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公告

sleuth主要功能是在分布式系统中提供追踪解决方案,并且兼容支持了zipkin(提供了链路追踪的可视化功能)

zipkin原理:在服务调用的请求和响应中加入ID,表明上下游请求的关系。

    利用这些信息,可以可视化地分析服务调用链路和服务间的依赖关系。

sleuth是对zipkin的封装,对应Span,Trace等信息的生成、接入http request,以及向Zipkin server发送采集信息等全部自动化完成。

目前主流的链路追踪组件有:google的Dapper,Twitter的zipkin和阿里的Eagleeye(鹰眼)。

1. 搭建zipkin服务器

  1.1 创建springboot项目,引入相应的jar依赖(其他依赖参考前面的教材)

<!-- 引入zipkin-server -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.zipkin.java</groupId>
    <artifactId>zipkin-server</artifactId>
</dependency>

<!-- 引入zipkin-server 图形化界面 --> <dependency> <groupId>io.zipkin.java</groupId> <artifactId>zipkin-autoconfigure-ui</artifactId> </dependency>

  1.2 添加配置文件

server: 
 port: 8769
spring: 
 application: 
  name: zipkin-server
eureka: 
 client: 
  serviceUrl: 
   defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/ #注册服务器地址
management: 
 security: 
  enabled: false #关闭验证
info: #/info请求的显示信息
 app: 
  name: ${spring.application.name}
  version: 1.0.0
 build: 
  artifactId: @project.artifactId@
  version: @project.version@
    

  1.3 在启动类中声明为zipkin服务器

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
@EnableZipkinServer  //zipkin服务器 默认使用http进行通信
public class ZipkinServerApp {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(ZipkinServerApp.class, args);
    }
}

  1.4 启动查看效果

    

2  分别在cloud-consumer-ribbon和cloud-consumer-feign中引入zipkin

  2.1 引入zipkin依赖

<!-- 配置服务链路追踪 -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-zipkin</artifactId>
</dependency>

   或

<!-- 配置服务链路追踪 -->
<dependency>  
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>  
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-sleuth-zipkin</artifactId>  
</dependency>  
<dependency>  
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>  
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-sleuth</artifactId>  
</dependency> 

  2.2 在配置文件中声明zipkin服务器的地址

spring:
 zipkin: 
  base-url: http://localhost:8769

  2.3 在项目中调用需要的服务

@RequestMapping("hello")
public String helloConsumer() {
        //使用restTemplate调用消费服务提供者的SERVICE-HI的info服务
        //String response=restTemplate.getForObject("http://cloud-consumer-feign/hi", String.class);
        String response=hiService.sayHello()+" ribbon";
        logger.info(response);
        return response;
}

   2.4 启动项目查看

    

    

    

  有时候可能在zipkin服务器中看不到数据,那是因为默认sleuth收集信息的比率是0.1 ,针对于这个问题有两种解决方法:

    a 在配置文件中配置 spring.sleuth.sampler.percentage=1

    b 在代码中声明

//100%的来采集日志,和在配置文件中配置spring.sleuth.sampler.percentage=1是一样的
@Bean
public AlwaysSampler defaultSampler(){
  return new AlwaysSampler();
}

  但这样每个请求都会向zipkin server发送http请求,通信效率低,造成网络延迟。

  而且所用的追踪信息都在内存中保存,重启zipkin server后信息丢失

  针对以上的问题的解决方法:

    a 采用socket或高效率的通信方式

    b 采用异步方式发送信息数据

    c 在客户端和zipkin之间增加缓存类的中间件,如redis,mq等,即时zipkin server重启过程中,客户端依然可以将数据发送成功

3 将http通信改为mq异步通信方式

  3.1 修改zipkin server

    3.1.1 将原来的依赖io.zipkin.java:zipkin-server换成spring-cloud-sleuth-zipkin-stream和spring-cloud-starter-stream-rabbit  

<!-- 引入zipkin-server -->
<!-- <dependency>
    <groupId>io.zipkin.java</groupId>
    <artifactId>zipkin-server</artifactId>
</dependency> -->

<!-- 将http请求修改为mq请求 -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-sleuth-zipkin-stream</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-stream-rabbit</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
    <groupId>io.zipkin.java</groupId>
    <artifactId>zipkin-autoconfigure-ui</artifactId>
</dependency>

    3.1.2 在配置文件中配置ribbitmq地址

spring: 
 application: 
  name: zipkin-server
 rabbitmq: #配置mq消息队列
  host: localhost 
  port: 5672 
  username: guest 
  password: guest

    3.1.3 在启动类中使用@EnableZipkinStreamServer替换@EnableZipkinServer

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
//@EnableZipkinServer  //zipkin服务器 默认使用http进行通信
@EnableZipkinStreamServer //采用stream方式启动zipkin server ,也支持http通信 包含了@EnableZipkinServer,同时创建了rabbit-mq消息队列监听器
public class ZipkinServerApp {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(ZipkinServerApp.class, args);
    }
}

  3.2 配置客户端(这里只配置一个客户端,其他的客户端配置一样配置即可)

    3.2.1 将原来的spring-cloud-starter-zipkin依赖,使用以下依赖进行替换

<!-- 配置服务链路追踪 -->
<!-- <dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-zipkin</artifactId>
</dependency> -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-sleuth-zipkin-stream</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-stream-rabbit</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-sleuth</artifactId>
</dependency>

    3.2.2 在配置文件中加入ribbitmq的配置

spring: 
 rabbitmq: #配置mq消息队列
  host: localhost 
  port: 5672 
  username: guest 
  password: guest

  3.3 现在启动其他项目,不启动zipkin server,进行项目访问,会把追踪信息放入到ribbitmq中,当zipkin server启动后会直接冲zipkin server中获取信息

     

      

4 将追踪信息保存到数据库(只需修改zipkin server即可)

  4.1 引入mysql数据库依赖

<!-- 配置mysql -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>mysql</groupId>
    <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
</dependency>

  4.2 在配置文件msql连接

spring: 
 sleuth: 
  enabled: false #表示当前程序不使用sleuth
 datasource: #配置msyql 连接
  schema[0]: classpath:/zipkin.sql #数据库创建脚本,可以到官网下载
  url: jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/zipkin?autoReconnect=true&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8&zeroDateTimeBehavior=convertToNull&useSSL=false  
  username: root
  password: root
  driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver 
  initialize: true
  continue-on-error: true
zipkin: 
 storage: 
  type: mysql #mysql存储zipkin追踪信息

  4.3 创建数据库和表

    CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS zipkin_spans (  
      `trace_id_high` BIGINT NOT NULL DEFAULT 0 COMMENT 'If non zero, this means the trace uses 128 bit traceIds instead of 64 bit',  
      `trace_id` BIGINT NOT NULL,  
      `id` BIGINT NOT NULL,  
      `name` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,  
      `parent_id` BIGINT,  
      `debug` BIT(1),  
      `start_ts` BIGINT COMMENT 'Span.timestamp(): epoch micros used for endTs query and to implement TTL',  
      `duration` BIGINT COMMENT 'Span.duration(): micros used for minDuration and maxDuration query'  
    ) ENGINE=InnoDB ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED CHARACTER SET=utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;  
      
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_spans ADD UNIQUE KEY(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`, `id`) COMMENT 'ignore insert on duplicate';  
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_spans ADD INDEX(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`, `id`) COMMENT 'for joining with zipkin_annotations';  
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_spans ADD INDEX(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`) COMMENT 'for getTracesByIds';  
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_spans ADD INDEX(`name`) COMMENT 'for getTraces and getSpanNames';  
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_spans ADD INDEX(`start_ts`) COMMENT 'for getTraces ordering and range';  
      
    CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS zipkin_annotations (  
      `trace_id_high` BIGINT NOT NULL DEFAULT 0 COMMENT 'If non zero, this means the trace uses 128 bit traceIds instead of 64 bit',  
      `trace_id` BIGINT NOT NULL COMMENT 'coincides with zipkin_spans.trace_id',  
      `span_id` BIGINT NOT NULL COMMENT 'coincides with zipkin_spans.id',  
      `a_key` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL COMMENT 'BinaryAnnotation.key or Annotation.value if type == -1',  
      `a_value` BLOB COMMENT 'BinaryAnnotation.value(), which must be smaller than 64KB',  
      `a_type` INT NOT NULL COMMENT 'BinaryAnnotation.type() or -1 if Annotation',  
      `a_timestamp` BIGINT COMMENT 'Used to implement TTL; Annotation.timestamp or zipkin_spans.timestamp',  
      `endpoint_ipv4` INT COMMENT 'Null when Binary/Annotation.endpoint is null',  
      `endpoint_ipv6` BINARY(16) COMMENT 'Null when Binary/Annotation.endpoint is null, or no IPv6 address',  
      `endpoint_port` SMALLINT COMMENT 'Null when Binary/Annotation.endpoint is null',  
      `endpoint_service_name` VARCHAR(255) COMMENT 'Null when Binary/Annotation.endpoint is null'  
    ) ENGINE=InnoDB ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED CHARACTER SET=utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;  
      
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD UNIQUE KEY(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`, `span_id`, `a_key`, `a_timestamp`) COMMENT 'Ignore insert on duplicate';  
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`, `span_id`) COMMENT 'for joining with zipkin_spans';  
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`) COMMENT 'for getTraces/ByIds';  
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`endpoint_service_name`) COMMENT 'for getTraces and getServiceNames';  
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`a_type`) COMMENT 'for getTraces';  
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`a_key`) COMMENT 'for getTraces';  
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`trace_id`, `span_id`, `a_key`) COMMENT 'for dependencies job';  
      
    CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS zipkin_dependencies (  
      `day` DATE NOT NULL,  
      `parent` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,  
      `child` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,  
      `call_count` BIGINT  
    ) ENGINE=InnoDB ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED CHARACTER SET=utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;  
      
    ALTER TABLE zipkin_dependencies ADD UNIQUE KEY(`day`, `parent`, `child`);  

 

posted on 2018-05-15 16:11 YL10000 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏