python爬虫之xpath的基本使用

一、简介

  XPath 是一门在 XML 文档中查找信息的语言。XPath 可用来在 XML 文档中对元素和属性进行遍历。XPath 是 W3C XSLT 标准的主要元素,并且 XQuery 和 XPointer 都构建于 XPath 表达之上。

   参照

二、安装

pip3 install lxml

 

三、使用

  1、导入

from lxml import etree

  2、基本使用

from lxml import etree

wb_data = """
        <div>
            <ul>
                 <li class="item-0"><a href="link1.html">first item</a></li>
                 <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
                 <li class="item-inactive"><a href="link3.html">third item</a></li>
                 <li class="item-1"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
                 <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a>
             </ul>
         </div>
        """
html = etree.HTML(wb_data)
print(html)
result = etree.tostring(html)
print(result.decode("utf-8"))

  从下面的结果来看,我们打印机html其实就是一个python对象,etree.tostring(html)则是不全里html的基本写法,补全了缺胳膊少腿的标签。

<Element html at 0x39e58f0>
<html><body><div>
            <ul>
                 <li class="item-0"><a href="link1.html">first item</a></li>
                 <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
                 <li class="item-inactive"><a href="link3.html">third item</a></li>
                 <li class="item-1"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
                 <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a>
             </li></ul>
         </div>
        </body></html>

  3、获取某个标签的内容(基本使用),注意,获取a标签的所有内容,a后面就不用再加正斜杠,否则报错。

  写法一

html = etree.HTML(wb_data)
html_data = html.xpath('/html/body/div/ul/li/a')
print(html)
for i in html_data:
    print(i.text)


<Element html at 0x12fe4b8>
first item
second item
third item
fourth item
fifth item

  写法二(直接在需要查找内容的标签后面加一个/text()就行)

html = etree.HTML(wb_data)
html_data = html.xpath('/html/body/div/ul/li/a/text()')
print(html)
for i in html_data:
    print(i)

<Element html at 0x138e4b8>
first item
second item
third item
fourth item
fifth item

  4、打开读取html文件

#使用parse打开html的文件
html = etree.parse('test.html')
html_data = html.xpath('//*')
#打印是一个列表,需要遍历 print(html_data) for i in html_data: print(i.text)

  

html = etree.parse('test.html')
html_data = etree.tostring(html,pretty_print=True)
res = html_data.decode('utf-8')
print(res)

打印:
<div>
     <ul>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link1.html">first item</a></li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
         <li class="item-inactive"><a href="link3.html">third item</a></li>
         <li class="item-1"><a href="link4.html">fourth item</a></li>
         <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html">fifth item</a></li>
     </ul>
</div>

  5、打印指定路径下a标签的属性(可以通过遍历拿到某个属性的值,查找标签的内容)

html = etree.HTML(wb_data)
html_data = html.xpath('/html/body/div/ul/li/a/@href')
for i in html_data:
    print(i)

打印:
link1.html
link2.html
link3.html
link4.html
link5.html

  6、我们知道我们使用xpath拿到得都是一个个的ElementTree对象,所以如果需要查找内容的话,还需要遍历拿到数据的列表。

  查到绝对路径下a标签属性等于link2.html的内容。

html = etree.HTML(wb_data)
html_data = html.xpath('/html/body/div/ul/li/a[@href="link2.html"]/text()')
print(html_data)
for i in html_data:
    print(i)

打印:
['second item']
second item

  7、上面我们找到全部都是绝对路径(每一个都是从根开始查找),下面我们查找相对路径,例如,查找所有li标签下的a标签内容。

html = etree.HTML(wb_data)
html_data = html.xpath('//li/a/text()')
print(html_data)
for i in html_data:
    print(i)

打印:
['first item', 'second item', 'third item', 'fourth item', 'fifth item']
first item
second item
third item
fourth item
fifth item

  8、上面我们使用绝对路径,查找了所有a标签的属性等于href属性值,利用的是/---绝对路径,下面我们使用相对路径,查找一下l相对路径下li标签下的a标签下的href属性的值,注意,a标签后面需要双//。

html = etree.HTML(wb_data)
html_data = html.xpath('//li/a//@href')
print(html_data)
for i in html_data:
    print(i)

打印:
['link1.html', 'link2.html', 'link3.html', 'link4.html', 'link5.html']
link1.html
link2.html
link3.html
link4.html
link5.html

  9、相对路径下跟绝对路径下查特定属性的方法类似,也可以说相同。

html = etree.HTML(wb_data)
html_data = html.xpath('//li/a[@href="link2.html"]')
print(html_data)
for i in html_data:
    print(i.text)

打印:
[<Element a at 0x216e468>]
second item

  10、查找最后一个li标签里的a标签的href属性

html = etree.HTML(wb_data)
html_data = html.xpath('//li[last()]/a/text()')
print(html_data)
for i in html_data:
    print(i)

打印:
['fifth item']
fifth item

  11、查找倒数第二个li标签里的a标签的href属性

html = etree.HTML(wb_data)
html_data = html.xpath('//li[last()-1]/a/text()')
print(html_data)
for i in html_data:
    print(i)

打印:
['fourth item']
fourth item

  12、如果在提取某个页面的某个标签的xpath路径的话,可以如下图:

  //*[@id="kw"] 

  解释:使用相对路径查找所有的标签,属性id等于kw的标签。

 

 

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from scrapy.selector import Selector, HtmlXPathSelector
from scrapy.http import HtmlResponse
html = """<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head lang="en">
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <title></title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <ul>
            <li class="item-"><a id='i1' href="link.html">first item</a></li>
            <li class="item-0"><a id='i2' href="llink.html">first item</a></li>
            <li class="item-1"><a href="llink2.html">second item<span>vv</span></a></li>
        </ul>
        <div><a href="llink2.html">second item</a></div>
    </body>
</html>
"""
response = HtmlResponse(url='http://example.com', body=html,encoding='utf-8')
# hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response)
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[2]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[@id]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[@id="i1"]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[@href="link.html"][@id="i1"]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[contains(@href, "link")]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[starts-with(@href, "link")]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[re:test(@id, "i\d+")]')
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[re:test(@id, "i\d+")]/text()').extract()
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[re:test(@id, "i\d+")]/@href').extract()
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('/html/body/ul/li/a/@href').extract()
# print(hxs)
# hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//body/ul/li/a/@href').extract_first()
# print(hxs)
 
# ul_list = Selector(response=response).xpath('//body/ul/li')
# for item in ul_list:
#     v = item.xpath('./a/span')
#     # 或
#     # v = item.xpath('a/span')
#     # 或
#     # v = item.xpath('*/a/span')
#     print(v)
常用

 

posted @ 2017-09-11 17:43  Charles.L  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏