Kubernetes进阶实战读书笔记:Service基础-发现-暴露

一、service资源资源基础应用

1、service资源清单

---  myapp-deploy.yaml 

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: myapp-deploy
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: myapp
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: myapp
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: myapp
        image: ikubernetes/myapp:v1
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80
          name: http

---  myapp-svc.yaml 

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: myapp-svc
spec:
  selector:
    app: myapp
  ports:
  - protocol: TCP
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80

2、创建资源

[root@master chapter5]# kubectl apply -f myapp-deploy.yaml 
deployment.apps/myapp-deploy created

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl apply -f myapp-svc.yaml 
service/myapp-svc created

 3、验证

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl get svc
NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.96.0.1       <none>        443/TCP   18d
myapp-svc    ClusterIP   10.111.104.25   <none>        80/TCP    6s

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl get endpoints myapp-svc 
NAME        ENDPOINTS                                       AGE
myapp-svc   10.244.0.72:80,10.244.0.73:80,10.244.2.154:80   71s

4、向service对象请求服务

[root@master ~]# kubectl exec -it busybox sh
kubectl exec [POD] [COMMAND] is DEPRECATED and will be removed in a future version. Use kubectl kubectl exec [POD] -- [COMMAND] instead.
/home # curl http://10.111.104.25:80
Hello MyApp | Version: v1 | <a href="hostname.html">Pod Name</a>


/home # for loop in 1 2 3 4;do curl http://10.111.104.25:80/hostname.html;done
/home # for loop in `seq 10`;do curl http://10.111.104.25:80/hostname.html;done
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-7s94h
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-fzgcr
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-fzgcr
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-fzgcr
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-fzgcr
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-fzgcr
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-fzgcr
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq

二、会话粘性

1、sessionAffinity字段含义

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl explain svc.spec.sessionAffinity
KIND:     Service
VERSION:  v1

FIELD:    sessionAffinity <string>

DESCRIPTION:
     Supports "ClientIP" and "None". Used to maintain session affinity. Enable
     client IP based session affinity. Must be ClientIP or None. Defaults to
     None. More info:
     https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/services-networking/service/#virtual-ips-and-service-proxies

None:不使用sessionAffinity、默认值
ClientIP:基于客户端IP地址识别客户端身份、把来自同一个源IP地址的请求始终调度至同一个POD对象

 2、修改此前myapp-svc使用Session Affinity机制

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl patch service myapp-svc -p '{"spec": {"sessionAffinity": "ClientIP"}}'
service/myapp-svc patched

3、验证会话粘性效果

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl exec -it busybox sh
kubectl exec [POD] [COMMAND] is DEPRECATED and will be removed in a future version. Use kubectl kubectl exec [POD] -- [COMMAND] instead.
/home # for loop in 1 2 3 4;do curl http://10.111.104.25:80/hostname.html;done
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
/home # for loop in `seq 10`;do curl http://10.111.104.25:80/hostname.html;done
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq
myapp-deploy-5cbd66595b-nlpxq

三、服务发现方式

1、服务发现方式:环境变量

1、kubernetes service 环境变量

kubernetes为每个service资源生成包括以下形式的环境变量在内的一系列环境变量、在同一个名称空间中创建的pod对象都会自动
拥有这些变量

{SVCNAME}_SERVICE_HOST
{SVCNAME}_SERVICE_PORT

如果SVCNAME中使用了连接线、那么kubernetes会在定义为环境变量时将其转换为下划线

2、Docker Link形式的环境变量

/ # printenv |grep MYAPP
MYAPP_SVC_PORT_80_TCP_ADDR=10.98.57.156
MYAPP_SVC_PORT_80_TCP_PORT=80
MYAPP_SVC_PORT_80_TCP_PROTO=tcp
MYAPP_SVC_PORT_80_TCP=tcp://10.98.57.156:80
MYAPP_SVC_SERVICE_HOST=10.98.57.156
MYAPP_SVC_PORT=tcp://10.98.57.156:80
MYAPP_SVC_SERVICE_PORT=80

2、ClusterDNS和服务发现

 

 

 alertmanager-main-1.alertmanager-operated. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:39751-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:45.27078922Z"}
 alertmanager-main-2.alertmanager-operated. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:39147-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:46.290351841Z"}
 alertmanager-main-1.alertmanager-operated. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:55091-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:47.040067334Z"}
 alertmanager-main-1.alertmanager-operated. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:50521-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:47.04012648Z"}
 alertmanager-main-1.alertmanager-operated. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:59715-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:47.273682812Z"}
 alertmanager-main-1.alertmanager-operated. ANY: dial tcp 218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:47.291473366Z"}
 alertmanager-main-2.alertmanager-operated. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:56171-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:49.278965657Z"}
 alertmanager-main-1.alertmanager-operated. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:47290-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:49.295755243Z"}
 alertmanager-main-2.alertmanager-operated. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:46048-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:51.05192443Z"}
 alertmanager-main-1.alertmanager-operated. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:55961-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:51.297235485Z"}
 alertmanager-main-2.alertmanager-operated. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:47002-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:53.053631874Z"}
 alertmanager-main-2.alertmanager-operated. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:41021-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:53.303883147Z"}
 alertmanager-main-2.alertmanager-operated. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:58909-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:55.305017334Z"}
 alertmanager-main-1.alertmanager-operated. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:37589-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:57.312243213Z"}
 alertmanager-main-1.alertmanager-operated. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:40354-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:08:59.314302823Z"}
 alertmanager-main-2.alertmanager-operated. ANY: dial tcp 8.8.8.8:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:09:12.972172135Z"}
 alertmanager-main-1.alertmanager-operated. ANY: dial tcp 8.8.8.8:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:09:13.175673423Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:38018-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:10:56.443739327Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:50209-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:13:06.47535098Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:37913-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:13:06.475834378Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:40603-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:13:11.475643832Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:55579-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:15:56.563127798Z"}
 grafana.com. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:32968-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:17:50.49961549Z"}
 raw.githubusercontent.com. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:37557-\u003e8.8.8.8:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:17:55.879321934Z"}
 raw.githubusercontent.com. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:56239-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:17:58.879968186Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:55239-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:18:41.588908206Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:37380-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:18:46.588852056Z"}
 1.0.244.10.in-addr.arpa. PTR: read udp 10.244.0.82:54808-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:18:52.583971405Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:47436-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:20:56.628149749Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:46755-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:21:36.631153451Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:46023-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:21:41.63077241Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:56997-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:21:41.63119581Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:40320-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:22:41.64384947Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. AAAA: read udp 10.244.0.82:55737-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:23:16.654371006Z"}
 common-service-weave-scope.weave-scope.svc. A: read udp 10.244.0.82:38601-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:23:21.652466109Z"}
 109.1.244.10.in-addr.arpa. PTR: read udp 10.244.0.82:32915-\u003e218.30.19.40:53: i/o timeout\n","stream":"stdout","time":"2020-07-30T02:24:18.520335799Z"}

3、服务发现式DNS

/home # cat /etc/resolv.conf 
nameserver 10.96.0.10
search default.svc.cluster.local svc.cluster.local cluster.local
options ndots:5
/home # nslookup myapp-svc.default
Server:    10.96.0.10
Address 1: 10.96.0.10 kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local

Name:      myapp-svc.default
Address 1: 10.111.104.25 myapp-svc.default.svc.cluster.local
/home # nslookup prometheus-operator.monitoring
Server:    10.96.0.10
Address 1: 10.96.0.10 kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local

Name:      prometheus-operator.monitoring
Address 1: 10.244.1.16 10-244-1-16.prometheus-operator.monitoring.svc.cluster.local
/home # nslookup kube-state-metrics.monitoring
Server:    10.96.0.10
Address 1: 10.96.0.10 kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local

Name:      kube-state-metrics.monitoring
Address 1: 10.244.1.17 10-244-1-17.kube-state-metrics.monitoring.svc.cluster.local

四、Service的四种类型

1、ClusterIP

通过集群内部IP地址暴露服务、此地址仅在集群内部可达、而无法被集群外部的客户端访问如图6-8所示、此为默认service类型

[root@master chapter6]# cat myapp-svc.yaml 
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: myapp-svc
spec:
  selector:
    app: myapp
  ports:
  - protocol: TCP
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80
[root@master chapter6]# kubectl apply -f myapp-svc.yaml 
service/myapp-svc unchanged
[root@master chapter6]# kubectl get svc myapp-svc
NAME        TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
myapp-svc   ClusterIP   10.111.104.25   <none>        80/TCP    2d4h

2、NodePort

建立在ClusterIP之上、其在每个节点的IP地址的某静态端口暴露服务、因此、它依然会为serbice分配集群IP地址、并将此作为NodePort的路由目标

简单来说NodePort类型就是在工作节点的IP地址上选择一个端口用于将集群外部的用户请求转发到至目标service的ClusterIP和port

因此这种类型的service即可如ClusterIP一样受到集群内部客户端pod的访问、也会受到集群外部客户端通过套接字<NodeIP>:<NodePort>进行的请求

1、创建验证资源:

[root@master chapter6]# cat myapp-svc-nodeport.yaml 
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: myapp-svc-nodeport
spec:
  type: NodePort
  selector:
    app: myapp
  ports:
  - protocol: TCP
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80
    nodePort: 30008

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl apply -f myapp-svc-nodeport.yaml 
service/myapp-svc-nodeport created

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl get svc myapp-svc-nodeport 
NAME                 TYPE       CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)        AGE
myapp-svc-nodeport   NodePort   10.107.241.246   <none>        80:30008/TCP   21s

2、浏览器访问

3、LoadBalancer 阿里云ELB

会指向关联至集群外部的切实存在的某个负载均衡设备,该设备通过工作节点之上的NodePort向集群内部发送请求流量

[root@master chapter6]# cat myapp-svc-lb.yaml 
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: myapp-svc-lb
spec:
  selector:
    app: myapp
  ports:
  - protocol: TCP
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80

例如阿里云计算环境中的ELB实例即为此类的负载均衡设备、此类型的优势在于、他能够把来自于集群外部客户端的请求调度至所有节点的NodePort之上,而不是依赖客户端自行决定连接至那个节点、
从而避免了因客户端指定的节点故障而导致的服务不可用

4、ExternalName:内部pod访问外部资源

1、资源清单

[root@master chapter6]# cat external-redis.yaml 
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: external-www-svc
spec:
  type: ExternalName
  externalName: www.kubernetes.io
  ports:
  - protocol: TCP
    port: 6379
    targetPort: 6379
    nodePort: 0
  selector: {}

2、创建

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl apply -f external-redis.yaml 
service/external-www-svc created

3、验证效果

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl get svc
NAME               TYPE           CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP         PORT(S)    AGE
external-www-svc   ExternalName   <none>          www.kubernetes.io   6379/TCP   7s
kubernetes         ClusterIP      10.96.0.1       <none>              443/TCP    19d
myapp-svc          ClusterIP      10.111.104.25   <none>              80/TCP     95m

 4、解析验证

/home # nslookup external-www-svc
Server: 10.96.0.10
Address 1: 10.96.0.10 kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local

Name: external-www-svc
Address 1: 147.75.40.148

[root@master chapter6]# ping www.kubernetes.io
PING kubernetes.io (147.75.40.148) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 147.75.40.148 (147.75.40.148): icmp_seq=1 ttl=49 time=180 ms
64 bytes from 147.75.40.148 (147.75.40.148): icmp_seq=2 ttl=49 time=180 ms
64 bytes from 147.75.40.148 (147.75.40.148): icmp_seq=3 ttl=49 time=180 ms

五、headless:直达pod不经过service

客户端需要直接访问Service资源后端的所有Pod资源、这时就应该向客户端暴露每个pod资源的ip地址、而不再是中间层service对象的ClusterIP这种资源便称为headless Service

1、创建资源

[root@master chapter6]# cat myapp-headless-svc.yaml 
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: myapp-headless-svc
spec: 
  clusterIP: None     #只需要将clusterIP字段的值设置为:"None"
  selector:
    app: myapp
  ports:
  - port: 80
    targetPort: 80
    name: httpport

只需要将clusterIP字段的值设置为:"None"

2、创建运行

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl apply -f myapp-headless-svc.yaml 
service/myapp-headless-svc created

3、重点看有无ClusterIP

[root@master chapter6]# kubectl describe svc myapp-headless-svc
.....
Endpoints: 10.244.0.81:80,10.244.0.83:80
.....

和其他类型区别无ClusterIP

headless Service对象没有ClusterIP、于是kube-proxy便无需处理此类请求、也就更没有了负载均衡或代理它的需要、在前端应用拥有自有的其他服务发现机制时、headless Service即可以省去定义ClusterIP的需求

至于如何为此类Service资源配置ip地址、则取决于它的标签选择器的定义

六、pod资源发现

/home # nslookup myapp-headless-svc
Server: 10.96.0.10
Address 1: 10.96.0.10 kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local

Name: myapp-headless-svc
Address 1: 10.244.0.81 10-244-0-81.myapp-svc.default.svc.cluster.local
Address 2: 10.244.0.83 10-244-0-83.myapp-headless-svc.default.svc.cluster.local

具有标签选择器:端点控制器会在api中为其创建Endpoints记录、并将ClusterDNS服务中的A记录直接解析到此Service后端的各pod对象的ip地址上
没有标签选择器:端点控制器不会在api中为其创建Endpoints记录、ClusterDNS的配置分为两种情形:

1、对ExternalName类型的服务创建CNAME记录
2、对其他三种类型来说、为那些于当前Service共享名称的所有Endpoints对象创建一条记录

posted @ 2020-07-30 22:09  活的潇洒80  阅读(123)  评论(0编辑  收藏