凯鲁嘎吉
用书写铭记日常,最迷人的不在远方
posts - 169,comments - 29,trackbacks - 0

Cooperation、Collaboration与Coordination的区别

作者:凯鲁嘎吉 - 博客园 http://www.cnblogs.com/kailugaji/

1. Cooperation

1.1 同根词

v.  cooperate

n.  cooperation

adj.  cooperative

1.2 词义解释

Cooperation is simply splitting up the work and getting it done. To work or act together toward a common end or purpose. Cooperation is important in networks where individuals exchange relevant information and resources in support of each other’s goals, rather than a shared goal. Something new may be achieved as a result, but it arises from the individual, not from a collective team effort.

Cooperation 的意思有“合作、协作”, 通力协作但是各有分工,大家各取所需,解决某些问题,另外它还有“配合、协助”的意思,指“一方与其它方相互配合完成任务”,表示的意思定义较为广泛,而且传达纯粹的“共同努力”的概念,重点在于共同努力本身的过程。通常在英文语境中Cooperation 给人“长期合作”的印象。

1.3 例句

The leaders met to discuss future cooperation between the two countries.

领导人会晤讨论两国未来的合作。这里用 cooperation 来体现两国可以在众多领域“相互配合”,通过合作对各自的国家都有利。

This biography was written with the cooperation of the Nobel Prize winner’s family.

这篇传记是得到了诺贝尔奖获奖者家庭的配合写成的。这里我们可以从 cooperation 看出,诺贝尔奖获奖者的家人提供了信息帮助作家写书,起“协助”作用。

We make mobile phone components in cooperation with our US partner.

我们与美国合作伙伴联合生产手机零件。这里 cooperation 指“长期的合作”,我们公司与美国合作伙伴各自有明确的责任,相互配合完成生产任务。

The patient did not cooperate with her physical therapist.

病人没有和她的理疗师合作。

Your cooperation in dealing with this problem is requested.

请你们合作处理这个问题。

The referee did not cooperate with the editor.

裁判没有与编辑合作。

Japan and France cooperate on improving safety of nuclear power stations.

日本和法国在改善核电站安全方面进行合作。(这里,双方将从合作中受益,但都是为了各自的利益。)

以下几个例句中,只能用 cooperation,指“配合、协助”。比如:

Thank you for your cooperation!

感谢您的配合。这是一个固定表达,经常出现在公共告示上。

We ask for your full cooperation during the investigation.

我们要求你完全配合我们的调查。

以上我们可以感觉 cooperation 所表述的合作是“单纯的合作,配合对方”,没有 collaboration 所表达的“不分彼此的合作”的意思。

2. Collaboration

2.1 同根词

v.  collaborate

n.  collaboration

adj.  collaborative

2.2 词义解释

Collaboration is when you brainstorm, create, and share possible solutions. To work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort. Collaboration is working together to create something new in support of a shared vision. The key points are that it is not through individual effort, something new is created, and that the glue is the shared vision.

Collaboration 的意思是“合作、协作”,指“两个或更多的人或团队一起合作,共同创造或实现同一个目标”。为了一个共同目标而努力奋斗,不分彼此。通常情况下是不可数名词,当它指具体项目时就是可数名词了。Collaboration 通常给人有“积极、主动参与”的印象,表达的概念更为精准。具体而言,Collaboration不仅是纯粹的“共同努力”,其表达了“通过共同努力达到特定结果”的概念,强调这个过程希望达到的成果。通常在英文语境中Collaboration 给人感觉是针对一个“有时限的项目”。

2.3 例句

We can work in collaboration to make this conference a success.

我们可以一起合作,使这次会议取得成功。这里 collaboration 是不可数名词。

Jake wrote a book on UK early years education in collaboration with child development specialist Ruth.

Jake 与儿童发展专家 Ruth 合作,共同撰写了一本有关“英国早教”的书。

Our company was involved in a collaboration with another organization to raise awareness of cyberbullying.

我们公司和另一家机构合作,共同提高大众对“网络欺凌”的认识。

It’s important that creative collaboration is encouraged between departments.

鼓励部门之间有创造性的合作是很重要的。

Thomas and Yamada have collaborated on several research projects.

托马斯和山田合作了几个研究项目。

We are presently collaborating on three papers.

我们目前正在合作写三篇论文。

Their collaboration produced important results.

他们的合作产生了重要的成果。

USA and Russia collaborated to build the International Space Station.

美国和俄罗斯合作建造了国际空间站。(这里,最终目标是所有相关方的共同目标。)

在以上几个例句中我们都能感受到合作方之间那种“不分彼此,积极、主动合作或参与”的感觉。

3. Coordination

3.1 同根词

v.  coordinate

n.  coordination

adj.  coordinative

3.2 词义解释

Coordination is sharing information and resources so that each party can accomplish their part in support of a mutual objective. It is about teamwork in implementation. Not creating something new. Work together harmoniously. The regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation.

3.3 例句

Intoxication interferes with speech and coordination.

醉酒会影响言语能力和协调性。

This grave situation shows the urgency of enhancing international coordination and cooperation.

形势越严峻,越显示出加强国际协调和合作的必要和迫切。

Facilitate team collaboration and coordination throughout the software lifecycle.

促进团队协作和整个软件生命周期中的协作。

4. 三者比较

 

Coordination

Cooperation

Collaboration

Preconditions for Success ("Must-Haves")

Shared objectives; Need for more than one person to be involved; Understanding of who needs to do what by when

Shared objectives; Need for more than one person to be involved; Mutual trust and respect; Acknowledgment of mutual benefit of working together

Shared objectives; Sense of urgency and commitment; Dynamic process; Sense of belonging; Open communication; Mutual trust and respect; Complementary, diverse skills and knowledge; Intellectual agility

Enablers (Additional "Nice to Haves")

Appropriate tools; Problem resolution mechanism

Frequent consultation and knowledge-sharing between participants; Clear role definitions; Appropriate tools

Right mix of people; Collaboration skills and practice collaborating; Good facilitator(s); Collaborative 'Four Practices' mindset and other appropriate tools

Purpose of Using This Approach

Avoid gaps & overlap in individuals' assigned work

Obtain mutual benefit by sharing or partitioning work

Achieve collective results that the participants would be incapable of accomplishing working alone

Desired Outcome

Efficiently-achieved results meeting objectives

Same as for Coordination, plus savings in time and cost

Same as for Cooperation, plus innovative, extraordinary, breakthrough results, and collective 'we did that!' accomplishment

Optimal Application

Harmonizing tasks, roles and schedules in simple environments and systems

Solving problems in complicated environments and systems

Enabling the emergence of understanding and realization of shared visions in complex environments and systems

Examples

Project to implement off-the-shelf IT application; Traffic flow regulation

Marriage; Operating a local community-owned utility or grain elevator; Coping with an epidemic or catastrophe

Brainstorming to discover a dramatically better way to do something; Jazz or theatrical improvisation; Co-creation

Appropriate Tools

Project management tools with schedules, roles, critical path (CPM), PERT and GANTT charts; "who will do what by when" action lists

Systems thinking; Analytical tools (root cause analysis etc.)

Appreciative inquiry; Open Space meeting protocols; Four Practices; Conversations; Stories

Degree of interdependence in designing the effort's work-products (and need for physical co-location of participants)

Minimal

Considerable

Substantial

Degree of individual latitude in carrying out the agreed-upon design

Minimal

Considerable

Substantial

5. 参考资料

Collaboration 和 cooperation 的区别  http://www.xdf.cn/bbc/yingyu/201707/10697111.html

Cooperate 与 Collaborate https://www.enago.cn/academy/cooperate-%E4%B8%8E-collaborate/

cooperative 和 collaborative的区别?https://www.zhihu.com/question/24216541

如何使用正确的英文词汇系列讲座(26): 合作的英文怎么说?http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3316383-1181939.html

collaborate COOPERATE COODINATE有什么细微的区别吗? https://zhidao.baidu.com/question/586719279.html

cooperation VS. collaboration 区别 http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_6478252a01011gqi.html

posted on 2019-10-14 11:15  凯鲁嘎吉  阅读(...)  评论(... 编辑 收藏