通过java.net.URLConnection发送HTTP请求的方法

如何通过Java发送HTTP请求,通俗点讲,如何通过Java(模拟浏览器)发送HTTP请求。

Java有原生的API可用于发送HTTP请求,即java.net.URL、java.net.URLConnection,这些API很好用、很常用,但不够简便;

所以,也流行有许多Java HTTP请求的framework,如,Apache的HttpClient。

目前项目主要用到Java原生的方式,所以,这里主要介绍此方式。

 

运用原生Java Api发送简单的Get请求、Post请求

HTTP请求粗分为两种,一种是GET请求,一种是POST请求。(详细的请见:Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1 - Method Definitions

使用Java发送这两种请求的代码大同小异,只是一些参数设置的不同。步骤如下:

  1. 通过统一资源定位器(java.net.URL)获取连接器(java.net.URLConnection)
  2. 设置请求的参数
  3. 发送请求
  4. 以输入流的形式获取返回内容
  5. 关闭输入流

 

简单的Get请求示例如下:

package com.nicchagil.httprequestdemo;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.net.URL;
import java.net.URLConnection;

public class HttpGetRequest {

    /**
     * Main
     * @param args
     * @throws Exception 
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        System.out.println(doGet());
    }
    
    /**
     * Get Request
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static String doGet() throws Exception {
        URL localURL = new URL("http://localhost:8080/OneHttpServer/");
        URLConnection connection = localURL.openConnection();
        HttpURLConnection httpURLConnection = (HttpURLConnection)connection;
        
        httpURLConnection.setRequestProperty("Accept-Charset", "utf-8");
        httpURLConnection.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
        
        InputStream inputStream = null;
        InputStreamReader inputStreamReader = null;
        BufferedReader reader = null;
        StringBuffer resultBuffer = new StringBuffer();
        String tempLine = null;
        
        if (httpURLConnection.getResponseCode() >= 300) {
            throw new Exception("HTTP Request is not success, Response code is " + httpURLConnection.getResponseCode());
        }
        
        try {
            inputStream = httpURLConnection.getInputStream();
            inputStreamReader = new InputStreamReader(inputStream);
            reader = new BufferedReader(inputStreamReader);
            
            while ((tempLine = reader.readLine()) != null) {
                resultBuffer.append(tempLine);
            }
            
        } finally {
            
            if (reader != null) {
                reader.close();
            }
            
            if (inputStreamReader != null) {
                inputStreamReader.close();
            }
            
            if (inputStream != null) {
                inputStream.close();
            }
            
        }
        
        return resultBuffer.toString();
    }
    
}
HttpGetRequest

 

简单的Post请求示例如下:

package com.nicchagil.httprequestdemo;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.net.URL;
import java.net.URLConnection;

public class HttpPostRequest {

    /**
     * Main
     * @param args
     * @throws Exception 
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        System.out.println(doPost());
    }
    
    /**
     * Post Request
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static String doPost() throws Exception {
        String parameterData = "username=nickhuang&blog=http://www.cnblogs.com/nick-huang/";
        
        URL localURL = new URL("http://localhost:8080/OneHttpServer/");
        URLConnection connection = localURL.openConnection();
        HttpURLConnection httpURLConnection = (HttpURLConnection)connection;
        
        httpURLConnection.setDoOutput(true);
        httpURLConnection.setRequestMethod("POST");
        httpURLConnection.setRequestProperty("Accept-Charset", "utf-8");
        httpURLConnection.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
        httpURLConnection.setRequestProperty("Content-Length", String.valueOf(parameterData.length()));
        
        OutputStream outputStream = null;
        OutputStreamWriter outputStreamWriter = null;
        InputStream inputStream = null;
        InputStreamReader inputStreamReader = null;
        BufferedReader reader = null;
        StringBuffer resultBuffer = new StringBuffer();
        String tempLine = null;
        
        try {
            outputStream = httpURLConnection.getOutputStream();
            outputStreamWriter = new OutputStreamWriter(outputStream);
            
            outputStreamWriter.write(parameterData.toString());
            outputStreamWriter.flush();
            
            if (httpURLConnection.getResponseCode() >= 300) {
                throw new Exception("HTTP Request is not success, Response code is " + httpURLConnection.getResponseCode());
            }
            
            inputStream = httpURLConnection.getInputStream();
            inputStreamReader = new InputStreamReader(inputStream);
            reader = new BufferedReader(inputStreamReader);
            
            while ((tempLine = reader.readLine()) != null) {
                resultBuffer.append(tempLine);
            }
            
        } finally {
            
            if (outputStreamWriter != null) {
                outputStreamWriter.close();
            }
            
            if (outputStream != null) {
                outputStream.close();
            }
            
            if (reader != null) {
                reader.close();
            }
            
            if (inputStreamReader != null) {
                inputStreamReader.close();
            }
            
            if (inputStream != null) {
                inputStream.close();
            }
            
        }

        return resultBuffer.toString();
    }

}
HttpPostRequest

 

简单封装

如果项目中有多处地方使用HTTP请求,我们适当对其进行封装,

  • 可以大大减少代码量(不需每次都写一大段原生的请求Source code)
  • 也可以使配置更灵活、方便(全局设置一些项目特有的配置,比如已商榷的time out时间、已确定的Proxy Server,避免以后改动繁琐)

 

以下简单封装成HttpRequestor,以便使用:

package com.nicchagil.util.httprequestor;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.net.InetSocketAddress;
import java.net.Proxy;
import java.net.URL;
import java.net.URLConnection;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Map;


public class HttpRequestor {
    
    private String charset = "utf-8";
    private Integer connectTimeout = null;
    private Integer socketTimeout = null;
    private String proxyHost = null;
    private Integer proxyPort = null;
    
    /**
     * Do GET request
     * @param url
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     * @throws IOException
     */
    public String doGet(String url) throws Exception {
        
        URL localURL = new URL(url);
        
        URLConnection connection = openConnection(localURL);
        HttpURLConnection httpURLConnection = (HttpURLConnection)connection;
        
        httpURLConnection.setRequestProperty("Accept-Charset", charset);
        httpURLConnection.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
        
        InputStream inputStream = null;
        InputStreamReader inputStreamReader = null;
        BufferedReader reader = null;
        StringBuffer resultBuffer = new StringBuffer();
        String tempLine = null;
        
        if (httpURLConnection.getResponseCode() >= 300) {
            throw new Exception("HTTP Request is not success, Response code is " + httpURLConnection.getResponseCode());
        }
        
        try {
            inputStream = httpURLConnection.getInputStream();
            inputStreamReader = new InputStreamReader(inputStream);
            reader = new BufferedReader(inputStreamReader);
            
            while ((tempLine = reader.readLine()) != null) {
                resultBuffer.append(tempLine);
            }
            
        } finally {
            
            if (reader != null) {
                reader.close();
            }
            
            if (inputStreamReader != null) {
                inputStreamReader.close();
            }
            
            if (inputStream != null) {
                inputStream.close();
            }
            
        }

        return resultBuffer.toString();
    }
    
    /**
     * Do POST request
     * @param url
     * @param parameterMap
     * @return
     * @throws Exception 
     */
    public String doPost(String url, Map parameterMap) throws Exception {
        
        /* Translate parameter map to parameter date string */
        StringBuffer parameterBuffer = new StringBuffer();
        if (parameterMap != null) {
            Iterator iterator = parameterMap.keySet().iterator();
            String key = null;
            String value = null;
            while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                key = (String)iterator.next();
                if (parameterMap.get(key) != null) {
                    value = (String)parameterMap.get(key);
                } else {
                    value = "";
                }
                
                parameterBuffer.append(key).append("=").append(value);
                if (iterator.hasNext()) {
                    parameterBuffer.append("&");
                }
            }
        }
        
        System.out.println("POST parameter : " + parameterBuffer.toString());
        
        URL localURL = new URL(url);
        
        URLConnection connection = openConnection(localURL);
        HttpURLConnection httpURLConnection = (HttpURLConnection)connection;
        
        httpURLConnection.setDoOutput(true);
        httpURLConnection.setRequestMethod("POST");
        httpURLConnection.setRequestProperty("Accept-Charset", charset);
        httpURLConnection.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
        httpURLConnection.setRequestProperty("Content-Length", String.valueOf(parameterBuffer.length()));
        
        OutputStream outputStream = null;
        OutputStreamWriter outputStreamWriter = null;
        InputStream inputStream = null;
        InputStreamReader inputStreamReader = null;
        BufferedReader reader = null;
        StringBuffer resultBuffer = new StringBuffer();
        String tempLine = null;
        
        try {
            outputStream = httpURLConnection.getOutputStream();
            outputStreamWriter = new OutputStreamWriter(outputStream);
            
            outputStreamWriter.write(parameterBuffer.toString());
            outputStreamWriter.flush();
            
            if (httpURLConnection.getResponseCode() >= 300) {
                throw new Exception("HTTP Request is not success, Response code is " + httpURLConnection.getResponseCode());
            }
            
            inputStream = httpURLConnection.getInputStream();
            inputStreamReader = new InputStreamReader(inputStream);
            reader = new BufferedReader(inputStreamReader);
            
            while ((tempLine = reader.readLine()) != null) {
                resultBuffer.append(tempLine);
            }
            
        } finally {
            
            if (outputStreamWriter != null) {
                outputStreamWriter.close();
            }
            
            if (outputStream != null) {
                outputStream.close();
            }
            
            if (reader != null) {
                reader.close();
            }
            
            if (inputStreamReader != null) {
                inputStreamReader.close();
            }
            
            if (inputStream != null) {
                inputStream.close();
            }
            
        }

        return resultBuffer.toString();
    }

    private URLConnection openConnection(URL localURL) throws IOException {
        URLConnection connection;
        if (proxyHost != null && proxyPort != null) {
            Proxy proxy = new Proxy(Proxy.Type.HTTP, new InetSocketAddress(proxyHost, proxyPort));
            connection = localURL.openConnection(proxy);
        } else {
            connection = localURL.openConnection();
        }
        return connection;
    }
    
    /**
     * Render request according setting
     * @param request
     */
    private void renderRequest(URLConnection connection) {
        
        if (connectTimeout != null) {
            connection.setConnectTimeout(connectTimeout);
        }
        
        if (socketTimeout != null) {
            connection.setReadTimeout(socketTimeout);
        }
        
    }

    /*
     * Getter & Setter
     */
    public Integer getConnectTimeout() {
        return connectTimeout;
    }

    public void setConnectTimeout(Integer connectTimeout) {
        this.connectTimeout = connectTimeout;
    }

    public Integer getSocketTimeout() {
        return socketTimeout;
    }

    public void setSocketTimeout(Integer socketTimeout) {
        this.socketTimeout = socketTimeout;
    }

    public String getProxyHost() {
        return proxyHost;
    }

    public void setProxyHost(String proxyHost) {
        this.proxyHost = proxyHost;
    }

    public Integer getProxyPort() {
        return proxyPort;
    }

    public void setProxyPort(Integer proxyPort) {
        this.proxyPort = proxyPort;
    }

    public String getCharset() {
        return charset;
    }

    public void setCharset(String charset) {
        this.charset = charset;
    }
    
}
HttpRequestor

   

写一个调用的测试类:

package com.nicchagil.util.httprequestor;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

public class Call {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        
        /* Post Request */
        Map dataMap = new HashMap();
        dataMap.put("username", "Nick Huang");
        dataMap.put("blog", "IT");
        System.out.println(new HttpRequestor().doPost("http://localhost:8080/OneHttpServer/", dataMap));
        
        /* Get Request */
        System.out.println(new HttpRequestor().doGet("http://localhost:8080/OneHttpServer/"));
    }

}
Call

 

OK,完成!!

 

简单测试

以上的请求地址都是http://localhost:8080/OneHttpServer/

这是自己的一个用于测试的Web Application,就一个简单的Servlet和web.xml。毕竟需要测试请求参数是否能正常接收,处理超时的情况。

LoginServlet

import java.io.IOException;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

public class LoginServlet extends HttpServlet {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
       
    public LoginServlet() {
        super();
    }

    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
        this.doPost(request, response);
    }

    protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
        String username = request.getParameter("username");
        String blog = request.getParameter("blog");
        
        System.out.println(username);
        System.out.println(blog);
        
        response.setContentType("text/plain; charset=UTF-8");
        response.setCharacterEncoding("UTF-8");
        response.getWriter().write("It is ok!");
    }

}
LoginServlet

 

web.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee" xmlns:web="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd" id="WebApp_ID" version="2.5">
  <display-name>OneHttpServer</display-name>
  <welcome-file-list>
    <welcome-file>LoginServlet</welcome-file>
  </welcome-file-list>
  
  <servlet>
    <description></description>
    <display-name>LoginServlet</display-name>
    <servlet-name>LoginServlet</servlet-name>
    <servlet-class>LoginServlet</servlet-class>
  </servlet>
  <servlet-mapping>
    <servlet-name>LoginServlet</servlet-name>
    <url-pattern>/LoginServlet</url-pattern>
  </servlet-mapping>
  
</web-app>
web.xml

 

 

 

posted @ 2014-07-28 11:16 nick_huang 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏