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MySQL5.7(5.6)GTID环境下恢复从库思路方法(转发)

Posted on 2017-11-19 16:39  moss_tan_jun  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏
要讨论如何恢复从库,我们得先来了解如下一些概念:
GTID_EXECUTED:它是一组包含已经记录在二进制日志文件中的事务集合
GTID_PURGED:它是一组包含已经从二进制日志删除掉的事务集合。
 
 
在继续讨论时,我们先来看下如何新建一个基于GTID的slave。
通过了解上面的两个参数,我们现在只需要:
1.从主库上做一个备份时记录备份时gtid_executed的值。
2.在新的slave上恢复此备份时设置从库的gtid_purged的值为备份时master上gtid_executed的值。
 
通过mysqldump可以完成我们需要的功能。
 
 
目前主库上的状态(3301):
复制代码
[zejin] 3301>show global variables like 'gtid_executed';
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| gtid_executed | a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-15 |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
 
[zejin] 3301>show global variables like 'gtid_purged';
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| gtid_purged | a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-13 |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
复制代码

 

 
 
step1:用mysqldump做一个全备
mysqldump --all-databases --single-transaction --triggers --routines --events --host=127.0.0.1 --port=3301 --user=root --password=123 > dump3301.sql
 
打开dump3301.sql我们可以看到如下语句:
SET @@GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED='a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-15';
此值即为master3301上gtid_executed的值。
 
step2:全新启动一个新的库3303,注意在配置文件中配置enforce_gtid_consistency及gtid_mode=on
复制代码
mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/home/mysql/my3303.cnf &
此时新库3303上的状态应该是这样的:

[(none)] 3303>show global variables like 'gtid_executed';
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| gtid_executed | |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
 
[(none)] 3303>show global variables like 'gtid_purged';
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| gtid_purged | |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
复制代码

 

 
step3:导入备份文件并查看状态值:
复制代码
mysql -uroot -h127.0.0.1 -p123 -P3303 < dump3301.sql
[(none)] 3303>show global variables like 'gtid_executed';
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| gtid_executed | a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-15 |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.02 sec)
 
[(none)] 3303>show global variables like 'gtid_purged';
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| gtid_purged | a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-15 |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
复制代码

 

 
 
step4:做主从change语句
复制代码
[zejin] 3303>change master to master_host='192.168.1.240',master_port=3301,master_user='repl',master_password='123',master_auto_position=1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 2 warnings (0.01 sec)
 
[zejin] 3303>start slave;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

[zejin] 3303>show slave status\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: 192.168.1.240
                  Master_User: repl
                  Master_Port: 3301
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: binlog57.000014
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 194
               Relay_Log_File: zejin240-relay-bin.000002
                Relay_Log_Pos: 365
        Relay_Master_Log_File: binlog57.000014
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 194
              Relay_Log_Space: 575
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 3301
                  Master_UUID: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f
             Master_Info_File: /home/mysql/I3303/master.info
                    SQL_Delay: 0
          SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
      Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
           Master_Retry_Count: 86400
                  Master_Bind: 
      Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 
     Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp: 
               Master_SSL_Crl: 
           Master_SSL_Crlpath: 
           Retrieved_Gtid_Set: 
            Executed_Gtid_Set: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-15
                Auto_Position: 1
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: 
                 Channel_Name: 
           Master_TLS_Version: 
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
复制代码
 
至此完成了加入一台新的slave的GTID主从环境。
 
 
假如我们目前拥有一主带两从的环境:
master(3301)
slave(3302)
slave(3303)
 
我们来考虑这么一种异常情况,由于种种原因,有可能主库上已经purge掉了一些binlog,但从库都还没有接收到(如slave停了一段时间,而master已经把一些binlog给purge掉了。)
 
主库目前的状态是:
复制代码
[zejin] 3301>show global variables like 'gtid_executed';
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| gtid_executed | a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-21 |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
 
[zejin] 3301>show global variables like 'gtid_purged';
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
| gtid_purged | a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-20 |
+---------------+-------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
 
[zejin] 3301>select * from t_users;
+----+------+
| id | name |
+----+------+
| 1 | chen |
| 2 | ok |
| 3 | li |
+----+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
复制代码

 

在从库3303上,我们可以看到如下错误提示:
Last_IO_Error: Got fatal error 1236 from master when reading data from binary log: 'The slave is connecting using CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_AUTO_POSITION = 1, but the master has purged binary logs containing GTIDs that the slave requires.'
复制代码
[zejin] 3303>show slave status\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: 
                  Master_Host: 192.168.1.240
                  Master_User: repl
                  Master_Port: 3301
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: binlog57.000014
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 457
               Relay_Log_File: zejin240-relay-bin.000003
                Relay_Log_Pos: 4
        Relay_Master_Log_File: binlog57.000014
             Slave_IO_Running: No
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 457
              Relay_Log_Space: 194
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: NULL
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 1236
                Last_IO_Error: Got fatal error 1236 from master when reading data from binary log: 'The slave is connecting using CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_AUTO_POSITION = 1, but the master has purged binary logs containing GTIDs that the slave requires.'
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 3301
                  Master_UUID: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f
             Master_Info_File: /home/mysql/I3303/master.info
                    SQL_Delay: 0
          SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
      Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
           Master_Retry_Count: 86400
                  Master_Bind: 
      Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 160809 17:25:39
     Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp: 
               Master_SSL_Crl: 
           Master_SSL_Crlpath: 
           Retrieved_Gtid_Set: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:16
            Executed_Gtid_Set: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-16
                Auto_Position: 1
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: 
                 Channel_Name: 
           Master_TLS_Version: 
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


[zejin] 3303>select * from t_users;
+----+------+
| id | name |
+----+------+
|  1 | li   |
|  2 | zhou |
+----+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
复制代码

 

主从已经中断,数据也已不一致。
 
接下来我们来看如何恢复:
由于GTID具有全局唯一性,那么其它正常的gtid已经被复制到了slave3302上,所以我们可以把3303指向3302,同步完毕后再指回master3301(此前提基于3302的binlog还没被purge掉,即存在3303没有从master3301接收到的GTID事务)
操作方法如下:
复制代码
[zejin] 3303>change master to master_host='192.168.1.240',master_port=3302,master_user='repl',master_password='123',master_auto_position=1;

[zejin] 3303>start slave;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)

[zejin] 3303>show slave status\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: 192.168.1.240
                  Master_User: repl
                  Master_Port: 3302
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: binlog57.000007
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 1723
               Relay_Log_File: zejin240-relay-bin.000002
                Relay_Log_Pos: 1687
        Relay_Master_Log_File: binlog57.000007
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 1723
              Relay_Log_Space: 1937
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 3302
                  Master_UUID: 5cee6f9f-5ab8-11e6-a081-000c29d4dc3f
             Master_Info_File: /home/mysql/I3303/master.info
                    SQL_Delay: 0
          SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
      Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
           Master_Retry_Count: 86400
                  Master_Bind: 
      Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 
     Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp: 
               Master_SSL_Crl: 
           Master_SSL_Crlpath: 
           Retrieved_Gtid_Set: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:17-21
            Executed_Gtid_Set: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-21
                Auto_Position: 1
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: 
                 Channel_Name: 
           Master_TLS_Version: 
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

[zejin] 3303>select * from t_users;
+----+------+
| id | name |
+----+------+
|  1 | chen |
|  2 | ok   |
|  3 | li   |
+----+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)


数据也已经完全与主的一致了,复制正常后再change到3301master上。
[zejin] 3303>change master to master_host='192.168.1.240',master_port=3301,master_user='repl',master_password='123',master_auto_position=1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 2 warnings (0.01 sec)

[zejin] 3303>start slave;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
复制代码

 

上面这种情况是基于还有另一个从库已经接收到了master的所有binlog的情况下,那如果结果只是M-S,也发生了如上的问题,那又该如何恢复,我们有如下两种方法:
 
目前Master上状态为:
复制代码
[zejin] 3301>show global variables like '%gtid%';
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name                    | Value                                     |
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+

| gtid_executed                    | a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-27 |
……
| gtid_purged                      | a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-25 |
……
+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
8 rows in set (0.00 sec)
复制代码
 
Slave上状态为:
复制代码
[zejin] 3303>show slave status \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: 
                  Master_Host: 192.168.1.240
                  Master_User: repl
                  Master_Port: 3301
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: binlog57.000016
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 729
               Relay_Log_File: zejin240-relay-bin.000003
                Relay_Log_Pos: 4
        Relay_Master_Log_File: binlog57.000016
             Slave_IO_Running: No
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 729
              Relay_Log_Space: 194
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: NULL
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 1236
                Last_IO_Error: Got fatal error 1236 from master when reading data from binary log: 'The slave is connecting using CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_AUTO_POSITION = 1, but the master has purged binary logs containing GTIDs that the slave requires.'
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 3301
                  Master_UUID: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f
             Master_Info_File: /home/mysql/I3303/master.info
                    SQL_Delay: 0
          SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
      Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
           Master_Retry_Count: 86400
                  Master_Bind: 
      Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 160809 17:54:42
     Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp: 
               Master_SSL_Crl: 
           Master_SSL_Crlpath: 
           Retrieved_Gtid_Set: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:22
            Executed_Gtid_Set: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-22
                Auto_Position: 1
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: 
                 Channel_Name: 
           Master_TLS_Version: 
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
复制代码

和之前同样类型的错误,我们恢复的思路为:

把slave上的gtid_purged设置为master还没有被purge掉的值,最后借助第三方一致性同步工具来做数据的一致性同步。
 
我们需要先在slave上做一下reset master来清除gtid的一些信息,直接设置会报如下错误:
[zejin] 3303>set global GTID_PURGED="a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-26";
ERROR 1840 (HY000): @@GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED can only be set when @@GLOBAL.GTID_EXECUTED is empty.

 

正确操作步骤如下(在slave上执行):

复制代码
[zejin] 3303>reset master;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

[zejin] 3303>set global GTID_PURGED="a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-26";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

[zejin] 3303>start slave;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

[zejin] 3303>show slave status \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: 192.168.1.240
                  Master_User: repl
                  Master_Port: 3301
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: binlog57.000018
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 728
               Relay_Log_File: zejin240-relay-bin.000004
                Relay_Log_Pos: 718
        Relay_Master_Log_File: binlog57.000018
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 728
              Relay_Log_Space: 968
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 3301
                  Master_UUID: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f
             Master_Info_File: /home/mysql/I3303/master.info
                    SQL_Delay: 0
          SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
      Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for more updates
           Master_Retry_Count: 86400
                  Master_Bind: 
      Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 
     Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp: 
               Master_SSL_Crl: 
           Master_SSL_Crlpath: 
           Retrieved_Gtid_Set: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:22:27
            Executed_Gtid_Set: a97983fc-5a29-11e6-9d28-000c29d4dc3f:1-27
                Auto_Position: 1
         Replicate_Rewrite_DB: 
                 Channel_Name: 
           Master_TLS_Version: 
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

复制代码
当然执行完这个之后数据是不一致的,那么此时就可以通过pt-table-checksum和pt-table-sync来做数据的一致性恢复了。
 
 
我们还有另一种方法,那就是重建slave,方法如本文最开始的那样新建一个slave,但是在由于目前slave上已经有gtid的一些信息,所以在恢复时得先在slave上reset master,具体操作如下:
在slave上操作:
复制代码
reset master
source dump3301.sql;
change master to master_host='192.168.1.240',master_port=3301,master_user='repl',master_password='123',master_auto_position=1;
start slave;
show slave status\G
复制代码

 

至此完成slave同步异常的恢复。