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RMAN异机恢复快速参考

2015-09-14 14:43  AlfredZhao  阅读(7762)  评论(1编辑  收藏

应用场景:服务器A为正常运行的生产环境,需要在服务器B上部署一套相同环境做测试。
数据库环境:RHEL6.4 + Oracle 11.2.0.4.7

一、 服务器A备份数据库

二、 服务器B恢复数据库

一、 服务器A备份数据库

1.1 在线备份(数据库运行在归档模式)

``` nohup /bin/bash backup_all.sh & ``` 备份完将所有备份介质传到服务器B(如果两台机器是内连网络,可以考虑结合NFS服务从一开始就备份到服务器B上)。

1.2 备份脚本内容

``` #!/bin/bash #ScriptName:backup_all.sh #Usage: backup all files in oracle user environment. #ex: nohup /bin/bash backup_all.sh > backup.log & #Author: Alfred Zhao #Creation: 2015-09-11 #Version: 1.0.0

Define variable

basedir=/u01/orabak
date=date +%Y%m%d

Create pfile

sqlplus / as sysdba <<EOF
create pfile='$basedir/pfile$date.ora' from spfile;
EOF

RMAN BACKUP

rman target / log=$basedir/backup_all_$date.log <<EOF
run{
allocate channel c1 device type disk;
allocate channel c2 device type disk;
backup database filesperset 4 format '$basedir/full_%d_%T_%s_%p';
sql 'alter system archive log current';
sql 'alter system archive log current';
sql 'alter system archive log current';
sql 'alter system archive log current';
backup archivelog all format '$basedir/arch_%d_%T_%s_%p' delete input;
backup current controlfile format '$basedir/ctl_%d_%T_%s_%p';
release channel c1;
release channel c2;
}
EOF


<h1 id="2">2. 服务器B恢复数据库</h1>
<h2 id="2.1">2.1 服务器B安装数据库软件</h2>
参考[http://www.cnblogs.com/jyzhao/p/3891769.html](http://www.cnblogs.com/jyzhao/p/3891769.html)安装数据库软件及之前的相关配置。
然后创建密码文件:

orapwd file=$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapw$ORACLE_SID password=oracle force=y entries=5

<h2 id="2.2">2.2 启动实例到nomount状态(指定pfile文件)</h2>
将`$basedir/pfile$date.ora`文件复制到`$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init$ORACLE_SID.ora`,根据实际服务器B的情况修改。然后启动实例到nomount状态(指定pfile文件)。

startup nomount pfile='$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init$ORACLE_SID.ora'

<h2 id="2.3">2.3 RMAN恢复控制文件,确定备份集有效性</h2>
### 2.3.1 RMAN恢复控制文件,启动数据库到mount状态,确定备份集有效性 ###

backupControlFile=/u01/orabak/backup/ctl_JINGYU_20150911_46_1
rman target / > crosscheck.log <<EOF
restore controlfile from '$backupControlFile';
alter database mount;
crosscheck backupset;
EOF

### 2.3.2 如果备份集无效,删除无效备份集,手工注册备份集 ###
一般是两台主机的备份目录不一样,控制文件记录的备份集路径找不到对应的备份集,状态为'EXPIRED',此时应该删除这些过期的备份集,catalog新的备份集,再次确认备份集有效性。

rman target / > catalog.log <<EOF
catalog backuppiece '/u01/orabak/backup/full_JINGYU_20150911_39_1';
catalog backuppiece '/u01/orabak/backup/full_JINGYU_20150911_40_1';
catalog backuppiece '/u01/orabak/backup/full_JINGYU_20150911_41_1';
catalog backuppiece '/u01/orabak/backup/full_JINGYU_20150911_42_1';
catalog backuppiece '/u01/orabak/backup/arch_JINGYU_20150911_43_1';
catalog backuppiece '/u01/orabak/backup/arch_JINGYU_20150911_44_1';
catalog backuppiece '/u01/orabak/backup/arch_JINGYU_20150911_45_1';
crosscheck backupset;
delete noprompt expired backupset;
EOF

<h2 id="2.4">2.4 RMAN恢复数据库</h2>
### 2.4.1 restore数据文件 ###
如果数据文件存放目录已经更改,需要重命名还原。

rman target / log=restore.log <<EOF
run {
allocate channel c1 device type disk;
allocate channel c2 device type disk;
set newname for datafile 1 to '/u01/oradata02/o1_mf_system_01.dbf';
set newname for datafile 2 to '/u01/oradata02/o1_mf_sysaux_01.dbf';
set newname for datafile 3 to '/u01/oradata02/o1_mf_undotbs1_01.dbf';
set newname for datafile 4 to '/u01/oradata02/o1_mf_users_01.dbf';
set newname for datafile 5 to '/u01/oradata02/o1_mf_dbs_d_ji_01.dbf';
set newname for datafile 6 to '/u01/oradata02/o1_mf_dbs_d_lu_01.dbf';
set newname for datafile 7 to '/u01/oradata02/o1_mf_dbs_d_xx_01.dbf';
set newname for datafile 8 to '/u01/oradata02/o1_mf_dbs_i_xx_01.dbf';
restore database;
switch datafile all;
release channel c1;
release channel c2;
}
EOF

### 2.4.2 recover数据文件 ###
#### 2.4.2.1 recover database; ####

rman target / log=recover.log <<EOF
recover database;
EOF


#### 2.4.2.2 recover database until scn xxxxxxx; ####

scn=1463689
rman target / log=recover$scn.log <<EOF
recover database until scn $scn;
EOF

这个scn根据上一步的日志信息获取。

### 2.4.3 修改日志文件路径 ###

new_dest=/usr3/oradata/sysdata/redo_file
sqlplus / as sysdba > logfile.log<<EOF
set linesize 180 pagesize 100
select 'alter database rename file '''||member||''' to ''$new_dest/redoXXX.log'';' from v$logfile;
EOF

**注意:**可以用UE列编辑模式快速处理下新的redo文件名字(即redoXXX.log改为对应的实际值)。

### 2.4.4 修改临时文件路径 ###

new_dest=/usr3/oradata/sysdata
sqlplus / as sysdba > tempfile.log<<EOF
set linesize 180 pagesize 100
select 'alter database rename file '''||name||''' to ''$new_dest/tempXXX.dbf'';' from v$tempfile;
EOF

**注意:**同样处理下新的temp文件名字(即tempXXX.dbf改为对应的实际值)。

### 2.4.5 打开数据库(resetlogs) ###

sqlplus / as sysdba > dbopen.log<<EOF
alter database open resetlogs;
EOF

启动过程中会自动创建redo文件,temp文件。

<h2 id="2.5">2.5 恢复后操作</h2>
### 2.5.1 查看数据库基本信息 ###
查看数据库实例和库的状态,数据文件、临时文件、日志文件、控制文件、参数文件路径信息。

sqlplus / as sysdba > dbstatus.log <<EOF
select instance_name, status from v$instance;
select dbid, open_mode from v$database;
select file_name from dba_data_files;
select file_name from dba_temp_files;
select member from v$logfile;
show parameter control
show parameter pfile
EOF

### 2.5.2 创建spfile文件,重启数据库 ###
创建spfile文件

sqlplus / as sysdba > createSpfile.log <<EOF
create spfile from pfile;
EOF

关闭数据库

sqlplus / as sysdba > shutdownDB.log <<EOF
shutdown immediate
EOF

启动数据库

sqlplus / as sysdba > startDB.log <<EOF
startup
EOF


### 2.5.3 监听的配置 ###
修改监听配置文件:`$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/listener.ora`

LISTENER =
(DESCRIPTION_LIST =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = JY-DB02)(PORT = 1521))
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC1521))
)
)

ADR_BASE_LISTENER = /u01/app/oracle

对应服务器主机名相关的3处修改:
  1. hostname显示正确主机名
  2. /etc/sysconfig/network中HOSTNAME配置
  3. /etc/hosts中IP地址和主机名的对应关系
启动监听及查看监听状态:

lsnrctl start
lsnrctl status