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美国发音规则
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1.前词的词尾辅音与后词的词首元音相拼,如look out

2.前词的词尾与后词的词首都是元音或福音,则有时它们会互相影响,发生失爆,省音,加音等词音变化。

1)英音中,在以字母r结尾的单词,r不发音,但在后词的词首元音发生连读时发音,读/r/,如far away。而美音中,无论是连读还是不连读,字母通常都会发音,类似汉语的儿化音。只不过与儿化音相比,美音中的/r/舌头全部卷曲,而汉语一般只卷起舌尖。

2.在同一意群内,如果前词的词尾和后词的词首都是元音,口语中为了发音方便,有些情况下,两个元音中间会有一个微弱的加音。这些加音主要为/r/和半元音/w//j/。需要注意的是这些加音非常微弱,所以不用特意来读,它是口语中自然产生的效果。

a.外加音/j/。若前词以/i//i:/结尾,后词词首为元音,则两词连读时,两个元音中间会加一个轻微的/j/来过渡(因为/j/音的发音方式和/i/近似,都为舌部向上颚抬起),如copy it /'kopijit/.

b.外加音/w/。如果前词的词尾是/u//u:/,后词词首是元音,两词连读时,两个元音中间会产生一个轻微的/w/(因为/w/音的发音方式和/u/近似,都为舌部后缩,舌后抬起,嘴突出),如too easy /tu:'wi:zi/

c.外加音/r/。如果前词以/e/,后词以//起始,为了发音的方便,在美国东北部一些地方,会在两个//之间加上微弱的/r/来连接,如idea of it读为/ai’dierevit/.

3)在同一意群内,如果前词的词尾和后词的词首都为辅音,则在有些情况下会发生省音。

a.同音合并。在口语中,当前词的词尾辅音于与后词的词首福音相同,则常只读一个音,该音相对延长,如a fine name,则只读一个较长的/n/,省去一个/n/.

b.省音。如果前词以“辅音+/t//d/”结尾,后词以辅音开头,/t//d/常在口语中省去,如eas(t ) coast ,省去/t/。但当后一个词的词首为/w//j//h//r/时,/t//d/常不省去,如east wind last year;或当前词词尾为/nt//lt//rt//rd/时,/t//d/也常不省去,如bird cage.

4)当两个爆破音相遇时,前一个爆破音常失去爆破,即实际上不发音,只有一个发音动作,所以听起来会有略微的停顿而没有将音发出。如a big bag/g/失去爆破,也成为完全失爆。如果爆破音后为摩擦音,(/szfvθЗ/)、破擦音(/t∫trdr/)以及鼻音(/m,n/)时,也会有轻微的失爆现象,称为不完全失爆。这种现象可以简单记忆为“爆爆失爆”,“爆擦失爆”等。(爆破音:/p//b//t//d//k//g/)。

失爆现象可以发生在单词内部,也可以发生在词与词之间。

口语中的音变

1.       音的浊化。口语中有些清辅音受前,后音影响吐气变弱,发生浊化,即听起来近似与其对应的浊辅音,如speak/spi:k/的实际读音近似于/sbi:k/。与浊辅音相比较,浊化音的声带不振动,所以读音显得比浊辅音轻。

a.       辅音/s/后的清辅音常有浊化现象。如speed/spi:d/中的/p/浊化,所以听起来该词读音近于/sbi:d/。这种浊化主要表现在清辅音/p//t//k//tr/上。该现象不仅出现在一个词内部,也出现在连读中。

b.      如果浊辅音/t/在非重读音节中,且前后都是元音时,则该辅音常会浊化,读音近似于浊辅音/d/,如better/ ‘betэ/在实际读音中近似于/’bed эr/;当/t/前为浊辅音,如卷舌音/r/时也会有这种浊化现象。这种现象不仅出现在一个词内部,也出现在连读中。该浊化现象主要出现在美语中。

2.       音的清化。口语中,一些浊辅音受后面清辅音的影响,会清化为相对应的清辅音,比较常见的时have tohas to

a.       have to /’havtu/ -> hafta /haftэ/

b.      has to /’haztu/ -> hasta /hastэ/

3.       音的同化。在比较快的语速中,前音受后音的影响常会发生语音变化,或前后音同时变化,称为音的同化。如would you /wudju/会同化为/wud З u/.

a.       /s//z/遇到/∫/时常会被同化为/∫/,两个/∫/相遇,一般读一个,如this shop /’δis ∫op/同化为/’δi (∫)∫op/

b.      辅音/s//z//t//d/遇到半元音/j/时,两个音常会融合在一起产生第三个音,即融合同化,具体为:/s//j/同化为/∫//z//j/同化为/ З //t//j/同化为/t∫//d//j/同化为/d З /

c.       鼻音的同化。口语中,鼻辅音/n/后若为/p//m/时,/n/常会被同化为/m/;鼻辅音/n/后若为/k//g//n/常会被同化为/N/。这种语音变化受发音不为的影响,因为/m//p/发音时都为双唇闭拢,所以/n/受后音/p//m/的影响,音变为/m/,而/k,g//N/的舌位相同,都为舌后部上抬,所以/n//k,g/影响,舌后部上台,音变为/N/,如inkfinger,也是这个道理,只不过这种变化已成为固定读音了。

常见虚词的弱化

英语中的一些虚词,如aanatofforand等在读音中有强读和弱读之分。一般他们单独出现或出现在句子首、末时常强度,在句中出现时多弱读。如jack and mary中,and/Qnd/会弱读为/«n/,并与Jack连读,所以短语读为/’dZQk«n ‘mEri/.

1.       a/an的弱化

                                        强读                                                      弱读

a                                      /ei/                                                        /«/

an                                   /Qn/                                                      /«n/

2.       for的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

for                                          /fo:r/                                                     /f«r,fr/

3.       from的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

from                                      /from/                                                  /fr«m/

4.       at的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

at                                            /Qt/                                                       /«t/

5.       of的弱化(口语中,如果of后面的词以元音开始,of常弱读为/«v /,并与后词的词首元音连读,如后词的词首为辅音,of常弱读为/«v//«/

                                                强读                                                      弱读

of                                            /ov/                                                       /«v/,/«/

6.       kind of, a couple of, lots of, a lot of, sort of, out of的弱化。口语中,一些于of搭配的短语在美国口语中常有以下弱化现象,在这些弱化中,of弱化为/«/

kind of – kinda/’kaind« /

a couple of – a coupla /«’k¢pl«/

lots of – lotsa /’lots «/

a lot of – a lotta / «'lod«/

sort of – sorta /’so:rd«/

out of –outta /’aud«/

7.       to的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

to                                            /tu:/                                                      /tu/(元音前),/t«/(辅音前)

8.       used toought tosupposed togot to的弱化。口语中,一些与to的固定搭配常有以下弱化。

used to – usta /’ju:sd«/

ought to – otta /’od«/

supposed to – supposta /s«'p«uzt«/

got to – gotta /’god «/ (这个用法的原型为have got to,在口语中的演变为:have got to – got to – gotta /’god «/

9.       and的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

and                                        /Qnd/                                                   /«nd, «n,n/

10.   but的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

but                                         /b¢t/                                                     /b«t/

11.   or的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

or                                            /o:r/                                                      /«r/

12.   than的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

than                                       /δaen/                                                  /δ«n,n,n/

13.   as的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

as                                            /aez/                                                     /«z/

代词的弱化

英语口语中,当人称代词不在句首或没有被强调时常弱读。弱读形式多为:省去词首辅音;长元音弱读为短元音或元音/«/。如he his him her等代词中,词首辅音/h/在口语中常被省去不读,剩下的元音与前词的词尾辅音连读;如kiss him常会读为/’kisim/;而them, their在句中弱读时,常省去词首的辅音/δ/

1.       he的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

he                                           /hi:/                                                       /hi,i(不用于句首)/

2.       his的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

his                                          /hiz/                                                      /iz(不用于句首)/

3.       him的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

him                                        /him/                                                    /im/

4.       her的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

her                                         /h«:r/                                                    /h«,«r(不用于句首)/

5.       them的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

them                                     /δem/                                                   /δ«m,«m/

6.       me的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

me                                         /mi:/                                                      /mi/

7.       us的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

us                                           /As/                                                       /«s/

8.       youyouryours的弱化与音变。在语速比较快的口语中,youyouryours不被特殊强调时,发生下面的弱读。

you – ya /j«//j/

you’re – yer /j«r/

your’re – yer / j«r/

yours – yers /j«rz/

情态动词,助动词的弱化

1.       can的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

can                                         /kaen/                                                  /k«n,kn/

2.       美语中,can’t/kaent/,而词尾的/t/又常失去爆破,因此听起来像/kaen/,但是如果我们听到的比较重的/kaen/且有轻微的停顿,则可以判断为can ‘t,若是读音轻的/k«n/,则为can

3.       Willwould的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

will                                         /will/                                                     /w«l,«l,l//«l,l/不用于句首、末)

would                                   /wud/                                                   /w«d,«d,d/«d,d/不用于句首、末)

4.       shallshould的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

shall                                       /∫ael/                                                    /∫«l,l,l/

should                                  /∫ud/                                                     /∫«d,d,d/

5.       havehashad的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

have                                      /haev/                                                  /h«v,«v,«,v()常在元音后/

has                                         /haez/                                                  /h«z,«z(在/s,z, ∫,t∫,dЗ/后),s(在/p,t,k,f,θ/后),z(其他情况)/

had                                        /haed/                                                  /h«d,«d,d(常在元音后)/

6.       shouldcouldwouldhave的弱化。在非正式的口语重,过去完成式和虚拟语气会有下列弱化,其中,have弱化为/«/

should have – shoulda /∫ud« /

could have – coulda /kud«/

would have – woulda /wud«/

must have – musta /mAst«/

may have – maya /mei«/

might have – mighta /mait«/

在不正式的口语中,虚拟语气,将来完成式的否定形式以弱化为:

shouldn’t have – shoulda /∫udn« /

couldn’t have – coulda /kudn«/

wouldn’t have – woulda /wudn«/

以上弱化中,n’t弱化为/n/have弱化为/«/

7.       Be动词的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

am                                          /aem/                                                   /«m,m/

is                                             /is/                                                         /s(常用在/p,t,k,f,θ,z(其他情况)/注:sz不用于/s,z,∫,t∫,dZ/

are                                         /a:r/                                                       /a:r, «r /

was                                        /woz/                                                    /w«z/

were                                     /w«:r/                                                   /w«r/

been                                     /bi:n/                                                    /bin,b«n/

8.       do,does,did动词的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

do                                           /du:/                                                     /du,d«,d/

does                                      /dAz/                                                    /d«z/

did                                          /did/                                                      /d/

其他代词、副词、连词的弱化

口语中,somesuchthatthere等词也经常发生弱化,他们的弱化规律一般是元音弱化为/«/,如such/sAt∫/弱化为/s«t∫/

1.       some的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

some                                     /sAm/                                                   /s«m,sm/

2.       such的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

such                                       /sAt∫/                                                   /s«t∫/

3.       that的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

that                                        /δaet/                                                   /δ«t/

4.       there的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

there                                     /δεr/                                                     /δ«r,δr/

5.       not的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

not                                         /not/                                                     /nt/

6.       there的弱化

                                                强读                                                      弱读

there                                     /δεr/                                                     /δ«r,δr/

常见口语中的音变

1.       美国口语中,want to 常会音变为wannagoing to后面接动词,表示打算做某事时,常会音变为gonna

want to – wanna / ‘won«/

going to - gonna /’gon« /

2.       let megive me在非正式口语中,有时会有下面的音变,

let me – lemme /lemi/

give me - gimme/gimi /

3.       在非正式口语中,ing/iN/常弱读为/in/,如doingdoin’/’duin/morningmornin’/’mornin/,符号“”表示省音

4.       Aboutexcusebecausecome on在更快速而不正式的口语中,弱化的/«/还会被省去

posted on 2008-04-11 14:42 Kiki 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏