offset by 244736 bytes.
This may result in very poor performance, (re)-partitioning suggested.
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=64 blocks, Stripe width=64 blocks
274659328 inodes, 4394530311 blocks
219726515 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
134111 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
2048 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 
        4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872, 71663616, 78675968, 
        102400000, 214990848, 512000000, 550731776, 644972544, 1934917632, 
        2560000000, 3855122432

Allocating group tables: done
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

设定分区label(非必要)

[root@kvm ~]# e2label /dev/sdb1 /gfsdata01

创建挂载目录

[root@kvm ~]# mkdir /gfsdata01

临时挂载分区

[root@kvm ~]# mount /dev/sdb1 /gfsdata01
[root@kvm ~]# df -h
Filesystem                   Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/root_vg-lv_root   89G  2.6G   82G   4% /
devtmpfs                     126G     0  126G   0% /dev
tmpfs                        126G     0  126G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                        126G  2.0M  126G   1% /run
tmpfs                        126G     0  126G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1                    976M  216M  694M  24% /boot
/dev/sda7                     99G   61M   94G   1% /home
/dev/sda8                     62G   53M   59G   1% /tmp
/dev/sda6                     99G   61M   94G   1% /app
tmpfs                         26G     0   26G   0% /run/user/1014
tmpfs                         26G     0   26G   0% /run/user/0
/dev/sdb1                     17T   20K   16T   1% /gfsdata01

开机自动挂载(永久挂载)

即修改/etc/fstab文件。

echo '/dev/sdb1 /gfsdata01    ext4    defaults    0 0' >>/etc/fstab

非交互式方式实现脚本

适用于需要在多台主机上进行同样的分区操作,可以通过ansible工具调用脚本实现批量分区配置挂载等操作。

[root@kvm ~]# cat ./auto_partition.sh 
#!/usr/bin/env bash  
#Used to fomat 6 disks

disk_to_parted="$1"
if [ $# == 0 ];then
    echo "no disk to parted,example /dev/sdb"
    exit
else
    echo -e "\n\n****** ${disk_to_parted} __was Fdisked! Waiting For 3 Second*****\n\n"
fi
/sbin/parted ${disk_to_parted} <<ESXU
     mklabel gpt
     mkpart primary 0 -1
     ignore
     quit
ESXU
sleep 3s
/sbin/mkfs.xfs ${disk_to_parted}1
if [ "$?" = "0" ];then
   echo -e "\n\n*****${disk_to_parted}1 _________________was Formated, Waiting For 1 Second****\n\n"
fi
/sbin/blkid ${disk_to_parted}1
sleep 1s

parted的其他常用子命令

删除分区(rm子命令)

rm NUMBERNUMBER即为parted子命令p回显的Number对应的数字;
此命令慎用!!!如果要删除的分区内已有数据,那么此命令会删除其中的所有数据,并且是不可逆的。

(parted) p                                                                
Model: AVAGO AVAGO (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 18.0TB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name     Flags
 1      17.4kB  4096GB  4096GB               primary

(parted) rm 1                                                             
(parted) p                                                                
Model: AVAGO AVAGO (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 18.0TB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start  End  Size  File system  Name  Flags

(parted)
posted @ 2022-12-25 17:01  oldSimon  阅读(526)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报