Erlang/OTP 17.0 has been released 
  Erlang/OTP 17.0发布了,不过Maps相关的设计还没有尘埃落定,目前:

             With Maps you may for instance:

              -- M0 = #{ a => 1, b => 2}, % create associations

              -- M1 = M0#{ a := 10 }, % update values

              -- M2 = M1#{ "hi" => "hello"}, % add new associations

              -- #{ "hi" := V1, a := V2, b := V3} = M2. % match keys with

              For information on how to use Maps please see the Reference

              The current implementation is without the following features:

              -- No variable keys

              -- No single value access

              -- No map comprehensions

              Note that Maps is experimental during OTP 17.0.
另外有一个不兼容的情况: OTP-11782  == erts ==
 The external format for Maps has changed in a way that is not  compatible with the format used in OTP 17.0-rc1 and OTP  17.0-rc2.
Change the subtag used for maps from 0xB to 0xF
Maps 模块对应的文档位置

Learn You Some Erlang 对Maps内容的增补章节 
On Preserving Term Sharing in the Erlang Virtual Machine
摘要:In this paper we describe our experiences and argue through examples why flattening terms during copying is not a good idea for
a language like Erlang. More importantly, we propose a sharing preserving copying mechanism for Erlang/OTP and describe a pub-
licly available complete implementation of this mechanism.