Django用户认证系统(一)User对象

User对象

User对象是认证系统的核心。用户对象通常用来代表网站的用户,并支持例如访问控制、注册用户、关联创建者和内容等。在Django认证框架中只有一个用户类,例如超级用户('superusers’)或('staff')用户只不过是相同用户对象设置了不同属性而已。

缺省字段Fields

username

用户名,必需字段。30个字符或更少,可以包含 _, @, +, . 和 - 字符。

first_name
可选。 30 characters or fewer.

last_name
可选。 30 characters or fewer.

email
邮箱,可选。 Email address.

password
密码,必需。Django不是以明文存储密码的,而是存储哈希值。

groups
用户组。Many-to-many relationship to Group

user_permissions
用户权限。Many-to-many relationship to Permission

    groups = models.ManyToManyField(Group, verbose_name=_('groups'),
        blank=True, help_text=_('The groups this user belongs to. A user will '
                                'get all permissions granted to each of '
                                'their groups.'),
        related_name="user_set", related_query_name="user")
    user_permissions = models.ManyToManyField(Permission,
        verbose_name=_('user permissions'), blank=True,
        help_text=_('Specific permissions for this user.'),
        related_name="user_set", related_query_name="user")

is_staff
Boolean。决定用户是否可以访问admin管理界面。默认False。

is_active
Boolean。 用户是否活跃,默认True。一般不删除用户,而是将用户的is_active设为False。

is_superuser
Boolean。默认False。当设为True时,用户获得全部权限。

    def has_perm(self, perm, obj=None):
        """
        Returns True if the user has the specified permission. This method
        queries all available auth backends, but returns immediately if any
        backend returns True. Thus, a user who has permission from a single
        auth backend is assumed to have permission in general. If an object is
        provided, permissions for this specific object are checked.
        """

        # Active superusers have all permissions.
        if self.is_active and self.is_superuser:
            return True

        # Otherwise we need to check the backends.
        return _user_has_perm(self, perm, obj)

last_login

上一次的登录时间,为datetime对象,默认为当时的时间。

user.last_login = timezone.now()

date_joined
用户创建的时间

方法Methods

is_anonymous()

是否是匿名用户。

is_authenticated()
用户是否通过验证,登陆。

get_full_name()
返回first_name plus the last_name, with a space in between.

get_short_name()
返回first_name.

set_password(raw_password)
设置密码。

check_password(raw_password)
验证密码。

get_group_permissions(obj=None)
返回用户组权限的集合。

get_all_permissions(obj=None)
返回用户所有的权限集合。

has_perm(perm, obj=None)
用户是否具有某个权限。perm的格式是 "<app label>.<permission codename>". 

has_perms(perm_list, obj=None)
用户是否具有权限列表中的每个权限。

创建用户

由于User对象的密码不是明文存储的,所以创建User对象时与通常的Model create不同,需用内置的create_user()方法。

>>> from django.contrib.auth.models import User
>>> user = User.objects.create_user('john', 'lennon@thebeatles.com', 'johnpassword')

# At this point, user is a User object that has already been saved
# to the database. You can continue to change its attributes
# if you want to change other fields.
>>> user.last_name = 'Lennon'
>>> user.save()

当然也可以在admin界面中添加用户。

创建superusers

$ python manage.py createsuperuser --username=joe --email=joe@example.com

修改密码

使用内置的set_password()方法。

>>> from django.contrib.auth.models import User
>>> u = User.objects.get(username='john')
>>> u.set_password('new password')
>>> u.save()

验证用户

authenticate()

验证给出的username和password是否是一个有效用户。如果有效,则返回一个User对象,无效则返回None。

from django.contrib.auth import authenticate
user = authenticate(username='john', password='secret')
if user is not None:
    # the password verified for the user
    if user.is_active:
        print("User is valid, active and authenticated")
    else:
        print("The password is valid, but the account has been disabled!")
else:
    # the authentication system was unable to verify the username and password
    print("The username and password were incorrect.")

  

 

posted @ 2014-10-29 22:44  再见紫罗兰  阅读(20204)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报