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RHEL6.4 + Oracle 11g DG测试环境快速搭建参考

2015-03-30 20:32  AlfredZhao  阅读(...)  评论(... 编辑 收藏

环境现状:

两台虚拟主机A和B:
1. A机器已安装ASM存储的Oracle 11g 实例
2. B机器已安装系统,配置以及目录结构均和A机器保持一致
     /u01 + 3块ASM盘
 
DG部署规划:
  primary standby
主机 JY-DB JY-DBS
db_name jyzhao jyzhao
db_unique_name jyzhao jyzhao_s
instance_name jyzhao jyzhao_s
存储 +DATA1 +DATA1
归档
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch
DGMGRL jyzhao_dgmgrl jyzhao_s_dgmgrl
GRID_HOME
/u01/app/11.2.0/grid
/u01/app/11.2.0/grid
ORACLE_HOME
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1
 

一、前期准备

1.1. A机器打包拷贝/u01/app到B机器(包含了grid和oracle软件安装目录)

# tar -zcvf app.tar.gz app

# scp app.tar.gz 192.168.99.160:/u01/
root@192.168.99.160's password:
app.tar.gz                                                                                                                           100% 3564MB  54.8MB/s   01:05 
B机器解压,解压前确保第二步操作已完成。

# pwd
/u01
[root@JY-DBS u01]# ls
app.tar.gz  lost+found
[root@JY-DBS u01]# tar -zxvf app.tar.gz 
解压完成后,检查权限是正确的
# ls -lh
total 3.5G
drwxrwxr-x. 7 oracle oinstall 4.0K Mar 13 14:47 app
-rw-r--r--. 1 root   root     3.5G Mar 15 22:28 app.tar.gz

1.2. B机器配置用户,系统参数,安装依赖包,用户环境变量,ASM磁盘

配置用户,系统参数,安装依赖包,用户环境变量
注:在第一步解压前做完,会发现权限都是正确的不用费心再改
root用户执行脚本
# /u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/root.sh
# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/perl/bin/perl -I/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/perl/lib -I/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/roothas.pl

配置has
需要建立asm磁盘组

环境变量:
vi $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init+ASM.ora

*.asm_diskstring='/dev/mapper/ora*'
*.asm_power_limit=1
*.diagnostic_dest='/u01/app/grid'
*.instance_type='asm'
*.large_pool_size=12M
*.remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'

$ sqlplus / as sysdba
 SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Mon Mar 16 10:51:02 2015
 Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 Connected to an idle instance.
 SQL> startup
ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters
ORA-29701: unable to connect to Cluster Synchronization Service

$  crsctl stat res -t
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NAME           TARGET  STATE        SERVER                   STATE_DETAILS      
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Local Resources
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ora.ons
               OFFLINE OFFLINE      jy-dbs                                      
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cluster Resources
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ora.cssd
      1        OFFLINE OFFLINE                                                  
ora.diskmon
      1        OFFLINE OFFLINE                                                  
ora.evmd
      1        ONLINE  ONLINE       jy-dbs             
$  crsctl start resource ora.cssd
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.cssd' on 'jy-dbs'
CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.diskmon' on 'jy-dbs'
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.diskmon' on 'jy-dbs' succeeded
CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.cssd' on 'jy-dbs' succeeded
$ crsctl status res -t
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NAME           TARGET  STATE        SERVER                   STATE_DETAILS      
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Local Resources
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ora.ons
               OFFLINE OFFLINE      jy-dbs                                      
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cluster Resources
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ora.cssd
      1        ONLINE  ONLINE       jy-dbs                                      
ora.diskmon
      1        OFFLINE OFFLINE                                                  
ora.evmd
      1        ONLINE  ONLINE       jy-dbs        

$ sqlplus / as sysasm

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Mon Mar 16 10:55:39 2015

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ASM instance started

Total System Global Area 1135747072 bytes
Fixed Size                  2260728 bytes
Variable Size            1108320520 bytes
ASM Cache                  25165824 bytes
ORA-15110: no diskgroups mounted

SQL> select status from v$instance;
STATUS
------------------------
STARTED             

col description for a35
col process for a35
set linesize 120
select sid, serial#, process, name, description from v$session join v$bgprocess using(paddr);

col path for a45
col name for a30             
select group_number, disk_number, mount_status, name, path from v$asm_disk order by group_number, disk_number;
 GROUP_NUMBER DISK_NUMBER MOUNT_STATUS   NAME                           PATH
------------ ----------- -------------- ------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------
           0           0 CLOSED                                        /dev/mapper/ora_vg-lv_asm3
           0           1 CLOSED                                        /dev/mapper/ora_vg-lv_asm2
           0           2 CLOSED                                        /dev/mapper/ora_vg-lv_asm1

查看A机器的磁盘组信息:
select group_number, name, type, total_mb, free_mb from v$asm_diskgroup
 GROUP_NUMBER NAME                                                         TYPE           TOTAL_MB    FREE_MB
------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ------------ ---------- ----------
           1 DATA1                                                        EXTERN            30708      29017

B机器创建ASM磁盘组DATA1:
select group_number, name, type, total_mb, free_mb from v$asm_diskgroup;
 no rows selected

CREATE DISKGROUP data1 EXTERNAL REDUNDANCY DISK '/dev/mapper/ora*';
Diskgroup created.

select group_number, name, type, total_mb, free_mb from v$asm_diskgroup;

GROUP_NUMBER NAME                                                         TYPE           TOTAL_MB    FREE_MB
------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ------------ ---------- ----------
           1 DATA1                                                        EXTERN            30708      30654

至此,准备工作结束。

二、DG部署配置

2.1 primary database 配置

确保将数据库的force_logging打开,设置为归档模式,数据库闪回打开

SQL> select name from v$datafile;

NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+DATA1/jyzhao/datafile/system.256.874084601
+DATA1/jyzhao/datafile/sysaux.257.874084601
+DATA1/jyzhao/datafile/undotbs1.258.874084601
+DATA1/jyzhao/datafile/users.259.874084601

SQL> select force_logging from v$database;
FOR
---
NO

SQL> alter database force logging;
 Database altered.

SQL> shutdown immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.
 Total System Global Area 1620115456 bytes
Fixed Size                  2253704 bytes
Variable Size            1006636152 bytes
Database Buffers          603979776 bytes
Redo Buffers                7245824 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> alter database archivelog;
 Database altered.

SQL> alter database flashback on;
alter database flashback on
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-38706: Cannot turn on FLASHBACK DATABASE logging.
ORA-38709: Recovery Area is not enabled.

SQL> archive log list
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch
Oldest online log sequence     12
Next log sequence to archive   14
Current log sequence           14

$ mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch

SQL> alter database flashback on;
alter database flashback on
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-38706: Cannot turn on FLASHBACK DATABASE logging.
ORA-38709: Recovery Area is not enabled.

SQL> show parameter db_recover
 NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_recovery_file_dest                string
db_recovery_file_dest_size           big integer 0
SQL> alter system set db_recovery_file_dest_size=5G;
 System altered.

SQL> alter system set db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch';
 System altered.

SQL> select status from v$instance;
 STATUS
------------
MOUNTED
 SQL> alter database flashback on;
 Database altered.

按之前的规划设置数据库的参数

主要是db_unique_name, log_archive_config, log_archive_dest_1,  log_archive_dest_2, log_archive_format, fal_server, fal_client, standby_file_management的设置,standby logfile的添加,密码文件的创建。
alter system set db_unique_name='jyzhao' scope=spfile;  
alter system set log_archive_config='DG_CONFIG=(jyzhao,jyzhao_s)'  scope=spfile; 

alter system set log_archive_dest_1='LOCATION=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch VALID_FOR=(ALL_LOGFILES,ALL_ROLES) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=jyzhao' scope=spfile;  
alter system set log_archive_dest_2='SERVICE=jyzhao_s ASYNC LGWR VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=jyzhao_s' scope=spfile;

alter system set log_archive_format='arch_%r_%t_%s.arc' scope=spfile;
alter system set fal_server=jyzhao_s scope=spfile; 
alter system set fal_client=jyzhao scope=spfile; 
alter system set standby_file_management=AUTO; 
alter database add standby logfile group 4 size 50M; 
alter database add standby logfile group 5 size 50M; 
alter database add standby logfile group 6 size 50M; 
alter database add standby logfile group 7 size 50M; 

rm /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/orapwjyzhao
orapwd file=$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orapwjyzhao password=oracle entries=10 ignorecase=Y 

grid用户配置监听
--listener.ora

DGL =
   (DESCRIPTION =
        (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = JY-DB)(PORT = 1521))
   ) 
  
SID_LIST_DGL =
   (SID_LIST =
        (SID_DESC =
          (GLOBAL_DBNAME = jyzhao)
          (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)
          (SID_NAME = jyzhao)    
        )    
        (SID_DESC =      
          (GLOBAL_DBNAME = jyzhao_dgmgrl)      
          (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)      
          (SID_NAME = jyzhao)
        )  
    )      
                     
ADR_BASE_DGL = /u01/app/grid

oracle用户配置tnsnames.ora
--tnsnames.ora

JYZHAO =
   (DESCRIPTION =
     (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = JY-DB)(PORT = 1521))
     (CONNECT_DATA =
       (SERVER = DEDICATED)
       (SERVICE_NAME = jyzhao )
     )
   )   
JYZHAO_S =
   (DESCRIPTION =    
     (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = JY-DBS)(PORT = 1521))    
     (CONNECT_DATA =      
       (SERVER = DEDICATED)      
       (SERVICE_NAME = jyzhao_s)
     ) 
   )  

grid用户重启监听:

lsnrctl stop dgl
lsnrctl start dgl

oracle用户测试连接:

sqlplus sys/oracle@jyzhao as sysdba
sqlplus sys/oracle@JY-DB/jyzhao_dgmgrl as sysdba
sqlplus sys/oracle@JY-DB/jyzhao as sysdba
 SQL> show parameter audi
 NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
audit_file_dest                      string      /u01/app/oracle/admin/jyzhao/a
                                                 dump
重启primary
shutdown immediate
startup

2.2 机器B:standby数据库配置

grid用户配置监听
--listener.ora
DGL =
   (DESCRIPTION =
        (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = JY-DBS)(PORT = 1521))
   ) 
  
SID_LIST_DGL =
   (SID_LIST =
        (SID_DESC =
          (GLOBAL_DBNAME = jyzhao_s)
          (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)
          (SID_NAME = jyzhao_s)    
        )    
        (SID_DESC =      
          (GLOBAL_DBNAME = jyzhao_s_dgmgrl)      
          (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)      
          (SID_NAME = jyzhao_s)
) ) ADR_BASE_DGL = /u01/app/grid

grid用户启动监听
$ lsnrctl start dgl
oracle用户配置tnsnames.ora
--tnsnames.ora

JYZHAO =
   (DESCRIPTION =
     (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = JY-DB)(PORT = 1521))
     (CONNECT_DATA =
       (SERVER = DEDICATED)
       (SERVICE_NAME = jyzhao )
     )
   )   
JYZHAO_S =
   (DESCRIPTION =    
     (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = JY-DBS)(PORT = 1521))    
     (CONNECT_DATA =      
       (SERVER = DEDICATED)      
       (SERVICE_NAME = jyzhao_s)
     ) 
   )  
echo "db_name=jyzhao" >> $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initjyzhao_s.ora
echo $ORACLE_SID
 sqlplus / as sysdba
startup nomount
oracle用户测试连接  :
sqlplus sys/oracle@jyzhao as sysdba
sqlplus sys/oracle@jyzhao_s as sysdba
sqlplus sys/oracle@JY-DBS/jyzhao_s_dgmgrl as sysdba
sqlplus sys/oracle@JY-DBS/jyzhao_s as sysdba  

2.3 机器A操作 duplicate数据库到机器B

验证到机器B可以登录
$ sqlplus sys/oracle@jyzhao_s as sysdba
vi duplicate_dg.sql 
duplicate target database
for standby
from active database
DORECOVER
spfile
set db_unique_name='jyzhao_s'
set log_archive_dest_1='location=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch VALID_FOR=(ALL_LOGFILES,ALL_ROLES)
DB_UNIQUE_NAME=jyzhao_s'
set log_archive_dest_2='SERVICE=jyzhao ASYNC LGWR
VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=jyzhao'
set standby_file_management='AUTO'
set fal_server='jyzhao'
set fal_client='jyzhao_s'
set control_files='+DATA1'
set memory_target='0'
set sga_target='600M'; 
[oracle@JY-DB ~]$  rman target / auxiliary sys/oracle@jyzhaos cmdfile=duplicate_standby.sql
 Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Mon Mar 16 23:21:37 2015
 Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.
 connected to target database: JYZHAO (DBID=2463175424)
connected to auxiliary database: JYZHAO (not mounted)
 RMAN> duplicate target database
2> for standby
3> from active database
4> DORECOVER
5> spfile
6> set db_unique_name='jyzhao_s'
7> set log_archive_dest_1='location=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch VALID_FOR=(ALL_LOGFILES,ALL_ROLES)
8> DB_UNIQUE_NAME=jyzhao_s'
9> set log_archive_dest_2='SERVICE=MACDBN ASYNC LGWR
10> VALID_FOR=(ONLINE_LOGFILES,PRIMARY_ROLE) DB_UNIQUE_NAME=jyzhao'
11> set standby_file_management='AUTO'
12> set fal_server='jyzhao'
13> set fal_client='jyzhao_s'
14> set control_files='+DATA1'
15> set memory_target='0'
16> set sga_target='600M';
17>
Starting Duplicate Db at 16-MAR-15
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_AUX_DISK_1
channel ORA_AUX_DISK_1: SID=111 device type=DISK
……
Recovery Manager complete.
[oracle@JY-DB ~]$ 

2.4 B机器 srvctl add数据库jyzhao_s

注:开始_s有问题,是因为添加指定的参数不足:
srvctl add database -d jyzhao_s -o /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1 -p  +DATA1/JYZHAO_S/spfilejyzhao_s.ora -n jyzhao -i jyzhao_s

srvctl modify database -d jyzhao_s -r PHYSICAL_STANDBY

三、DG切换测试

3.1 手动switchover

1主库切换成standby,启动到mount
select OPEN_MODE, DATABASE_ROLE, SWITCHOVER_STATUS, FORCE_LOGGING, DATAGUARD_BROKER, GUARD_STATUS from v$database;
alter database commit to switchover to physical standby;

2.备库切换成primary,启动到open

select OPEN_MODE, DATABASE_ROLE, SWITCHOVER_STATUS, FORCE_LOGGING, DATAGUARD_BROKER, GUARD_STATUS from v$database;
alter database commit to switchover to primary;

3.新的备库执行日志应用

alter database recover managed standby database using current logfile disconnect from session;

3.2 Data Guard Broker 快速switchover

SQL> show parameter dg_broker_start
 NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
dg_broker_start                      boolean     FALSE
SQL> alter system set dg_broker_start = true;
 System altered.
 SQL> show parameter dg_broker_start
 NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
dg_broker_start                      boolean     TRUE

配置dgmgrl 

create CONFIGURATION jydb as primary database is jyzhao CONNECT IDENTIFIER IS jyzhao;

add database  jyzhao_s as CONNECT IDENTIFIER IS jyzhao_s MAINTAINED AS  PHYSICAL;    

enable configuration;    

show configuration;    

switchover to jyzhao_s;     

switchover to jyzhao;          

show database verbose jydb 

References