C#配置文件configSections详解

       一、问题需求: 在项目中经常遇到需要写配置文件地方,目的就是不想在程序中关于一些信息写死,发布的时候只需要修改一下配置文件就可以,不需要每次都修改程序,如项目名称、数据库连接字符串、IP端口之类 的;对于小项目或者服务程序,配置信息可以通过系统自带的appSettings进行配置,但大项目或者配置信息太多,如果都用appSettings来配置就感觉比较杂乱,运维人员在修改配置的时候不好修改,而且如果想找某一模块相关或者某一节点配置容易出错,这时如果能分类管理,例如跟数据库相关的写到一个节点里,跟某个业务独立相关的可以也能单独写一个节点上 等等;

     二、解决方案:其实 使用.net自带的configSections,将配置信息分块管理,并提供实体类且还能单配置文件管理,这样程序员可以根据业务类型等其他方式分类写入配置文件,运维人员可以针对某一项进行修改部署维护;

     三、具体实现:接下来演示一下几种自定义的configSections节点,有单节点配置、多节点配置、自定义节点配置

        1、  首先演示一下单节点配置:

             1.1 新建一个类继承ConfigurationSection,新增属性及调用方法  

 /// <summary>
    /// 单级自定义配置节点
    /// </summary>
   public class CustomerSingleConfig:ConfigurationSection
    {      
        /// <summary>
        /// 获取配置信息
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static CustomerSingleConfig GetConfig()
        {
            return GetConfig("CustomerSingleConfig");
        }
        /// <summary>
        /// 获取配置信息
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sectionName"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static CustomerSingleConfig GetConfig(string sectionName)
        {
            CustomerSingleConfig section = (CustomerSingleConfig)ConfigurationManager.GetSection(sectionName);
            if (section == null)
                throw new ConfigurationErrorsException("Section " + sectionName + " is not found.");
            return section;
        }
           
        /// <summary>
        /// 平台中文名称
        /// </summary>
       [ConfigurationProperty("PlatChName",DefaultValue = "", IsRequired = true, IsKey = false)]
        public string PlatChName 
        {
            get { return (string)this["PlatChName"]; }
            set { this["PlatChName"]=value; }
        }  

        /// <summary>
        /// 平台英文名称
        /// </summary>
       [ConfigurationProperty("PlatEnName",DefaultValue = "", IsRequired = true, IsKey = false)]
        public string PlatEnName
        {
            get { return (string)this["PlatEnName"]; }
            set { this["PlatEnName"] = value; }
        }

    }

        1.2 在app.config------>configuration--------->configSections里面加入CustomerSingleConfig节点,如下:

<!--单级配置节点测试-->
        <section name="CustomerSingleConfig" type="ConfigDemo.CustomerSingleConfig,ConfigDemo"/>

       1.3 在app.config------>configuration------->新建CustomerSingleConfig里面加入配置信息

<CustomerSingleConfig PlatChName="监控平台系统" PlatEnName="Monitoring platform system"></CustomerSingleConfig>

       1.4 调用获取配置信息

  static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("---------------------单级配置节点测试-----------------");
            Console.WriteLine("PlatChName:" + CustomerSingleConfig.GetConfig().PlatChName);
            Console.WriteLine("PlatEnName:" + CustomerSingleConfig.GetConfig().PlatEnName);
        }

      1.5 运行效果如下

   

       1.6 针对1.3还可以更进一步分离配置写法,可以单独配置成一个config文件

          将1.3 <section name="CustomerSingleConfig" type="ConfigDemo.CustomerSingleConfig,ConfigDemo"/>这个节点内容换成如下配置:

           <CustomerSingleConfig configSource="CfgFiles\CustomerSingleConfig.config" />

          再新一个CfgFiles文件夹在文件里面新增CustomerSingleConfig.config:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<CustomerMultiConfig >
<CustomerElement connectionString="Data Source='.';Initial Catalog='UniDataNH';User ID='sa';Password='123456'" enabled="true"></CustomerElement>
</CustomerMultiConfig>

         整体截图配置如下:


 

     2、接下来演示一下多级节点

         2.1先定义一个子节点类CustomerElement继承ConfigurationElement

public class CustomerElement:ConfigurationElement
    {
        private const string EnablePropertyName = "enabled";

        private const string ConnectionStringPropery = "connectionString";

        [ConfigurationProperty(EnablePropertyName, IsRequired = true)]
        public bool Enabled
        {
            get { return (bool)base[EnablePropertyName]; }
            set { base[EnablePropertyName] = value; }
        }

        [ConfigurationProperty(ConnectionStringPropery, IsRequired = true)]
        public string ConnectionString
        {
            get { return (string)base[ConnectionStringPropery]; }
            set { base[ConnectionStringPropery] = value; }
        }
    }

        2.2再定一个配置节点类CustomerMultiConfig继承ConfigurationSection,和单个节点配置一样

namespace ConfigDemo
{
    /// <summary>
    /// 多级配置文件自定义节点配置
    /// </summary>
   public class CustomerMultiConfig:ConfigurationSection
    {
        private const string CustomerConfigPropertyName = "CustomerElement";
        /// <summary>
        /// 获取配置信息
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static CustomerMultiConfig GetConfig()
        {
            return GetConfig("CustomerMultiConfig");
        }
        /// <summary>
        /// 获取配置信息
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sectionName">xml节点名称</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static CustomerMultiConfig GetConfig(string sectionName)
        {
            CustomerMultiConfig section = (CustomerMultiConfig)ConfigurationManager.GetSection(sectionName);
            if (section == null)
                throw new ConfigurationErrorsException("Section " + sectionName + " is not found.");
            return section;
        }
        [ConfigurationProperty(CustomerConfigPropertyName)]
        public CustomerElement CustomerElementConfig
        {
            get { return (CustomerElement)base[CustomerConfigPropertyName]; }
            set { base[CustomerConfigPropertyName] = value; }
        }
    }
}

     2.3  接下就是在app.config------>configuration--------->configSections里面加入CustomerMultiConfig节点,详细步骤和单节点一下 如图配置

     2.4 调用获取配置信息代码如下:

Console.WriteLine("---------------------多级配置节点测试-----------------");
            Console.WriteLine("connectionString:" + CustomerMultiConfig.GetConfig().CustomerElementConfig.Enabled);
            Console.WriteLine("enabled:" + CustomerMultiConfig.GetConfig().CustomerElementConfig.ConnectionString);

     2.5  运行效果如下图:

 


3、再演示一下自定义节点配置,可以随意添加配置节点信息

          3.1 具体操作步骤类似,代码如下:

namespace ConfigDemo
{
    public class TestConfigInfo : ConfigurationSection
    {
        [ConfigurationProperty("trackers", IsDefaultCollection = false)]
        public trackers Trackers { get { return (trackers)base["trackers"]; } }
        /// <summary>
        /// 获取配置信息
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static TestConfigInfo GetConfig()
        {
            return GetConfig("TestConfigInfo");
        }
        /// <summary>
        /// 获取配置信息
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="sectionName">xml节点名称</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static TestConfigInfo GetConfig(string sectionName)
        {
            TestConfigInfo section = (TestConfigInfo)ConfigurationManager.GetSection(sectionName);
            if (section == null)
                throw new ConfigurationErrorsException("Section " + sectionName + " is not found.");
            return section;
        }
        [ConfigurationProperty("TestName", IsRequired = false)]
        public string TestName
        {
            get { return (string)base["TestName"]; }
            set { base["TestName"] = value; }
        }
        [ConfigurationProperty("TestID", IsRequired = false)]
        public string TestID
        {
            get { return (string)base["TestID"]; }
            set { base["TestID"] = value; }
        }
    }

    public class trackers : ConfigurationElementCollection
    {
        [ConfigurationProperty("TrackerName", IsRequired = false)]
        public string TrackerName
        {
            get { return (string)base["TrackerName"]; }
            set { base["TrackerName"] = value; }
        }
        protected override ConfigurationElement CreateNewElement()
        {
            return new tracker();
        }

        protected override object GetElementKey(ConfigurationElement element)
        {
            return ((tracker)element).Host;
        }
    }
    public class tracker : ConfigurationElement
    {
        #region 配置節設置,設定檔中有不能識別的元素、屬性時,使其不報錯

        protected override bool OnDeserializeUnrecognizedAttribute(string name, string value)
        {
            return base.OnDeserializeUnrecognizedAttribute(name, value);

        }

        protected override bool OnDeserializeUnrecognizedElement(string elementName, System.Xml.XmlReader reader)
        {
            return base.OnDeserializeUnrecognizedElement(elementName, reader);

        }
        #endregion

        [ConfigurationProperty("Host", DefaultValue = "localhost", IsRequired = true)]
        public string Host { get { return this["Host"].ToString(); } }

        [ConfigurationProperty("Port", DefaultValue = "22122", IsRequired = true)]
        public int Port { get { return (int)this["Port"]; } }

    }
}

    3.2  在CfgFiles新建TestConfigInfo.Config配置文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<TestConfigInfo TestName="lxsh" TestID="8893">
    <trackers TrackerName="testName">
        <add Host="60.195.251.71" Port="22122" />
        <add Host="60.195.251.72" Port="22123" />
        <add Host="60.195.251.73" Port="22124" />
    </trackers>
</TestConfigInfo>

   3.3  右键TestConfigInfo.Config属性,选择输出目录为始终复制,这样操作目地是在运行目录下面生成该文件(其他配置文件也需要这样操作)

 3.4  调用获取配置信息代码如下:

            Console.WriteLine("---------------------自定义新增节点测试-----------------");
            Console.WriteLine("TestID:" + TestConfigInfo.GetConfig().TestID);
            Console.WriteLine("TestName:" + TestConfigInfo.GetConfig().TestName);
            foreach (tracker item in TestConfigInfo.GetConfig().Trackers)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Host:" + item.Host + " Port:" + item.Port);
            }

 3.5  运行效果如下图:

 


4 系统appSettings配置文件单独建立配置文件

       4.1 appconfig配置文件修改截图如下

 

     4.2 system.config配置文件内容如下

 

     4.3 调用方式和没有分开是一样的,如下

  Console.WriteLine("---------------------系统自带appSettings配置文件-----------------");
            Console.WriteLine("logLevel:" + System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["logLevel"]);
            Console.WriteLine("LogType:" + System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["LogType"]);

 四、四种方式演示源码Github地址:https://github.com/lxshwyan/ConfigDemo.git

posted @ 2019-05-07 21:41 lxsh_wyan 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏